Знайдіть англійські еквіваленти до наступних слів та словосполучень.




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Знайдіть англійські еквіваленти до наступних слів та словосполучень.



Практичне заняття № 55,56

 

Text A

 

Four-wheeled vehicle

Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 ("four by four") is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously.

While many people associate the term with off-road vehicles and Sport utility vehicles, powering all four wheels provides better control than normal road cars on many surfaces, and is an important part in the sport of rallying.

An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface. It is generally characterized by having large tires with deep, open treads, a flexible suspension, or even caterpillar tracks.Other vehicles that do not travel public streets or highways are generally termed off-highway vehicles, including tractors, forklifts, cranes, backhoes, bulldozers, and Golf carts.

In abbreviations such as 4×4, the first figure is normally taken as the total number of wheels and the second is normally taken as the number of powered wheels (the numbers are actually axle-ends to allow for more than one wheel on each end of an axle). 4×2 means a four-wheel vehicle in which engine power is transmitted to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive. The term four-wheel drive typically describes larger passenger vehicles that may allow the driver to manually switch (sometimes with an automatic option) between two-wheel-drive mode (if available) for streets and four-wheel-drive mode for low-traction conditions such as ice, mud, snow, or loose gravel.

 

 

Active vocabulary

1 four-wheel drive повнопривідний

2 drivetrain силовий пристрій

3 simultaneously одночасно

4 sport utility vehicles спортивно-корисний засіб пересування

5 to provide забезпечувати

6 paved or gravel surface вимощена поверхня або поверхня з гравію

7 open tread відкритий протектор

8 a flexible suspension гнучкий підвіс

9 caterpillar tracks гусеничні доріжки

10 forklift автокар

11 backhoe екскаватор типу зворотної лопати

12 axle-ends кінці вісі

13 to transmit предавати

14 front-wheel drive передньо приводний

15 low-traction conditions погані міські умови

 

 

TEXT – BASED ASSIGNMENTS

 

Vocabulary exercises

 

Exercise 1.

Знайдіть англійські еквіваленти до наступних слів та словосполучень.

Що дозволяє, одержувати енергію, асоціювати термін, кращий контроль, на багатьох поверхнях, різні види засобів пересування, великі шини, які не їздять по вулицям, включаючи, перша цифра, на кожному кінці вісі, передні два, великий пасажирський транспорт , перемикати вручну, дорога із гравія.

 

 

Exercise 2

Опираючись на інформацію тексту, знайдіть закінчення наступних речень.

1. А drivetrain allows all four wheels to receive power......... 2. Many people associate the term with …..... 3. Powering all four wheels is an important part in ….............. 4. Off-highway vehicles do not travel ….............. 5.The driver can manually switch between..........

 

 

Exercise 3

 

З’єднайте колонку А з колонкою B, щоб отримати правильні словосполучення.

A B

 

1 off-road a)surface

2 provides b)condition

3 gravel c)ends

4 a flexible d)wheel drive

5 axle e) better control

6 an automatic f)suspension

7 low-traction g)suspension

8 loose gravel h)vehicles

9 rear-wheel drive i)option

 

 

Crammar exercises

 

 

Exercise 4

Поставьте спеціальні та загальні запитання до наступних речень.

1.People associate the term with off-road vehicles.

2.An off-road vehicle is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.

3. The term four-wheel drive typically describes larger passenger vehicles.

 

 

Exercise 5

 

Виберіть вірну форму дієслова.

1.Different vehicles ...(travels, traveled, travel) public street.

2. Last lesson we ... ( spoke, were speaking, speak) about all-wheel drive vehicles.

3. Engine power … ( transmits ,is transmitted , ha transmitted) to only two axle-ends.

4. Four-wheel drive ...(mean, means, meaning) that all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously.

5.We ...( were explained, was explained, have explained)

 

 

Exercise 6

Перекладіть з української на англійську мову використовуючи вивчену лексику курсу та дотримуючись правил граматики.

1.Щоб забезпечити кращий контроль на складних дорогах треба приводити в дію усі чотири колеса.

