Подбор подходящих по смыслу слов в предложения текста 

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Подбор подходящих по смыслу слов в предложения текста


Teст 12a


Вставьте в каждое предложение подходящее по смыслу пропущенное слово:


a) developed f) employees


b) reason g) training


c) workers h) staff


d) retirement i) generation


e) losing j) unemployment


In France the (1) __________ age is 60, not 65 as in most (2) __________


countries. The main (3) __________ is that in the 1980s, when there was high (4) __________, the government promoted early retirement. That entrenched the idea that older (5) __________ were less productive. Now companies are worried about (6) __________ their most skilled workers, especially as the baby-boom (7) __________ nears retirement. Areva, a nuclear-power group, recently launched a scheme to address the needs of older (8) __________, and plans to use about 100 retired people a year through Experconnect. Areva stopped (9) __________ engineers, so that much of its expertise lies with its (10) __________.


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Teст 12b


Вставьте в каждое предложение подходящее по смыслу про-пущенное слово:


a) decrease; c) cost


b) increase d) reasons


e) prices h) a shortage


f) suppliers i) wages


g) economists j) customers


Inflation is an overall (1) __________ in prices over a certain period of time. In most of Europe, for example, (2) __________have risen year after year for at least the last 50 years. Deflation


is an overall (3) __________in prices, but the trend is mostly for the


(4) __________ of living to increase.


Inflation can happen for a number of (5) __________, but the


(6) __________ say there are two main culprits. These are demand-pull inflation and cost- push inflation. Demand-pull inflation can happen when the economy is growing fast. Aggregate demand begins to grow faster than (7) __________ can cope with. This causes (8) __________


and prices rise. At first, (9) __________ may be able to pay the higher prices, and demand grows again. Cost-push inflation, on the other hand, occurs when prices rise without an increase in demand. This happens when suppliers’ variable costs increase sharply. For example, workers may demand higher (10) __________ or raw materials may become more expensive. Producers then pass these increases on to consumers by raising prices. So, as usual, we are ones to pay.


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Teст 12c


Вставьте в каждое предложение подходящее по смыслу пропущенное слово:

a) interest f) influence


b) income g) to spend


c) economy h) products


d) consumer i) producers


e) resources j) businesses


Most people earn their (1) __________ from the work they perform. Some people also receive income by renting or selling land and other natural (2) __________they own, as profit from a business or entrepreneurial venture, or from (3) __________ paid on their savings accounts or other investments.


In a market (4) __________, the basic resources used to make the goods and services that satisfy (5) __________ demands are owned by private consumers and households. Payments or incomes that households receive for these resources rise and fall – and that fluctuation has a direct


(6) __________ on the amount consumers are willing (7) __________


for the goods and services they want.


Whether consumers are young or old; male or female; rich, poor or middle class, every dollar or pound they spend is a signal – a kind of economic vote telling (8) __________ what goods and services they want to see produced. Consumer spending represents the basic source of demand for (9) __________ sold in the marketplace, which is half of what determines the market prices for goods and services. The other half is based on decisions (10) __________ make about what to produce and how to produce it.


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Teст 12d


Вставьте в каждое предложение подходящее по смыслу пропущенное слово:

a) a profit f) to earn


b) a bank g) offer


c) business h) government


d) provide i) deposits


e) growth j) to achieve


The way in which (1) __________ is organized and operates is determined by its objectives and by the type of economy in which it conducts its (2) __________. A bank may not necessarily be in business to make (3) __________. Central banks, for example, (4) __________


a country with a number of services, while development banks exist to increase the economic (5) __________ of a country and raise the living standard of its population. On the other hand, the aim of commercial banks is (6) __________ profits. They therefore provide and develop services that can be sold at a price that will yield a profit.


Many banks (7) __________ a combination of wholesale and retail banking. The former provides large-scale services to companies, (8)


__________ agencies and other banks. The latter mainly provides smaller-scale services to the general public. Both types of banking, however, have three essential functions, which are: (9) __________, payments, credits. These three functions are the basis of the services offered by banks. They make it possible for banks to generate profits and (10) __________ their operating aims.


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Лексические тесты. Часть II (для студентов магистратуры и аспирантов)


Work and Jobs


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