ТОП 10:

Тема 2. Современное рыночное хозяйство

24. Market economy (рыночная экономика) - an economic system in which the interaction of buyers and sellers is the main mechanism for making economic choices.

25. Market (рынок) - a set of arrangements through which buyers and sellers carry out exchange at mutually agreeable terms.

26. Price (цена) - the exchange value of a product or resource; the amount paid for a specified quantity and quality of any good and service, including factor services.

27. Money (деньги) - anything that is generally accepted in an economy as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of purchasing power, and a standard for deferred payment.

28. Demandfor a good (спрос на товар) - is the quantity of it that consumers (people and firms) want and able to buy at a particular price during a given time period.

29. Demand curve (кривая спроса)- is a curve showing the quantity of a specific commodity demanded at various possible prices; reflects the relations between the demand for a good and its price.

30. Supplyof a good (предложениетовара) - is the quantity of it that producers want to sell at a particular price during a given time period.

31. Supply curve (кривая предложения) - shows the quantity of a well-defined good supplied at various possible prices.

32. Equilibrium price (равновесная цена)- price at which quantity demanded and quantity supplied are equal.

Субъекты рыночного хозяйства:

33. Household (домашнее хозяйство, домохозяйство) - a group living together and pooling major expenses in the same dwelling unit; households demand goods and services in the product market and supply resources (land, labor, capital) to the resource market.

34. Firm (предприятие)- an economic unit, formed by profit-seeking entrepreneurs that employ resources to produce goods and services; firms supply goods and services to the product market and demand resources in the resource market.

35. Bank (банк) - a financial institution that regulates money flow for regular market circulation.

36. Government /as an economic actor/ (государство /как экономический субъект) - provides: the function of providing economic stabilization; the function of improving the distribution of income; the function of allocating resources to production of public goods.

Типы предприятий:

37. Sole proprietorship (единоличное владение, индивидуальное предприятие) - an unincorporated business firm owned and operated by a single person; a firm with a single owner who has the right to all profits and who bears unlimited liability for the firm's debts.

38. Partnership (партнерство) - an unincorporated business firm owned by two or more persons; a firm with multiple owners who share the firm's profits and who each bear unlimited liability for the firm's debts.

39. Corporation (корпорация) - is a legal entity owned by stockholders, whose liability is limited to the value of the stock.

Инфраструктура рыночного хозяйства:

40. Product market (рынок товаров и услуг) -the market in which goods and services are exchanged.

41. Factor markets (рынки факторов производства)- are the markets for land, labor and equipment (which are known as factors of production, or simply as factors).

42. Labor market (рынок труда) -labor time is bought by employers at labor market, although the workers themselves are not bought.

43. Stock market (фондовый рынок) -financial assets, such as shares of firms, are bought and sold on the stock market.

44. Money market (денежный рынок) - the market in which the demand for and the supply of money determine the interest rate in the economy.

Модели рыночного хозяйства:

45. Free market economy (свободное рыночное хозяйство) - an economic system in which markets are competitive and there is little government intervention.

46. Mixed economy (смешанная экономика)- economy in which the outcome is the result of individual decisions that are affected by significant government intervention, but in which there is no central plan.

47. Social market economy (социальное рыночное хозяйство) - follows the principal features: the sanctity of private property; resource allocation should follow the dictates of the market unless there is a serious conflict with national social objectives; the economic goals (price stability, stable currency, full employment, balance of payments equilibrium, and stable economic growth) and social goals (social equity, social security, and social progress) are written into law.

48. Property rights (права собственности)- legal rules that establish what things a person may use or control, and the conditions under which such use or control may be exercised.

49. Private property (частная собственность) - the right of private persons and firms to obtain, own, control, employ, dispose of, and bequeath land, capital, and other assets.

50. Private sectorастный сектор) - the households and business firms of the economy.

51. State ownership (государственная собственность) - the ownership of property (land and capital) by government (state).

52. Public sector (государственный сектор) - the government sector of the economy; or central government, local government, nationalized firms and other organizations that are not privately owned.


Тема 3. Основные понятия макроэкономического анализа

53. Aggregate output (совокупное производство) - is the total quantity of final goods and services produced in the economy during a given time period.

54. Aggregate demand (совокупный спрос)- the total value of goods and services demanded in an economy, measured at some specified price level.

55. The aggregate demand curve (кривая совокупного спроса) - a curve, which shows the total quantity of goods and services that will be demanded (purchased) at different price levels.

56. Aggregate supply (совокупное предложение) - the total value of all goods and services supplied in an economy, measured at some specified price level.

57. The aggregate supply curve (кривая совокупного предложения) - a curve, which shows the total quantity of goods, and services that will be supplied (produced) at different price levels.

58. Aggregate equilibrium (совокупное равновесие) - exists when total demand for output equals the current value of output.

