English Grammat in Use, Raymond Murphy, Cambridge University Press, 1997 (pp 136-160)



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English Grammat in Use, Raymond Murphy, Cambridge University Press, 1997 (pp 136-160)



ТЕМА 4

 

Grammar: The Noun. The Article.

Vocabulary: Sports. Keeping fit.

Содержание темы

 

 

1. Regular plurals

2. Irregular plurals.

2.1. Greek and Latin Nouns.

2.2. Group nouns.

2.3. Countable. Uncountable Nouns.

2.4. Compaund Nouns.

Possessive case.

4. Rules for Subject.

5. Use of a/an

6. Use of the.

7. Geographical names.

 

 

Рекомендуемая литература

 

English Grammat in Use, Raymond Murphy, Cambridge University Press, 1997 (pp 136-160)

  1. Advanced Grammar in Use, Martin Hewings, Cambridge University Press, 2000 (рр 100-124)
  2. Tests, Texts and Topics for your English Exams, Ю.Б. Кузьменкова, Издательство “Титул», 2002 (стр. 18-27)
  3. The Heinemann English Grammar, Digby Beaumont and Colin Granger, Heintmann, 1992 (рр 154-182)
  4. Revising, Reading and Reasoning for your English Exams, Ю.Б. Кузьменкова, А. Р. Жаворонкова, И. В. Извольская, Издательство “Титул», 2002 (стр. 7-13, 22-28)
  5. Longman English Grammar Practice for intermediate students, L. G. Alexander, Longman, 1997 (pp 26-53)

Раздел: Учебно-методические материалы

Вспомогательные материалы

 

Grammar

The Noun

1. Regular plurals   singular noun plural noun
        Most nouns form their plural by adding -s to the singular noun.   We add -es if the singular noun ends in -ch, -sh, -s or -x.   Some nouns ending in -o add -es in the plural. Other nouns ending in -o, add -s only. Nouns ending in a consonant + -y, change the -y to i and add –es.   Book, sport, car Church, dish, bus, box tomato, potato, echo, hero, negro piano, radio baby, factory Books, sports, cars Churches, dishes, buses, boxes tomatoes, potatoes, echoes, heroes, negroes pianos, radios babies, factories
2. Irregular plurals    
      Some nouns ending in -f/-fe drop the –f/-fe and add -ves in the plural half, thief, leaf, loaf, self, shelf, wolf, knife, wife halves, thieves, leaves, loaves, selves, shelves, wolves, knives, wives
  Some nouns form the plural by changing their vowel(s). mouse, man, woman, foot, goose mice, men, woman, feet, goose
  A few nouns form the plural with -en. child, ox children, oxen
  Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural. sheep, deer, salmon species, series, means sheep, deer, salmon, species, series, means
    ü fish is the normal plural of fish; fishes is also possible, but less usual. We use fishes to talk about different kinds and species of fish ü The usual plural of person is people (not persons). We use peoples to talk about citizens of different countries.
Some nouns borrowed from Greek and Latin have Greek or Latin plural endings.
Origin Singular Plural Singular (plural) examples
Greek -is -es basis (bases), crisis (crises)
Greek -on -a criterion (criteria), phenomenon (phenomena)
Latin -us -i radius (radii), alumnus (alumni), terminus (termini), stimulus (stimuli)
Latin -a -ae alga (algae), vita (vitae)
Latin -um -a datum (data), medium (media)
Latin -ix /-ex -ices index (indices), appendix (appendices)

 