2.Повнопривідні засоби пересування використовуються у раллі.

3.Описуючи великий пасажирський транспорт використовують термін повнопривідний.

4.На вулицях міста ви не побачите такий транспорт як бульдозери, авто для гольфа, трактори.

 

 

Speech exercises

Exercise 7

Дайте відповіді нa запитання, опираючись на інформацію тексту.

1.What is four-wheel drive?

2.What provides better control ?

3.What vehicles do not travel public streets or highways?

4.What means 4 x4?

5.What means 4 x2?

 

 

Exercise 9.

Обговоріть на уроці, що таке повноприводні засоби пересування ,де вони використовуються,знайдіть приклади сучасних авто.

 

Text B

Прочитайте текст та скажіть про які транспортні засоби йдеться мова.

Складіть словник незнайомих слів.

Практичне заняття № 57,58

The benefit of four-wheel drive

Four-wheel and all-wheel-drive systems are most useful in low-traction situations, such as in snow and on slippery hills.

The benefit of four-wheel drive is easy to understand: If you are driving four wheels instead of two, you double the amount of longitudinal force (the force that makes you go) that the tires apply to the ground.

This can help in a variety of situations. For instance:

In snow -- It takes a lot of force to push a car through the snow. Most two-wheel-drive cars can't move if there is more than a few inches of snow on the road, because in the snow, each tire has only a small amount of traction. A four-wheel-drive car can utilize the traction of all four tires.

Off road-- In off-road conditions, it is fairly common for at least one set of tires to be in a low-traction situation, such as when crossing a stream or mud puddle. With four-wheel drive, the other set of tires still has traction, so they can pull you out.

Climbing slippery hills -- This task requires a lot of traction. A four-wheel-drive car can use the traction of all four tires to pull the car up the hill.

There are also some situations in which four-wheel drive has no advantage over two-wheel drive. Four-wheel-drive systems won't help you stop on slippery surfaces. It's all up to the brakes and the anti-lock braking system (ABS).

Now let's take a look at the parts that make up a four-wheel-drive system.The main parts of any four-wheel-drive system are the two differentials (front and rear) and the transfer case.

Differentials A car has two differentials, one located between the two front wheels and one between the two rear wheels. They send the torque from the transmission to the drive wheels. They also allow the left and right wheels to spin at different speeds when you go around a turn.

Transfer Case

This is the device that splits the power between the front and rear axles on a four-wheel-drive car.

 

 

Active vocabulary

1.slippery hillслизький пагорб

2.benefit вигода

3. double подвоювати

4.longitudinal force подовжня сила

5. traction тяга

6. utilize використовувати

7. a stream потік

8. mud puddle грязьова калюжа

9. torque момент, що обертає

10.to spin швидко для обертання

11.a turn поворот

 

 

TEXT – BASED ASSIGNMENTS

Vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1.

Exercise 3.

Знайдіть речення з наступними словами у тексті та перекладіть їх.

To push, utilize, set of tires , located, splits.

 

 

Exercise 4.

Підготуйте відповіді на наступні запитання.

1. Where are four-wheel and all-wheel-drive systems useful ?

2. What double the amount of longitudinal force ?

3. What traction can be used to pull the car up the hill ?

4. What are the main parts of any four-wheel-drive system ?

5. Where are differentials located ?

Crammar exercise

 

Exercise 5.

 

Виберіть вірний прийменник .

 

At on of out of in out

 

1.Drivers don't want to turn.... in low-traction situations, such as ... snow and ... slippery hills.

2.It is easy to understand the benefit ... four-wheel drive.

3. A lot ….. force is needed to push a car through the snow.

4. They can pull you ….....

5. Differentials allow the left and right wheels to spin ….. different speeds.

 

 

Exercise 6

Практичне заняття № 59 ,60

Text A A motor vehicle serviсе

A motor vehicle service is a series of maintenance procedures carried out at a set time interval or after the vehicle has travelled a certain distance. The service intervals are specified by the vehicle manufacturer in a service schedule and some modern cars display the due date for the next service electronically on the instrument panel.

