Опираючись на інформацію тексту, знайдіть закінчення наступних речень.


Опираючись на інформацію тексту, знайдіть закінчення наступних речень.

1. А drivetrain allows all four wheels to receive power......... 2. Many people associate the term with …..... 3. Powering all four wheels is an important part in ….............. 4. Off-highway vehicles do not travel ….............. 5.The driver can manually switch between..........



Exercise 3


З’єднайте колонку А з колонкою B, щоб отримати правильні словосполучення.



1 off-road a)surface

2 provides b)condition

3 gravel c)ends

4 a flexible d)wheel drive

5 axle e) better control

6 an automatic f)suspension

7 low-traction g)suspension

8 loose gravel h)vehicles

9 rear-wheel drive i)option



Crammar exercises



Exercise 4

Поставьте спеціальні та загальні запитання до наступних речень.

1.People associate the term with off-road vehicles.

2.An off-road vehicle is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.

3. The term four-wheel drive typically describes larger passenger vehicles.



Exercise 5


Виберіть вірну форму дієслова.

1.Different vehicles ...(travels, traveled, travel) public street.

2. Last lesson we ... ( spoke, were speaking, speak) about all-wheel drive vehicles.

3. Engine power … ( transmits ,is transmitted , ha transmitted) to only two axle-ends.

4. Four-wheel drive ...(mean, means, meaning) that all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously.

5.We ...( were explained, was explained, have explained)



Exercise 6

Перекладіть з української на англійську мову використовуючи вивчену лексику курсу та дотримуючись правил граматики.

1.Щоб забезпечити кращий контроль на складних дорогах треба приводити в дію усі чотири колеса.

2.Повнопривідні засоби пересування використовуються у раллі.

3.Описуючи великий пасажирський транспорт використовують термін повнопривідний.

4.На вулицях міста ви не побачите такий транспорт як бульдозери, авто для гольфа, трактори.



Speech exercises

Exercise 7

Дайте відповіді нa запитання, опираючись на інформацію тексту.

1.What is four-wheel drive?

2.What provides better control ?

3.What vehicles do not travel public streets or highways?

4.What means 4 x4?

5.What means 4 x2?



Exercise 9.

Обговоріть на уроці, що таке повноприводні засоби пересування ,де вони використовуються,знайдіть приклади сучасних авто.


Text B

Прочитайте текст та скажіть про які транспортні засоби йдеться мова.

Складіть словник незнайомих слів.

Знайдіть додаткову інформацію по одному з видів транспорту.

A forklift truck (also called a lift truck, a fork truck, a forklift, or a tow-motor) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and transport materials. The modern forklift was developed in the 1920s by various companies including the transmission manufacturing company Clark and the hoist company Yale & Town Manufacturing. The forklift has since become an indispensable piece of equipment in manufacturing and warehousing operations.

A backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. They are typically mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader. The section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, and the section which carries the bucket is known as the dipper or dipperstick. . Modern backhoes are powered by hydraulics.

A bulldozer is a crawler (continuous tracked tractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, etc., during construction or conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device (known as a ripper) to loosen densely-compacted materials.Bulldozers can be found on a wide range of sites, mines and quarries, military bases, heavy industry factories, engineering projects and farms.bulldozers are used to clear areas of obstacles, shrubbery, burnt vehicles, and remains of structures.

Continuous tracks or caterpillar tracks are a system of vehicle propulsion in which modular metal plates linked into a continuous band are driven by two or more wheels. The large surface area of the tracks distributes the weight of the vehicle better than steel or rubber tires on an equivalent vehicle, enabling a continuous tracked vehicle to traverse soft ground with less likelihood of becoming stuck due to sinking. The aggressive treads of the tracks provide good traction in soft surfaces but can damage paved surfaces. Special tracks that incorporate rubber pads can be installed for use on paved surfaces to prevent the damage that can be caused by all metal tracks.



Практичне заняття № 57,58

The benefit of four-wheel drive

Four-wheel and all-wheel-drive systems are most useful in low-traction situations, such as in snow and on slippery hills.

The benefit of four-wheel drive is easy to understand: If you are driving four wheels instead of two, you double the amount of longitudinal force (the force that makes you go) that the tires apply to the ground.

This can help in a variety of situations. For instance:

In snow -- It takes a lot of force to push a car through the snow. Most two-wheel-drive cars can't move if there is more than a few inches of snow on the road, because in the snow, each tire has only a small amount of traction. A four-wheel-drive car can utilize the traction of all four tires.

Off road-- In off-road conditions, it is fairly common for at least one set of tires to be in a low-traction situation, such as when crossing a stream or mud puddle. With four-wheel drive, the other set of tires still has traction, so they can pull you out.

Climbing slippery hills -- This task requires a lot of traction. A four-wheel-drive car can use the traction of all four tires to pull the car up the hill.

There are also some situations in which four-wheel drive has no advantage over two-wheel drive. Four-wheel-drive systems won't help you stop on slippery surfaces. It's all up to the brakes and the anti-lock braking system (ABS).

Now let's take a look at the parts that make up a four-wheel-drive system.The main parts of any four-wheel-drive system are the two differentials (front and rear) and the transfer case.

Differentials A car has two differentials, one located between the two front wheels and one between the two rear wheels. They send the torque from the transmission to the drive wheels. They also allow the left and right wheels to spin at different speeds when you go around a turn.

Transfer Case

This is the device that splits the power between the front and rear axles on a four-wheel-drive car.



Active vocabulary

1.slippery hillслизький пагорб

2.benefit вигода

3. double подвоювати

4.longitudinal force подовжня сила

5. traction тяга

6. utilize використовувати

7. a stream потік

8. mud puddle грязьова калюжа

9. torque момент, що обертає

10.to spin швидко для обертання

11.a turn поворот




Vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1.

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