  The algae in the pool are hard to remove. The radius of the circle is two inches.
  Normally, we use singular nouns with singular verbs and pronouns, and plural nouns with plural verbs and pronouns. 'Where's thekey?' 'It's on the table.' 'Where are the keys?' 'They're on the table.' The house on the hill belongs to my friend. These houses over there are very luxurious.
  Group nouns are usually singular, but may be plural if the members are functioning independently. Watch the pronouns for clues to the singular or plural nature of the subject. Some of these words are: Class, team, police, committee, group, company, government, crowd, audience, family, army, jury, country, headquarters, press, faculty… The crew consists of 30 men. Now all the crew are on the deck watching the wale in the sea. That class has its final test on Friday. The class are working on their individual projects today. We use plural verbs and pronouns when we think of these groups as a number of people. My family are on holiday. Thegovernment think they can solve the problem. We use singular verbs and pronouns when we think of the group as an impersonal unit. The family is a very important part of society. The government was elected a month ago. The team was the best in the country. (= the team as a group) The team wereall given medals. (= each member separately as individuals)  
  Some nouns are always plural in form and always take plural verbs. Clothes: trousers, pants, jeans, sunglasses, pyjamas, shorts, tights. Tools & instruments: scissors, pliers, tweezers binoculars, compasses, spectacles Abstract: riches, thanks, means, arms, ashes, barracks, cattle, congratulations, earnings, (good) looks, outskirts, people, police, premises, riches, stairs, surroundings, wages etc.   However, some of them are followed by a singular verb when used in expressions such as a pair of ..., a word of ... I like these pants most of all. That pair of pants is dirty. Your thanks are enough for me. A word of thanks is enough. · Some nouns use the same form for both singular and plural meanings. The pronouns and modifiers with these words will indicate whether they are singular or plural in meaning. always with s: species, series, etc. That speciesis rare. Those species are common. never with s: sheep, deer, etc. That deeris young. Those deer are old.
    Expressions stating one amount of time, money, weight, volume… are plural in form but take a singular verb. Two weeks is enough lime for a nice vacation. Five hundred dollars is required as a down payment. Ten extra pounds is a lot to lose in a week. Twenty gallons of gasoline costs a lot of money. Two weeks isn't long to wait. Ten miles is a long way to ride. Ten thousand pounds is too much to spend on this house.  
Countable • Uncountable Nouns ü Nouns can be countable (those that can be counted)1 book, 2 books etc or uncountable (those that can't be counted)flour. ü Uncountable nouns take a singular verb.Information is available at the front desk. ü Uncountable nouns are not used with a/an. Some, any, no, much, the etc can be used with them. I need some advice. The furniture is expensive. But we say: a relief, a pity, a shame, a wonder, a knowledge (of sth), a help although they are uncountable. What a pity! It's such a shame! She has a deep knowledge of mathematics.  
The most common uncountable nouns are: Mass nouns: Fluids: blood, coffee, milk, oil, tea, water, etc Solids: bread, butter, china, coal, fish (meaning food), food, fruit, glass, ice, iron, meat, soap Gases: air, oxygen, pollution, smoke, smog, steam Particles: corn, dust, flour, hair, pepper, rice, salt, sand, sugar, wheat   Subjects of study: chemistry, economics, history, literature, mathematics, physics, psychology Languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Spanish, Turkish Games: baseball, billiards, chess, football, golf, poker, rugby, soccer, tennis Diseases: cancer, flu, measles,mumps etc Natural phenomena: darkness, fog, gravity, hail, heat, humidity, light, lightning, rain (but: the rains = season of continuous rain in tropical countries), snow, sunshine, thunder, weather, wind   Some abstract nouns: accommodation, advice, anger, applause, assistance, behaviour, business, chaos, countryside, courage, damage, dirt, education, evidence, housework, homework, information, intelligence, knowledge, luck, music, news, peace, progress, seaside, shopping, traffic, trouble, truth, wealth, work etc   Collective nouns: baggage, crockery, cutlery, furniture, jewellery, luggage, machinery, money, rubbish, stationery    
• Many uncountable nouns can be made countable by adding a partitive: a piece of paper/cake/information/advice/furniture; a glass/bottle of water; a jar of jam; a box/sheet of paper; a packet of tea; a slice/loaf of bread; a pot of yoghurt; a pot/cup of tea; a kilo/pound of meat: a tube of toothpaste; a bar of chocolate/soap; a bit/piece of chalk; an ice cube; a bag of flour; a pair of trousers; a game of soccer; a(n) item/piece of news; a drop/can of oil; a can of Coke; a carton of milk; a block of wood; a flash/bolt of lightning; a clap/peal of thunder etc  
Some words are always plural in form but singular in meaning. These words require singular verbs. Academic subjects: mathematics, physics, economics, statistics, civics... Diseases: measles, mumps, herpes... Abstract nouns: news, ethics, politics, athletics, billiards, rabies.... Mathematics is a difficult subject. The news was very good.  
    Compound nouns A compound noun is a noun that is made of two (or more) parts. Compound nouns form their plural by adding -s/es: •to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns, ball game - ball games •to the noun if the compound consists of an adjective and a noun. frying pan - frying pans •to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected by a preposition or to the noun If the compound has only one noun. mother-in-law — mothers-in-law, passer-by — passers-by • at the end of the compound if it does not include any nouns, letdown – letdowns
We use plural nouns, verbs and pronouns with a number of and a group of. A number of my friends are planning a holiday together.They hope to go to Greece and Turkey. The expression a number of is plural, but the expression the number of is singular. A number of students were missing from class. The number of students in class is increasing every year.  
Possessive case We usually form possessive case with: 1. Personal nouns (eg Sally,Andrew) Andrew's bedroom. Sally’s car. 2. Personal indefinite pronouns (someone’s, nobody’s) Someone’s passportnobody's problem 3. Names of animals a dog's life the cat'smilk 4. With a group of people or with a place where people live, work thecompany's office the world's problems London's traffic 5. With periods of time and in some expressions of time yesterday's newspaperlast week's accident a week's holiday, BUT a five-year trip two days' work, BUT a two-day work 6. We can add the possessive 's to a whole phrase. Sue and Frank's daughter. But with a longer phrase, we often use ...of... instead eg the daughter of the Australian couple who live next door. ü BUT Sue’s and Frank’s daughters were friends. 7. We can also use the possessive 's without a following noun: She has just been to thehairdresser's.I went to thedoctor's yesterday. 8.We can use ...of... and a possessive form in a 'double possessive'. ...of... + possessive: Ann is a friend of Peter's. A cousin of mine is coming to visit me.  
Rules for Subject – Verb Agreement 1 When the following words are used as subjects, they are always singular. Some of these words are plural in meaning, but they always require Singular verbs
Everyone Everybody Everything Someone Somebody Something Anyone Anybody Anything No one Nobody Nothing Each Either Neither

Everyone is here. Neither of these books is very new.