Auto maintenance describes the act of inspecting or testing the condition of car subsystems (e.g., engine) and servicing or replacing parts and fluids. Regular maintenance is critical to ensure the safety, reliability, drivability, comfort and longevity of a car. During preventive maintenance, a number of parts are replaced to avoid major damage or for safety reasons, e.g. driving belt replacement.

The actual schedule of car maintenance varies depending on the year, make, and model of a car, its driving conditions and driver behavior. Car makers recommend the so-called extreme or the ideal service schedule based on impact parameters such as:

number of trips and distance traveled per trip per day

extreme hot or cold climate conditions

mountainous, dusty or de-iced roads

heavy stop-and-go vs. long-distance cruising

towing a trailer or other heavy load

 

 

Active vocabulary

1. maintenance procedures ремонтні процедури

2. set time interval встановити інтервал часу

3. а service schedule розклад тех.обслуговування

4. the due date обов'язковий термін

5. reliability надійність

6. drivability надійність водіння

7. longevity довговічність

8. to avoid major damage уникати головних пошкоджень

9. driving belt replacement заміна приводного ременя

10. to vary змінюватися

11. impact діючий

12 mountainous гірський

13 long-distance cruising довготривала поїздка

14 towing буксирування

 

 

TEXT – BASED ASSIGNMENTS

Vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

С) прикметники

vehicle, service , procedures, carried out, time has travelled ,certain , intervals, manufacturer , schedule , modern, panel, describes, regular , to ensure, the safety, preventive, are replaced , recommend, ideal, impact, traveled, hot, dusty,conditions, heavy.

 

Exercise 3.

Exercise 4

 

Parts electronically

1.Мodern cars display the due date for the next service............... 2. A number of …........are replaced to avoid major......... 3.The ideal service …......... based on impact parameters .4. The act of inspecting or testing the......... of car subsystems is described .5. Every........... must know number of trips and.......... traveled per trip per day.

Crammar exercises

Exercise 5

Поставьте спеціальні та загальні запитання до наступних речень.

1.During preventive maintenance, a number of parts are replaced to avoid major damage.

2. Car makers recommend the ideal service schedule based on impact parameters.

3. They turned out in extreme hot or cold climate conditions.

4. Next lesson we will be told about car servicing,

 

 

Exercise 6

Speech exercises

 

Exercise 8.

Дайте відповіді нв запитання, опираючись на інформацію тексту.

 

1. When is a motor vehicle service carried out?

2. What do modern cars display?

3. What does auto maintenance describes?

4. What occurs during preventive maintenance?

5.Why does the actual schedule of car maintenance vary?

 

 

Exercise 9.

Зробіть коротку доповідь на тему “A motor vehicle service”

 

 

Text B

Прочитайте та перекладіть текст .

 

It is recommended that vehicles should be fully serviced every three months or 3000 kilometers. Separate and apart from taking your vehicle to be serviced by a specialist, being the owner of the vehicle you should do a routine check up on the vehicle yourself. This will protect you against costly and inconvenient automotive downtime.

The following should be done on a weekly basis:

Check the level of the oil before starting the vehicle for the first time for the day.

Check the coolant level when the car is cold.

Check the tyre pressure before starting the vehicle.

The following should be done on a monthly basis:

Check the headlights, taillights and your indicators, make sure that the bulbs are not blown and they are working perfectly fine.

Look at the brake fluid level, automatic transmission fluid (with car hot, idling), and also the power steering fluid.

Check the drive belts, radiator and heater hoses.

Check the battery water level.

The following should be done every 6 months (or as often as the owner’s manual suggests):

Change the engine oil and the oil filter.

Inspect the suspension of the vehicle, if there are any loose parts.

Check if you have any leaky shock absorbers. Check the muffler and exhaust system.

Make sure that the spare tyre is inflated.

Be sure that the emergency brake works and check the brake lines.

Touch up rust spots or scratches on the vehicle with paint.

Do the following annually:

Check the air filter, fuel filter, positive crankshaft (PCV) filter and wiper blades, and replace if necessary.