59. Gross national product (GNP) (валовой национальный продукт-ВНП) - the total market value of all final goods and services produced in the economy during a particular time period, usually a year.

60. Final goods (готовые изделия, конечная продукция) - goods, which have been purchased for final use and not for resale or further processing or manufacturing (during the year).

61. Intermediate goods (промежуточные товары) - goods that are purchased for resale or further processing and manufacturing during the year.

62. Double counting (двойной учет) - including the value of intermediate goods in the GNP; counting the same good's value more than once.

63. Value added (добавленная стоимость) - the value of the product sold by a firm less the value of the goods (materials) purchased and used by the firm to produce the product; is equal to the revenue used for wages, rent, interest, and profits.

Методы подсчета ВНП:

64. The expenditure approach to calculating GNP (метод расчета ВНП по расходам) -involves measuring of aggregate expenditure during the year.

65. Aggregate expenditure (совокупные расходы) - is the total spending on final goods and services at a given price level; is equal to the sum of consumption, C; investment, I; government purchases, G; and net exports, (X-M): GNP= C + I +G + (X-M).

66. Consumption (С) (личные потребительские расходы) - includes all household purchases of final goods and services during the year.

67. Investment (I) (валовые частные внутренние инвестиции) -is all output produced during the year but not used for present consumption.

The most important category of investment is physical capital.

68. Physical capital (физический капитал) - includes buildings, machinery, tools, and other manufactured items purchased by firms and used to produce goods and services.

69. Government purchases (G) (государственные закупки товаров и услуг) - include spending for goods and services by all levels of government.

70. Net exports (X - M) (чистый экспорт) - is exports, X, minus imports, M; are the value of domestic products purchased by foreigners minus the value of foreign products purchased by domestic residents.

71.The income approach to calculating GNP (метод расчета ВНП по доходам) -involves adding up the aggregate income arising from the production.

Aggregate expenditure = GNP = Aggregate income

72. Aggregate income (совокупный доход)- is the sum of all the income earned by resource suppliers in the economy.

GNP = Aggregate income = C + Sp + Sb + T (the sum of personal consumption expenditures (C); personal saving (Sp); business saving (Sb); and tax payments (T).

73. Personal consumption expenditures (C) (личные потребительские расходы)- the expenditures of households for durable and nondurable consumer goods and services.

74. Personal saving (Sp)ичные сбережения) - personal income after taxes minus consumption expenditure.

75. Personal income (PI) (личный доход)- total income received by households, including government payments.

76. Business saving (Sb) (предпринимательские сбережения) - retained earnings plus depreciation allowances.

77. Retained earning (оставшаяся прибыль)- profit after corporate income taxes minus dividend payments.

78. Depreciation (амортизация) - 1/ allowance for the wearing out of capital goods over a specified period; - 2/ measures the value of capital stock used up (consumed) during a year in producing GNP; - 3/ also termed capital consumption.

Capital consumption (амортизация, амортизационные отчисления) - estimated depreciation of the nation's stock of capital goods in a given time period.

Другие показатели национальных счетов:

79. Net national product (NNP) (чистый национальный продукт) -equals GNP minus depreciation.

NNP = GNP - D.

80. National income (NI) (национальный доход - НД) - total income earned by resource suppliers for their contributions to the production of the GNP; equals NNP plus government subsidies minus indirect business taxes, or simply: NI = NNP - indirect business taxes.

81. Disposable income (DI) (располагаемый доход, доход после уплаты налогов) - is simply personal income after payment of income taxes; equals personal income minus personal taxes and other government charges.

82. Nominal GNP (номинальный ВНП) - national output valued at prices prevailing during the period in question.

83. Real GNP (реальный ВНП) - nominal GNP adjusted for price level changes since some base period, to provide a measure of physical output; or GNP in a year divided by the price index for that year.

Real GNP= Nominal GNP : Price index.

84. Price index (индекс цен)- a measure of the average change in some type of price relative to a base period; a weighted average of prices in the economy at any given time, divided by the prices of the same goods in a base year (as a percentage).

85. Given year (отчетный год)- any year other than the base year for which a price index is constructed.

86. Base year (базовый, базисный год)- the year with which prices in other years are compared when a price index is constructed.

87. Implicit GNP deflator (дефлятор ВНП) - is a price index for the economy's aggregate output; it is the ratio of nominal GNP to real GNP, multiplied by 100.

Implicit price deflator = (nominal GNP: real GNP) x 100.

88. Deflating (дефлирование) - finding the real GNP by decreasing the dollar value of the GNP produced in a year in which prices were higher than in the base year.

89. Inflating (инфлирование)- finding the real GNP by increasing the dollar value of the GNP produced in a year in which prices are lower than they were in the base year.


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