  2 2 When each or every comes before singular subjects joined 3 by AND, a singular verb is required. Every man and woman is eligible to vote. Each student and teacher has a locker.
  4 3 Introdactory itis singular and always followed by a singular verb. It was the dogs, which awakened me. It is his grades that worry him.
  4 There, here, and where are never subjects (except in a sentence like this one). When a sentence begins with one of these words, the subject comes after the verb. There are no dogs in this neighborhood. There is little milk left in the fridge. Here are the results of the experiments.
  5 Subjects joined by andor both ... and ... take a plural verb. My mom’s Honda and a blue Ford are parked outside. Both tigers and whales are becoming extinct.
  6 Pay attention to the following:
  The man together with in addition to along with as well as except   his ten children     is leaving soon.

 

  7 Alternatives When subjects are joined by the following structures, the verb must agree with the closer subject. Neither the studentsnor the teacher is allowed to smoke. Either the teacheror the students have your books. Not only the nurses but also the doctor is coming soon
  8 Many words may be singular or plural depending on what they refer to: None, all, some, any, majority, most, half, etc. When these words are followed by a prepositional phrase, the number of the object of the preposition will determine whether the words are singular or plural. All of the book has been destroyed. All of the books have been thrown away. All of the money is in bank.
  9 Several, many, both, few are plural words and always take a plural verb. Both are going to attend the University of Texas. Only a few have passed the exam.
  10 Titles of books and movies, even if plural in form, take singular verbs. The New York Times is a good newspaper. Star Wars was a good movie.

 

The Article

 