Rotate tyres, unless otherwise advised by your dealer.

Do the following every 2 years:

Replace fluid and filter in automatic transmission.

Check ignition timing and ignition components.

Check brake linings.

Flush and refill radiator and check cap seal.

Thermostat needs to be changed.

Do following every 3or 4 years:

These items must be inspected for possible deterioration and replacement:

Shock Absorbers V-belt Radiator Heater hoses Battery Disk-brake rotor (check whenever you have brake pads replaced)

Every 25,000 miles:Have valve filters adjusted correctly.

Every 40,000 miles:Change transmission fluid

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3

Практичне заняття № 61,62

Text A Replacing a battery

 

Most new batteries last around 5 years. Factors including climate, over and under charging can impact on the life of a battery. In most cases, if a battery is over four or five years old, it should be replaced.

Auto mechanics and service facilities will install batteries, but it can also be done by you quickly and it would be less expensive.

The procedure for replacing a battery is very simple if certain details and safety rules are followed:

Disconnect the negative battery cable, then disconnect the positive cable.

Remove the metal clamp that holds the battery in the battery tray.

If rust is found in the bottom of the tray, wash with plain water and let the tray dry before installing the battery.

After drying, put the new battery into the tray and attach the metal clamps to secure the battery. These metal clamps should also be checked for rust or corrosion.

Before re-attaching the battery cables, make sure that the insides of the cable connectors are free from rust or corrosion. If there is rust or corrosion present, use a thick paste of household baking soda and water to scrub the insides of the cable Spray cable ends once every six months to guard against corrosion.

Make sure cable wires are not frayed to insure a safe connection.

Re-attach positive and then negative cables to the posts and then tighten until it is firm, but not too tight.

 

 

Active vocabulary

1. impact дія

2. install встановлювати

4. safety rules правила безпеки

5. metal clamp металевий затиск

6. plain water звичайна вода

7. the battery tray піддон аккумулятора

8. to dry сушити

9. to attach прикріплювати

10. to secure закріплювати

11. household домогосподарство

12. baking soda харчова сода

13. to scrub чистити

14. to guard захищати

15. to fray протиратися

 

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Складіть словосполучення з наступними дієсловами( словосполучень може бути декілька):

to include, to install, to replace, to check, to disconnect, to remove, to dry

 

Exercise 4

А В

1. These metal clamps a) it should be replaced.

2.Remove the metal clamp b)before installing the battery.

3. If a battery is over four or five years old, c) that holds the battery in the

battery tray.

4. let the tray dry d) should also be checked

for rust or corrosion.

 

Crammar exercise

Exercise 5

Поставьте спеціальні та загальні запитання до наступних речень.

1.The procedure for replacing a battery is very simple.

2.Мetal clamps should also be checked for rust or corrosion.

3.A mechanic removed the metal clamp that holds the battery in the battery tray.

4. A driver washes the tray with plain water and let dry.

 

Speech exercises

 

Exercise 6.

Дайте відповіді на запитання ,опираючись на інформацію тексту.

1. What is service life of the battery ?

2. Where can we replace the battery?

3. What can you do if rust is found?

4. What is the last step in installing new battery?

 

 

Exercise 7.

Практичне заняття № 63,64

Text AAn alternative fuel vehicle

An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than "traditional" petroleum fuels (petrol or diesel); and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum (e.g. electric car, hybrid electric vehicles, solar powered). Because of a combination of factors, such as environmental concerns, high oil prices and the potential for peak oil, development of cleaner alternative fuels and advanced power systems for vehicles has become a high priority for many governments and vehicle manufacturers around the world.

Other research and development efforts in alternative forms of power focus on developing all-electric and fuel cell vehicles, and even the stored energy of compressed air.

The air engine is an emission-free piston engine that uses compressed air as a source of energy. The first compressed air car was invented by a French engineer named Guy Nègre. The expansion of compressed air may be used to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine. Air must be compressed in advance and be cooled to -100 C .The amount of such air is enough for 4 hours to move with speed 50-60 km/h

Battery electric vehicles (BEVs), also known as all-electric vehicles (AEVs), are electric vehicles whose main energy storage is in the chemical energy of batteries. BEVs are the most common form of what is defined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as zero emission vehicle (ZEV) because they produce no tailpipe emissions at the point of operation.

