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Тема 2. Международная торговля
24. Tariff (тариф, пошлина)- is a duty (or tax) levied upon goods transported from one customs area to another either for protective or revenue purposes; tariffs raise the price of imported goods, thus making them generally less competitive within the market of the importing country unless it does not produce the items so tariffed.
25. Ad valorem tariff (адвалорная пошлина) - is a tariff calculated "according to value", as a percentage of the value of goods cleared through customs.
26. Specific tariff (специфическая пошлина) - a customs duty assessed as a stated monetary amount per unit of physical quantity, regardless of the value of the imported item.
27. Compound tariff (сложная пошлина) - a combination of an ad valorem tariff plus a specific tariff; also called a "mixed tariff".
28. Tariff quota (тарифная квота) - application of a reduced or zero duty rates for a specified quantity of imported goods, or for goods imported during a given period.
29. Single-column tariff (одноколоночныйтаможенный тариф)- a tariff schedule listing only one duty rate for each imported product.
30. Double-column tariff (двухколоночныйтаможенныйтариф) - a tariff schedule listing two duty rates for some or all commodities; under such arrangements, imports may be taxed at a higher or lower rate, depending upon the importing country's trade and other relationships with the exporting country.
31. Non-tariff barriers (NTBs) (нетарифные барьеры) - are government measures other than tariffs that restrict imports; such measures have become relatively more conspicuous impediments to trade as tariffs have been reduced during the period since World War II.
32. Quantitative restrictions (QRs) (количественные ограничения) - explicit limits, or quotas, on the physical amounts of particular commodities that can be imported or exported during a specified time period, usually measured by volume but sometimes by value (import quotas, export quotas, etc.). The quota may be applied on a "selective" basis, with varying limits set according to the country of origin, or on a global basis that only specifies the total limit and thus tends to benefit more efficient suppliers.
33. Export quotas (экспортные квоты)- specific restrictions or ceilings imposed by an exporting country on the value or volume of certain exports imposed to protect domestic producers and consumers from temporary shortages of the goods affected or to bolster their prices in world markets.
34. Licensing (лицензирование)- the requirement by a country of a formal application for a special permit, usually called a "license", as a prior condition for importing or exporting certain goods.
35. Voluntary restraint agreements (VRAs) (соглашения о добровольном ограничении экспорта) - arrangements through which exporters voluntarily restrain certain exports, usually through export quotas, to avoid economic dislocation in an importing country, and to avert the possible imposition of mandatory import restrictions.
36. Subsidy (субсидия) - an economic benefit granted by a government to producers of goods, often to strengthen their competitive position; the subsidy may be direct (a cash grant) or indirect (low-interest export credits guaranteed by a government agency, for example).
37. The Illustrative List of Export Subsidiesof the GATT Subsidies Code (Иллюстративный лист экспортных субсидий Кодекса субсидий ГАТТ) - enumerates certain practices that constitute countervailable export subsidies, within the terms of the code, when provided or mandated by a government with respect to goods produced for exports; these include direct subsidies to a firm or industry contingent upon export performance, currency retention schemes or other practices that involve a bonus, preferential internal transport and freight charges, remission of direct taxes, provision of services or goods on preferential terms, export credit guarantees, etc.
38. Exchange controls (валютный контроль) - the rationing of foreign currencies, bank drafts and other instruments for settling international financial obligations by countries seeking to ameliorate acute balance of payments difficulties; when such measures are imposed, importers must apply for prior authorization from the government to obtain the foreign currency required to bring in designated amounts and types of goods. These measures have the effect of restricting imports and considered non-tariff barriers to trade.
39. Packaging, labeling and marking regulations (требования к упаковке, этикировке и маркировке) - the requirement or regulation, usually by the importing country, that imported goods be packaged, labeled or marked according to particular guidelines.
40. Customs (таможня)- the government service responsible for the assessment and collection of import and export duties and taxes and the administration of other laws and regulations that apply to the importation, transit and exportation of goods.
41. Customs area (таможенная территория) - a geographic area, usually but not necessarily identical with one or several contiguous national political jurisdictions, applying a particular tariff schedule on goods entering or leaving the area.
42. Transit zone (транзитная зона) - the area surrounding a port of entry in a coastal country that serves as a storage and distribution center for the convenience of a neighboring country - a land-locked country, for example - lacking adequate port facilities or access to the sea. A transit zone is administered so that goods in transit to and from the neighboring country are not subject to the customs duties, import controls or many of the entry and exit formalities of the host country.
43. Free trade area agreement (соглашение о зоне свободной торговли) - agreement between two or more countries to eliminate tariff and non-tariff barriers affecting trade among themselves, while each participating country applies its own independent schedule of tariffs to imports from countries that are not members.
44. Free zone (свободная зона)- an area within a country (a seaport, airport, warehouse or any designated area) regarded as being outside its customs territory; importers may therefore bring goods of foreign origin into such an area without paying customs duties and taxes, pending their eventual processing, transshipment or re-exportation. Free zones may also be known as "free ports", "free warehouses", "free trade zones" and "foreign trade zones".
45.European Free Trade Association (EFTA) (Европейская ассоциация свободной торговли - ЕАСТ)- a regional grouping established in 1960, comprising Austria, Iceland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland; EFTA member countries have gradually eliminated tariffs on manufactured goods originating and traded within EFTA and between EFTA and the EC, except agricultural products.
46. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (Североамериканское соглашение о свободной торговле - НАФТА) - went into effect January 1, 1994 - a comprehensive free trade agreement among the United States, Canada and Mexico aimed at: eliminating over a mutually agreed upon time period all tariffs on trade between the three countries; reducing impediments to trade in services; removing most restrictions on foreign investment among the signatory countries; ensuring adequate intellectual property protection.
47. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) (Генеральное соглашение по тарифам и торговле - ГАТТ) - a multilateral trade agreement (was signed in 1947) among autonomous entities (not necessarily countries) aimed at expanding international trade as a means of raising world welfare.
48. Round (раундпереговоров)- a cycle of multilateral trade negotiations under the aegis of GATT, culminating in simultaneous trade agreements among participating countries to reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade. Eight "Rounds" have been completed.
49. The Uruguay Round of GATT (Уругвайский раунд ГАТТ) - was formally launched in September 1986 in Punta del Estes, Uruguay; concluded in Geneva in December 1993; was the latest series of multilateral trade negotiations aimed at elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade and on development of clear, enforceable international trading rules.
50. World Trade Organization (WTO) (Всемирная торговая организация – ВТО) - as part of the Uruguay Round agreement, GATT members agreed to create a new organization to replace GATT: the World Trade Organization; it will provide a forum for multilateraltrade negotiations and conduct reviews of member country trade policies.
51. Dumping (демпинг) - under U.S. law, dumping consists of sales of merchandise exported to the United States at "less than fair value", when such sales materially injure or threaten material injury to producers of like merchandise in the U.S. "Fair value" is usually considered to be the price at which the merchandise is sold within the exporting country or to third countries.
52. Dual pricing (двойное ценообразование)- selling identical products for different prices in different markets. Dual pricing often reflects export subsidy and dumping practices.
53. Trademark (торговая марка)- a mark or symbol secured by legal registration used by a manufacturer or trader to distinguish his goods from competing goods.
54. Invisible trade (невидимая торговля, торговля услугами) - items such as freight, insurance and financial services that are included in a country's balance of payments accounts (in the "current " account).
55. Visible trade (видимая торговля, торговля товарами)- imports, exports and re-exports of merchandise.
56. Smuggling (контрабанда) - illegal imports or exports aimed at avoiding of paying customs duty.
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