Use of a/an 1. We use a/an before singular countable nouns. A student a bookan idea We do not use a/an before plural countable nouns. We do not normally use a/an before uncountable nouns. We do not use singular countable nouns alone, without a/an, the, my, this, etc. I'm a student.
  2. We use a/an when the listener or reader does not know exactly which person or thing we mean. There is a book on the table. (We don't know which book.) He meta girl last night. She works in a bank. (We don't know which girl, or which bank.)
  3. We use a/an when we say what someone or something is. I am an optimist. Are you a bus driver? It was a good movie. She is a vegetarian. Hill is a really nice person. What a lovely dress!
  4. We can use a = some: a number of, a few of, a group of, a pair of A pair of jeans. A number of students
  5. In measuring Three times a week. Fifty kilometers an hour. 3.50 a kilo. $15000 a year. Formally, per can replace a/an. · How often? Once a week; 8 hours a day; once a month; …  
  6. F We use a/an + noun meaning only one (There is a pen on the desk) and one + noun when we want to emphasize that there is only one (There is only one pen on the desk, not two.)    
Use of the   1. We use the with singular countable nouns, plural countable nouns, and uncountable nouns. the manthe shoesthe water
  2. We use the when the listener or reader knows exactly which person or thing we mean: 3. We use the to talk about people and things that we have already mentioned. I met a girl and a boy. I didn't likethe boy much, butthe girl was very nice. My father bought a shirt and some shoes.The shoes were quite expensive 4. We use the when we say which people or things we mean. Who isthe man over there talking to Sue? 5. We use the when it is clear from the situation which people or things we mean. 'Where s Simon?' 'He's inthe bathroom.' ( = the bathroom in this house) Are you hot? I'll openthe window. ( == the window in this room) 6. We use the before the same Your pullover is the same color as mine. These two photos are the same. 7. We use the cinema, the theatre with a general meaning. Which do you prefer,the cinema orthe theatre · The cinema, the theatre, the radio, but television. We heard the news on the radio. There is not a theatre in this town. We watched the news on television. I am going to buy a new radio. There is a cat on TV. There is a cat on the TV. The cat is on TV. The cat is on the TV.
  8. Bed, work, home To go to bed, to be /to stay in bed ‘It is time to go to bed. ü BUT I sat down on the bed (a particular piece of furniture) Go to work, finish/start work, be at work What time are you at work? Go home/come home/be at home’ It is late. Let’s go home.  
  9. We use the when there is only one of something e.g. the moon, the sky, the earth, the world, the ground, the environment, the town, the country (side), the sea(side), the mountains, the rain, the wind, the sun(shine), the snow . I enjoy lying inthe sun Would you like to travel roundthe world? I enjoy going for long walks inthe country. They often go tothe mountains at weekends. I like the soundof the rain. · But space: There are millions of stars in space. Another meaning: I was trying to park my car, but the space was too small.
  10. Prison, School, Church, Hospital, University. We don’t use the when we are thinking of the general idea of these places. When I leave school I want to go to University. Excuse me, where is theUniversity, please? (the building) He was sick, so he was taken to hospital. Jill went to thehospital to visit him. (as a visitor)  
  11. We sometimes use the with a singular countable noun to talk about something in general. For example, with the names of animals, flowers and plants. The dolphin is an intelligent animal. The orchid is a beautiful flower. (the dolphin = dolphins in general; the orchid = orchids in general) The tiger is threatened with extinction. The dollar is the currency (= money) of the United States.
  12. National groups; groups as a whole. ( THE English, Italian, French, Swiss, Japanese) The French eat in restaurants more than theEnglish. Note that all these words end in –sh, -ch, -ese( the English, the Irish, the French, the Dutch, the Japanese, the Chinese ). With other nationalities we use a plural noun ending in –s with or without the: (the) Indians, (the) Germans, (the) Italians, (the) Mexicans, (the) Scots, (the) Turks Single examples are not formed in the same way: a Frenchman/woman, an Englishman/woman.
  13. Other groups If these are clearly plural: The Social Democrats, The Rolling Stones; Note: Pink Floyd, Queen (no article)
  14. Titles These tend to be 'unique'. The director of studies If the title is post-modified (has a description coming after the noun), the is more likely, but not essential. She became President in 1998. She became (the) President of the United States in 1998. The may be part of the title, and so is capitalized. Newspapers: The Independent, The Sunday Times; Titles of books and films etc do not have the unless there is post-modification. The Phantom of the Opera.
  15. Musical instruments The is included if ability to play is mentioned. Jane plays the flute. A description of playing might not use the. Jane played a flute and Paul played a recorder.
  16. Emphatic use. This is heavily stressed and emphasizes the following noun. This hotel is the place to stay. This book is the one that I was telling you about  
  17. Mostand the most: Most without an article means ‘the greater part’. I live in London most of the time. This is the most expensive hotel in town
  18.Means of transport We use by car/bus/train/plane etc, without an article, to talk about how we travel. We went to Romeby train. We also say on foot (= walking) I came homeon foot. On the train, on the 6.25 train, on abike, on amotorbike, In my\his\a car, in ataxi…  
  19. The + adjective We use the + adjective (without a noun) to talk about groups of people, especially: the young, the old, the elderly, the rich, the poor, the unemployed, the homeless, the sick, the disabled, the injured, the dead The young = young people, the rich = rich people etc.: Do you think the rich should pay more taxes to help the poor? The homeless need more help from the government. These expressions are always plural in meaning. You cannot say 'a young' or 'an unemployed'. You must say 'a young man', 'an unemployed woman' etc. Note also that we say 'the poor' (not 'the poors'), 'the young' (not 'the youngs') etc.
  20. Meals We do not normally use an article with the names of meals. What time do you usually havebreakfast? When would you like to havedinner? But we use the when we specify I enjoyedthe dinner we had last night. We can also say a/the meal We hada meal on the plane. We also use a/an when there is an adjective before Breakfast/lunch/dinner/ etc. They hada large breakfast.
  21. Nounsdenoting parts of the day and names of seasons In spring, in autumn, in winter…In the afternoon, in the evening, in the morning…. Early morning, early evening, early spring, early autumn…. Late summer, late autumn, late evening…. At down, at night, at daybreak …. A warm summer evening, a cool night.

Geographical names

 

 