A hydrogen car is an automobile which uses hydrogen as its primary source of power for locomotion. These cars generally use the hydrogen in one of two methods: combustion or fuel-cell conversion. In combustion, the hydrogen is "burned" in engines in fundamentally the same method as traditional gasoline cars. In fuel-cell conversion, the hydrogen is turned into electricity through fuel cells which then powers electric motors.

A solar car is an electric vehicle powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the car. Solar panels cannot currently be used to directly supply a car with a suitable amount of power at this time, but they can be used to extend the range of electric vehicles.

 

 

Active vocabulary

1. to run on працювати на

2. to refer відноситься

3. solely petroleum тільки нафта

4. solar power сонячна енергія

5. environmental concerns екологічні турботи

6. advanced передовий

7. a high priority високий приорітет

8. fuel cell vehicle засіб пересування з камерою для палива

9. store зберігати

10. emission-free piston engine поршневий двигун без вибросів

11. expansion розширення

12. a modified piston модифікований поршень

13. main energy storage зберігання головної енергії

14. tailpipe emissions виділення вихлопної труби

15. locomotion пересування

16. fuel-cell conversion

17. obtained одержаний

18. a suitable amount of power потрібна кількість енергії

 

 

TEXT – BASED ASSIGNMENTS

Vocabulary exercises

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Crammar exercises

Exercise 4

Exercise 5

Exercise 6

Підготуйте обширні відповіді на наступні запитання.

1. What is an alternative fuel vehicle?

2. What factors has become a high priority for many governments and vehicle manufacturers around the world?

3. What is the air engine?

4. What is battery electric vehicles?

5. What is hydrogen engine?

 

Exercise 7

Text B

Розкажіть про біопаливо .

 

 

Biodiesel , is commercially available in most oilseed-producing states in the United States. As of 2005, it is somewhat more expensive than fossil diesel, though it is still commonly produced in relatively small quantities (in comparison to petroleum products and ethanol). Many farmers who raise oilseeds use a biodiesel blend in tractors and equipment as a matter of policy, to foster production of biodiesel and raise public awareness. It is sometimes easier to find biodiesel in rural areas than in cities. Biodiesel has lower Energy Density than fossil diesel fuel, so biodiesel vehicles are not quite able to keep up with the fuel economy of a fossil fuelled diesel vehicle, if the diesel injection system is not reset for the new fuel. If the injection timing is changed to take account of the higher Cetane value of biodiesel, the difference in economy is negligible. Because biodiesel contains more oxygen than diesel or vegetable oil fuel, it produces the lowest emissions from diesel engines, and is lower in most emissions than gasoline engines. Biodiesel has a higher lubricity than mineral diesel and is an additive in European pump diesel for lubricity and emissions reduction.

 

Практичне заняття № 65,66

Automobile safety

Automobile safety serves to minimize the occurrence and consequences of automobile accidents.Improvements in roadway and automobile designs have steadily reduced injury and death rates in all first world countries.

There is active and passive safety. "Active safety" is used to refer to technology assisting in the prevention of a crash and "passive safety" to components of the vehicle (primarily airbags, seatbelts and the physical structure of the vehicle) that help to protect occupants during a crash.

Crash avoidance systems and devices help the driver to avoid a collision. This category includes:the vehicle's headlamps, reflectors, and other lights and signals,

the vehicle's mirrors,the vehicle's brakes, steering, and suspension systems,

driver assistance.

A subset of crash avoidance is driver assistance systems, which help the driver to detect ordinarily-hidden obstacles and to control the vehicle. Driver assistance systems include: automatic braking systems to prevent or reduce the severity of collision,infrared night vision systems to increase seeing distance beyond headlamp range, adaptive headlamps control the direction and range of the headlight beams to light the driver's way through curves and maximize seeing distance without glaring other drivers.