  The following use the No definite article
Continents The Antarctic, the Arctic, the North / South Pole Asia, Europe, Africa, South America
Oceans, seas, rivers, canals, lakes the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Channel, the Suez Canal, the Amazon, the Rhine, the Thames, the Nile, Individuallakes: Lake Constance, Lake Superior, lake Baikal, Lake Michigan, BUT the Baikal, The Ontario
Mountain ranges   the Rocky Mountains the Rockies, the Andes, the Alps   Individual mountains:Mount Everest, Mount Etna, Mont Blanc, Mount Fuji
Groups of islands the Canaries the Canary Islands, the Bahamas, the British Isles, the West Indies Individual islands: Corsica, Sicily, Crete, Long Island
Countries, states, regions….     the United States of America (the USA) the United Kingdom (the UK) the Dominican Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany the Netherlands, The Lebanon, The Gambia, the Ukraine England, Spain, Brazil, Japan, Switzerland, Central Europe California, Hampshire, Texas, Tuscany Moscow region Florence
Other place-names the Middle East, the Far East the Costa Brava, the Ruhr, the Vatican the Northern coast of France West Africa South - Eastern Spain Northern France
Cities, towns and villages the Hague Sydney, Tokyo, Bilbao, Moscow
Streets The High St, the Strand, the Mall, the Drive Oxford Street, Godwin Street, North Road, Broadway, Green Road
Deserts the Sahara, the Kalahari  
Hotels, cinemas the Plaza Hotel, the Hilton Hotel the Cannon Cinema Macy's Hotel , Brown's, Woolworths, Jack's Guest House,
Museums, clubs the Prado Museum, the Black Cat Club, the British Museum, the Tate Gallery,  
Restaurants, pubs the Hard Rock Cafe, the Swan (pub), the Bombay Restaurant Brown's Restaurant
Churches named after saints + the possessive 's __________ StPeter's Church, St John's Church, St Paul's Cathedral.
Parks   Hyde Park
Unique organizations and buildings The (House of) Commons, the White House, the Royal Palace, the Empire State Building, the Festival Hall, the Eiffel Tower Parliament, Buckingham Palace, Canterbury Cathedral, Edinburgh Castle
Theatres the National theatre, the Bolshoi, the Pushkinsky  
  The before names with of the Statue of Liberty, the Bank of Scotland, the Tower of London, the University of London the University of Leeds Lloyds Bank, London University, Leeds University, London Bridge
Names without ‘the’ Kennedy Airport, Waterloo Bridge, Fifth Avenue, Piccadilly Circus, Times Square, Victoria Station, London Zoo, Westminster Abbey
Newspapers the Washington Post, the Sun the Financial Times __________
Names of companies, airlines etc.   Sony, Kodak, British Airways, IBM.

 

Vocabulary

 

Study the important vocabulary:

Equipment - what you hold in your hand: golf - club, squash/tennis/badminton - racket, darts - dart, archery - bow, cricket/table tennis/baseball - bat, hockey - stick, snooker/pool/billiards - cue, canoeing - paddle, rowing - oar, fishing - rod/line

 

Sports: discus, javelin, high jump, long jump, pole vault, sprint,long-distance running, marathon, jogging, hand – gliding, windsurfing, bowls, darts, riding, snooker, pool, billiards, motor – racing, swimming.

 

Verbs: to win, to loose by three goals/points, to brake the record, to hold the record for, to be defeated, to score goals/points, to take up, to be interested in sports, to take an active part in, to watch sports on television, to make fun of stay-at-home sports, to enable to enjoy all kinds of sport events, to try to keep fit, to give up.

 

People who do particular sports:

-er can be used for many sports: footballer, swimmer, windsurfer, high-jumper, cricketer, golfer, etc

Player is often necessary: tennis - player, snooker - player, darts – player, football-player, cricket - player

Grammar

1. This portrait was ___ dead secret.

1) Dorian's and Lord Henry's

2) Dorian's and Lord's Henry

3) Dorian and Lord Henry's

4) Dorian and Lord Henry

2. The crossroads ___ usually the most dangerous place for beginner-drivers.

1) are

2) is

3) were

4) was being

3. The baggage ___ apparatus and appliances.

1) contain

2) contains

3) have contained

4) was contained

4. Money ___ so scarce that ___could fairly be said not to exist at all.

1) are, they

2) were, it

3) had been, they

4)is, it

5. _____talks on the problems of___ Middle East were suspended.

1) Peace's, the

2) Peace, —

3) Peaceful, the

4) Peace, the

6. The news ____ so depressing at the moment. We don't know what to do about________ .

1) is, it

2) are, them

3) was, these

4) were, it

 

7. We usually expect that bad news _______brought by _____.

1) are, a telegram

2) is, telegrams

3) have been, telegram

4) has, the telegrams

8. _____ was the day _________ yesterday.

1) The France's Independence Day, after

2) The day of the French Independence, since

3) French's Independence Day, above

4 )France's Independence Day, before

 

9. That magnificent _______ temple was constructed by ______ Chinese.

1) eight-centuries-old, the

2) old-eight-centuries, ___

3) eight-century’s-old, a

4) eight-century-old, the

 

10. His advice dull, never helped me.

Is, it has

2) are, they have

3) was, they have

4) were, it has

11. This watch ___ a special favorite with Mr. Pickwick, ___ about for a great number of years.

1) were, carrying

2) was, having been carried

3) is, been carried

4) have been, having carried

12. Her hair ___ loose and half-falling and she wore a nurse's dress.

1) was

2) were

3) are

4) have been

13. He said that the latest news ____ .

1) is old

2) were old

3) have been old

4) was old

14. Look at this beggar! She is dirty, her hair _ shaggy, her clothes ____ like rags but she persists in saying that all the money ________________________ to her.

1) are, look, belongs

2) is, looks, belong

3) is, look, belongs

4) are, looks, belong

15. Statistics ____ a branch of economics, but it is often said that there _ lies, damn lies and statistics.

1) is, is

2) are, are

3) is, are

4) are, is

16. The number of Mexican students in class __ large and a number of them______often missing from class.

1) was, was

2) was, were

3) were, were

4) were, was

 

17. A Committee ___ formed to work out a new plan two weeks ago. The Committee ________ of the opinion that the plan can be carried out within a month.