Reverse backup sensors, which alert drivers to difficult-to-see objects in their path when reversing,backup camera

Adaptive cruise control which maintains a safe distance from the vehicle in front

Lane departure warning systems to alert the driver of an unintended departure from the intended lane of travel

Tire pressure monitoring systems or Deflation Detection Systems

Traction control systems which restore traction if driven wheels begin to spin

Electronic Stability Control, which intervenes to avert an impending loss of control

Anti-lock braking systems

Electronic brakeforce distribution systems

Emergency brake assist systems

Cornering brake control systems

Precrash system

Automated parking system

 

Active vocabulary

1. occurrence and consequences випадок і наслідки

2. steadily reduce injury стійко зменшувати ушкодження

3. prevention відвертати

4. crash аварія

5. to protect occupants щоб захистити пасажирів

6. crash avoidance systems система запобігання аварії

7. a collision випадок

8. а subset допоміжний набір

9. ordinarily-hidden obstacles зазвичай-приховані перешкоди

10. severity of collision тяжкість випадку

11. infrared night vision systems інфрачервоні системи нічного бачення

12. headlight beams балки фари

13. without glaring буз засліплення

14. alert попередити

15. maintains підтримує

16. lane departure від'їзд вузької дороги

17. an unintended departure неумисний в'їзд

18. restore traction відновити тягу

19. an impending loss of control загроза втрати контролю

20. to avert запобігати

 

TEXT – BASED ASSIGNMENTS

Vocabulary exercises

 

Exercise 1.

Exercise 2.

Exercise 3

Exercise 6.

Дайте відповіді на запитання .

1. What is automobile safety?

2. What is active safety?

3. What is passive safety?

4. What do crash avoidance systems include?

5. What do driver assistance systems include?

6. What is adaptive cruise control ?

7. What do traction control systems restore?

 

ТЕХТ В

Перекладіть на українську мову та складіть запитання до тексту.

Практичне заняття № 67

Самостійний переклад тексту

Передтекстове завдання:

Перекладіть письмово текст.

Isofix child seat mounts

Isofix is a system for fitting child seats that uses mounting points built into the car seats, rather than the adult seat belt. Three-point Isofix systems are best, as they have a 'top tether' as well as two lower anchorages. As long as you follow the instructions, Isofix should make fitting a child car seat easier, too.

12.Pedestrian protection Cars with a more 'pedestrian friendly' front end should reduce the severity of injury if you're unfortunate enough to hit a pedestrian -- particularly at speeds of up to 30mph.

Практичне заняття № 68

 

Traffic rules.

 

Drive safely in Britain

 

 

1)Drive on the left-hand side of the road.

 

2)Always pass (overtake) on the outside (right) lane.

 

3)Do not block the middle lane if the inside lane is clear.

 

4)When approaching a roundabout, give priority to traffic approaching from the right, unless otherwise indicated.

 

5)You must always stop at a red traffic light.

 

6) At a junction there's no general priority rule - priority is marked at most junctions.

 

7) All traffic signals and road signs must be obeyed.

 

8) All vehicles must give way to emergency services vehicles.

 

9) The use of a car horn is not permitted in built-up areas from 23:30 to 07:00 hours.

 

10) Do not drive in bus lanes during restricted hours. See signs by the side of the road for times.

 

11) It's illegal to use a mobile phone when driving. If you need to make a call, find a safe place to stop first.

 

12) Seat belts must be worn by the driver and front seat passenger. Where rear seat belts have been fitted, they must also be worn.

 

13) The minimum driving age is 17.

Speed Limits

Speed limits must be adhered to and speed cameras or mobile police units are often found on England's roads. In a built up zone--defined as an area where there is street lighting--the speed limit is 30 mph, unless the speed signs indicate otherwise. On single carriageways, the national speed limit is 60 mph and on dual carriageways and motorways, it is 70 mph, again, unless road signs specify otherwise.

 

Driving Under the Influence

The Highway Code states that drivers must not drive with a breath alcohol level higher than 35 micrograms/100 milliliters of breath or a blood alcohol level of more than 80 milligrams/100 milliliters of blood. Driving while under the influence of drugs or medicine is also illegal. Police are entitled to stop and breathalyze any driver if they suspect that he or she has been drinking or is under the influence of drugs.