1) was, are

2) were, is

3) has been, are

4) have been, were

18. Our crew ___ of twenty men. Now all the crew ___ standing on deck and watching a large whale approaching the ship.

1) consist, are

2) consists, are

3) consists, is

4) consist, is

19. The number of students of our college __ since 1990, but only a number of students ______ fit to participate in these competitions and the majority of them ________capable of becoming winners.

1) have been increased, found, was

2) increses, finds, are

3) incresed, was found, was

4) has increased, were found, were

20. The police ____ been looking for this criminal for two months. Our policemen_____________ about to arrest him in Central Square last Monday but he managed to escape in the crowd which _______ pushing, shouting, joking, screaming.

1) has, was, were

2) have, were, was

3) have, were, were

4) has, were, was

21. What ____ the news? All is quiet: the cattle ____ grazing in the fields, the crops ________getting ripe, the family_______ healthy and happy.

1) are, is, are, is

2) is, are, are, are

3) are, is, are, are

4) is, are, is, is

22. After____ period of drought it started raining__ day.

1) six month, one

2) a six months', every

3) a six month's, some

4) the six month, every

 

23. If the____ is left open, the optics will burn out.

1) machine's lid

2) lid of machine

3) lid of the machine

4) machine lid

 

24. The vacation ___ great fun.

1) are

2) was

3) have been

4) is being

25. The____ wages_____ raised.

1) worker, are

2) worker's, is

3) workers', were

4)working, have been

26.____ President____ election was widely forecast by the polls.

1) The, Clinton

2) _____ ,Clinton's

3) ___ , Clintons

4) The, Clinton's

27. Everybody____ the Swiss police____ great at finding people.

1) says, is

2) tell, are

3) says, are

4) speak, is

28. ____ news ____ impressed him very much.

1) These, have

2) This, has

3) Those, -

4) The, haven’t

29. You haven’t ____ time if you want to finish the job in time.

1) many

2) plenty

3) much

4) a lot

30. She showed him his seat, which was next to ____, and left the classroom.

1) Helen’s

2) Helen

3) Helens

4) Helens’

31. I have a lot of ____ to do but in spite ____ this I like my ____ .

1) job, of, work

2) work, of, job

3) job, from, position

4) - , at, work

32. It was difficult for him to live on the ____ interest that the bank paid him.

1) ten per cents

2) ten per cent’s

3) ten per cent

4) ten per cents’

33. Come to visit me in ____ time.

1) a two weeks time

2) a two week’s time

3) two weeks’ time

4) the two week time

 

34. She was ____ pleased by the news that her ____ boy had mastered French.

1) the most, 8-year-old

2) most, 8-year-old

3) very, 8-years’ old

4) such, 8-years-old

 

35. The author knew that the readers would like ____ story.

1) new Sherlock Homes

2) the new Sherlock Homes’

3) the new Sherlock Homes

4) a new Sherlock’s Homes

 

36. Look! ____ heavy clouds. It is going to rain.

1) So

2) What a

3) Such

4) Such a

37. It was ____ good weather that we couldn’t help ____ to the country.

1) such, going

2) such a, going

3) very, to go

4) so, not to go

38. Both brothers look handsome, but ____ his brother John, Michael has made good use of his ____ . He is a star in Hollywood now.

1) unlike, look

2) like, looks

3) unlike, looks

4) not like, outlook

 

39. Then he was suddenly on the steps of the city hall and ____ a lot of police around.

1) it was

2) there was

3) there were

4) has seen

 

40. She finally said: “I’m going on vacation in ____ time. I won’t be seeing you then for a month.”

1) two weeks

2) a weeks’

3) two week’s

4) a couple of weeks’

 

41. Girls called Rosemary get married in white veils and take ____ from their ____ and wait in the evenings in green suburbs for their commuting husbands.

1) advices, mothers-in-law

2) some advice, mother-in-laws

3) an advice, mother’s-in-law

4) advice, mothers-in-law

 

42. When he arrived he discovered that ____ living-room was filled with friends who had come to say last-minute farewells to ____ Doctor Carpenter and his wife.

1) the Carpenters’, -

2) the Carpenter, the

3) Carpenters, -

4) The Carpenter’s, a

 

43. The police arrived at 10 in the morning and ____ since then in case of trouble.

1) wait

2) have been waiting

3) has waited

4) had waited

 

44. We were ____ tired when we had reached ___ house.

1) prettily, Uncle David and Aunt Margaret

2) very, Uncle David’s and Aunt Margaret’s

3) pretty, Uncle David and Aunt Margaret’s

4) extremely, Uncle David’s and Aunt Margaret

45. I went around ____ deck, looking at the faces of my ____ .

1) that, fellows-passengers

2) the, fellow-passengers

3) a, fellows-passenger

4) - , fellow-passenger’s

 

46. It was obvious that ____ were innocent. They ____ about the plan.

1) the Tanners, couldn’t have known

2) Tanners, can’t have known

3) the Tanners family, shouldn’t know

4) Tanner, knew nothing

 

47. His father and ____ number of his cronies ____ in the dining-room.

1) a, were

2) the, was

3) a, was

4) the, were

 

Supply the missing words.