Mobile Phones

Handheld mobile phones are not allowed at any time when driving except to call the emergency services in a genuine emergency situation. Hands-free phones are permitted, but the Highway Code warns that these are likely to distract attention and recommends that drivers stop and park if they wish to make or receive calls.

 

Seat Belts

Adults and children over the age of 14 must wear seats belt in cars and vans, if there are seat belts fitted. Children under the age of 3 years old must be in an approved form of child seat. Children under 12 or below 1.35 meters in height must also use a child restraint such as a booster cushion. There are exceptions for taxis and private hire cars.

 

 

Практичне заняття № 69, №70

 

 

There was nothing like the original Mustang. Not even the ones that came later.

 

If you wanted to be modern during the mid-century years, you could have almost anything your heart desired. Modern houses, modern furniture, modern dishes- even clothes like nothing Mama ever wore. A family could have an entirely modern life, with one exception- the family car. For all the tailfins and two-toning of Fifties automobiles, the car’s function was the same as it had been for decades- it was meant to carry a family in formal, ritual style. Fifties mass-market cars looked like a lot more fun than they actually were; once you got past the glitzy styling, you might as well have been driving a

 

Model T.

 

There were some small exceptions; Ford and Chevrolet both built two-seater sports cars, the Thunderbird and Corvette. Chrysler had a luxury sports model called the Dual Ghia for a time, and there was even a sporty wagon from General Motors, sold as the Chevrolet Nomad and as a Pontiac version called the Safari. There was just one problem- all these cars were unaffordable for the average Joe, much likelier to be seen in magazine ads and layouts than in real life. These glamour cars drew huge crowds at auto shows, and customers flocked to see them in showrooms. But as much as families wanted to have something really different in the driveway, budget constraints meant that Dad always seemed to leave the dealership with a new car just like the old one, only with different two-toning and bigger fins.

 

Change was needed, and it began with the impetus Detroit fears most- consumer backlash against existing models. In 1958, something unheard-of happened when the new models were unveiled: they were mocked, scorned, laughed at. Too big, too bulky, too gaudy, too shoddily built, the cars were so out of touch with consumer needs that the resulting downturn in sales spurred a recession. Not coincidentally, 1958 was the year the unassuming, cheap-to-buy Volkswagen made huge inroads with buyers who wanted transportation and function, not status. The VW’s success was so dramatic that Detroit’s Big Three decided they could do small cars, too.

 

Except, it turned out, they couldn’t- at least not at first. Chevrolet’s Corvair was meant to be a highly Americanized Volkswagen, complete with rear-mounted, air-cooled engine, but its weird handling was soon criticized, and then became the focus of Government investigation after comedian Ernie Kovacs lost control of his Corvair wagon in a low-speed accident that ended his life. Chrysler weighed in with the Valiant, whose styling made it look like a creature from an American International Pictures sci-fi movie. The one low-priced small car that was comprehensible to the average mechanic and conservatively styled was from Ford- the Falcon. Engineered as much as possible with tried-and-true, off-the-shelf parts already used in Ford products, the Falcon got high marks for sales, but low ones for excitement.

 

There were signs that buyers wanted some real pizzazz mixed with economy, and were willing to pay for it. The Corvair Monza, with a stick shift and some handling upgrades, was a favorite of young drivers who couldn’t afford Corvettes, despite the hard-to-service engine. Ford itself had a sporty model, the Falcon Futura. Never as desirable as the Monza, the Futura was “sporty” mainly by virtue of its vinyl bucket seats. Seeing customers come into showrooms to look at the Futura, then leave empty-handed, was puzzling to Ford at first. Clearly the customer wanted something that wasn’t being offered, but what? Ford found its answer at auto shows.