1. I'm so pleased you got into university!............................. on your success!

2. The goods you ordered ......……………. arrived.

3. All their belongings .……………....... been destroyed in a fire.

4. How much .................………..a good pair of trousers cost these days?

5. I know he's clever, but............................. aren't the only thing in life.

6. If your clothes ............................. dirty, please put them in the laundry basket.

7. My jeans (not)........................ faded much even though I keep washing ...........

8. I'm looking for the pliers. - You'll find ............................. on that shelf.

9. My earnings (not).................... high, but at least they .......................... regular.

10. These shorts ............................. fit me at all!

11. Sorry, I'm late, but I had a lot of....... to do.

12. Julie bought herself a complete new....... for winter.

13. Thanks for a great weekend! We really had a/an........

14. In order to prove Smith is guilty, we must find some........

15. Where ............................. the scissors? - ............................. are in the first drawer on the left.

 

 

6. Complete each sentence with a/an, some, the or by leaving the space blank.

1. As someone said, ___ life is becoming more and more difficult these days.

2. I don't know much about ___ life of ___ Salvador Dali.

3. ___ running is supposed to be good for you

4. I ought to be fit with all ___ running I do, but I don't feel fit.

5. Which is your favourite colour? - ___ Red.

6. I think ___ red one will suit you best. ___ Red is more your colour.

7. We learnt ___ English at school, but ___ English we learnt was useless.

8. ___ London is safe today, but___London in the 18th century was pretty rough.

9. ___ indoor plants require a lot of effort and attention.

10. What has been the longest period of ___ peace in ___ history?

11. If you study ___ history, you've got to read a lot.

12. ____ journeys to unknown places require a lot of preparation.

13. ___ lives of ___ poets and ____ musicians have often been unbearably difficult.

14. I'm not interested in the price of ___ silver or the price of ___ gold.

15. ____ time is ___ money.

 

Vocabulary

Find the right word.

1. Sue came first in the 5000 meter competition /game /race.

2. Jack and Eddie arranged to meet outside the football ground /field /pitch.

3. Brenda goes jogging every morning to keep exercised /fit /trained.

4. Our team beat/defeated/won the match by two goals to nil.

5. The local stadium isn't large enough for so many audience /viewers /spectators.

6. I'm afraid I don't find basketball very interested /interesting.

7. Collecting matchbox labels is Rebecca's favourite leisure /occupation /pastime.

8. Norman won first medal /prize /reward in the cookery competition.

9. All competitors /rivals /supporters for the relay race should make their way to the track.

10. The final result was a/an draw /equal /score.

2. Complete each sentence with a word from the list:

handlebars racket rope glasses net costume

whistle saddle rod club ice

1. Skiing can be dangerous if you don't wear dark …………… .

2. Iona’s bike crashed into a tree, and she was thrown over the …………… .

3. Suddenly the referee blew his …………. and pointed to the penalty spot.

4. I learned to ride a horse without using a ……………….. .

5. I had to play the doubles match with a borrowed ………………….. .

6. Emma tried to hit the golf-ball with her ……………., but missed it.

7. After the tennis match, one of the players jumped over the …………. .

8. Terry went fishing with the new …………….. his parents gave him.

9. A mountain-climber's life may depend on their ……………….. .

10. Open-air skating can be dangerous if the …………….. is too thin.

11. When Brenda entered the swimming competition she bought a new ……. .

ТЕКСТ


Urgup, a famous cave region in Turkey

The Urgup Cones are located in valleys to the west of the village of Urgup, which lies 225km southeast of Ankara, Turkey's capital, and 87km southwest of Kayseri. Caves in the soft, volcanic rock of the cones and cliffs have been inhabited by peasants and monks for at least 2,000 years. Finely decorated with richly coloured frescoes, more than 300 caves in the region have been transformed during medieval times into simple sanctuaries and churches.

In the 6th century AD, Cappadocia lay under the rule of the Christian Byzantine Empire (AD 330-1453), centred at Constantinople. At that time, many monks were inspired by the teachings of St Basil the Great (329 - 379), who had been Bishop of Caesarea (the modern Kayseri, which lies some 87km to the northeast of Urgup). St Basil established the monastic tradition in Cappadocia when he promoted the idea that monks should live neither in isolation nor in large numbers, but rather in small groups.