 

Every car company toured “experimental” and “dream” cars throughout the country, more to drum up excitement for existing models than through any real desire to give consumers the cars being shown. Occasionally, dream cars did hit enough of a nerve that manufacturers hastened to give drivers a watered-down version, like the Mercury X-100 that became the 1957 Mercury Turnpike Cruiser. GM had used its Autorama series of shows to introduce dream cars that were exaggerated versions of cars actually being planned, to condition customers into acceptance of new styling themes. Beginning in 1962, Ford sent a “concept car” called the Mustang to shows, and the response told them everything they needed to know.

 

What the customer was looking for was a dramatic, modern shape; Futura’s problem was in its bland, loaf-of-white-bread styling. The Mustang’s long hood and short rear deck gave it a European flair, managing to look purposeful and elegant at the same time. Auto-show attendees flocked around the car so much, Ford began to see if a production version would be feasible. A Ford management group headed by Lee Iacocca (later to gain fame as the man who brought Chrysler out of its 1980’s bankruptcy), green-lighted and funded the job of turning a dream car into a real car.

 

The development program began with two hard-and-fast parameters: the target price was $2500, and the car had to be built with as many off-the-shelf parts as possible. Ford stylist Joe Oros was given the job of turning the dream car’s styling into something that could be produced at a price, yet retain the original’s excitement. He collaborated with another Ford stylist, Dave Ash, on a clay model that was amazingly close to the final car; a few curves were toned down for cost control, and a few louvers eliminated for a cleaner look. Once the final body was decided on, the car’s engineering was taken care of in very short order; the management group’s demand for off-the-shelf components paid huge dividends. Most of the car’s running gear came from the Falcon; what was yawn-provoking on the earlier car got a whole new feel on the sportier body of the Mustang, with its lower center of gravity.

 

 

Практичне заняття № 71

 

Модульний контроль № 8

 

Практичне заняття № 72

 

Практичне заняття № 55,56

 

Text A

 

Four-wheeled vehicle

Four-wheel drive, 4WD, or 4×4 ("four by four") is a four-wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all four wheels to receive power from the engine simultaneously.

While many people associate the term with off-road vehicles and Sport utility vehicles, powering all four wheels provides better control than normal road cars on many surfaces, and is an important part in the sport of rallying.

An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface. It is generally characterized by having large tires with deep, open treads, a flexible suspension, or even caterpillar tracks.Other vehicles that do not travel public streets or highways are generally termed off-highway vehicles, including tractors, forklifts, cranes, backhoes, bulldozers, and Golf carts.

In abbreviations such as 4×4, the first figure is normally taken as the total number of wheels and the second is normally taken as the number of powered wheels (the numbers are actually axle-ends to allow for more than one wheel on each end of an axle). 4×2 means a four-wheel vehicle in which engine power is transmitted to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive. The term four-wheel drive typically describes larger passenger vehicles that may allow the driver to manually switch (sometimes with an automatic option) between two-wheel-drive mode (if available) for streets and four-wheel-drive mode for low-traction conditions such as ice, mud, snow, or loose gravel.

 

 

Active vocabulary

1 four-wheel drive повнопривідний

2 drivetrain силовий пристрій

3 simultaneously одночасно

4 sport utility vehicles спортивно-корисний засіб пересування

5 to provide забезпечувати

6 paved or gravel surface вимощена поверхня або поверхня з гравію

7 open tread відкритий протектор

8 a flexible suspension гнучкий підвіс

9 caterpillar tracks гусеничні доріжки

10 forklift автокар

11 backhoe екскаватор типу зворотної лопати

12 axle-ends кінці вісі

13 to transmit предавати

14 front-wheel drive передньо приводний

15 low-traction conditions погані міські умови

 

 

TEXT – BASED ASSIGNMENTS

 

Vocabulary exercises

 

Exercise 1.

Знайдіть англійські еквіваленти до наступних слів та словосполучень.

Що дозволяє, одержувати енергію, асоціювати термін, кращий контроль, на багатьох поверхнях, різні види засобів пересування, великі шини, які не їздять по вулицям, включаючи, перша цифра, на кожному кінці вісі, передні два, великий пасажирський транспорт , перемикати вручну, дорога із гравія.

 

 

Exercise 2





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