At Urgup, and in other valleys such as Goreme, monks built small churches in the cones and rocks. Usually simple rectangular structures, these churches rarely exceeded 8m in length. The monks decorated the walls and ceilings with simple designs yet ones symbolic of early Christianity, such as crosses, fish, pomegranates and the palm tree of Paradise. In AD 726 portraits of Jesus and the saints were considered as devotion to idols and forbidden. But in about AD 850 realistic scenes and figurative paintings returned to favour, and stories from the Bible were retold on long, segmented paintings.

Around Urgup there are more than 150 rock-hewn churches. The most magnificent date from the 10th and 11th centuries when wealthy noblemen competed with each other to establish the best churches or monasteries. They often invited the Empire's most skilled artists to decorate the interiors with elaborate, strikingly coloured frescoes.

Politics and war soon brought an end to the popularity of Cappadocian churches. In the 11th century, Moslems defeated the Byzantine Empire and took control of the region, and although local artists tried to maintain the tradition, they lacked the skill of earlier painters. Following the Turkish invasions of the 13th century, all attempts to build and decorate churches stopped.

 

(Word count 369)


ТЕСТ

1.You know ___ French is ___ Romanic language, and I recommend you this book dealing with the problem of ___ French grammar.

 

1 )-, the, the 2) a, a, - 3) -, a, the 4) -, the, a

 

2.She was not quite certain that ___ Edward who wrote now was not ___ same Edward she had known , with whom she enjoyed walking along ___ Strand, ___ Charing Cross...

1) the, the, the, the, 2) -, the, -, the 3) -, the, the, - 4) -, -, -, -

 

3. I was too sleepy to read much ___ German in ___ evening and soon after ___ supper I’d take myself off to our bedroom and fall into ___ bed.

1) -, the, -,-, 2) -, -, the, - 3) -, the, the, the 4) -, the, the, -

 

4.What ___ book, he exclaimed having ___ look at what ___ book I was reading.

1) a, the, - 2) -, a, a, 3) a, a, - 4) -, the, -

 

5. Though it was a fashionable party and the walls were decorated with ____ and ____ , the majority of guests ____ casually dressed in jeans and T-shirts.

1) lilies-of-the-valley, forget-me-nots, were

2) lily-of –the valleys, forget-me-nots, were

3) lilies-of-the-valley, forgets-me-not, was

4) lilies-of-the-valleys, forgets-me-nots, was

 

6.In ___ West Indies and ___ Argentine Republic there are also vast cotton-growing districts as well as in ___ Easten Africa and ___ Egypt.

1) the, -, the, - 2) the, the, -,-, 3) the, - ,-, - 4) -, -, the, -

 

7.Aged nineteen he made a tour with his parents and ___ Lennons around ___ Switzerland, visiting ___ Brussels, admiring ___ Rhine.

1) the, -, -, the 2) -, -, - , the 3)-, the,-, the 4) the, the, -, the

 

8.They liked ___ capital, ___ Hague, they enjoyed meeting ___ Dutch, they fell in love with ___ Neitherlands.

1) the, -, the, -, 2) the, - ,the, the 3) the, the, the, the 4) the, -, -, -

 

9.Stella lived in ___ London where she worked for ___ National Gallery, in ___ Trafalgar Square with its famous ___ Nelson Column.

1)-, the, the, the 2) -, the, -, -, 3) -, the, -, the 4) -, -, the, the

 

10.___Prime Minister will visit ___ Singapore and ___ Malaysia and then go on to ___ Philippines, where he will make a speech about the environment.

1) the, -, -, the 2) the, -, the , the 3) -, the, the, the 4) -, -, -, -

 

11.___ King Juan Carlos of ___ Spain was met by ___ Queen and drove to ___ Buckingham Palace.

1) The, -, -, the 2)-, -, the, the 3) -, -, the, - 4) the, -, the, -

 

12.___ problem of ___ unemployed and ___ ways of helping them are being discussed in ___ United Nations now.

1)the, -, the, - 2) the, the, the, the 3) the, -, the, the 4) the, -, -, -

 

13.___ Goby, famous for being a vast burial ground of dinosaurs is situated on the borders of ___ former Soviet Union, ___ Mongolia and ___ China.

1) the, -, -, - 2) -, the, -, -, 3) the, the -, - 4) -, -, -, -

 

14.There ______ enough ___ to suggest that job stress may increase _____ a man’s risk of dying from ______ disease.

1) are, evidences, hearts 2) is, evidence, heart

3) is, evidence, heart’s 4) are, evidences, heart

 

15. He emphasized that those means of getting information ______ absolutely indecent.

1) is 2) are 3) was 4) were

 

16. We live today in what is called the _______, and the availability of information will accelerate.

1) Information’s Age 2) Information Age

3) Informational Age 4) Informative Age

 

17. These pliers ______ too big and this pair of scissors ______ absolutely dull.

1) are, is 2) are, are 3) is, is 4) is, are

 

18. He is fond of having some _____ with marmalade for breakfast, ____ should be crisp and hot.

1) toasts, they 2) toast, it 3) toasts, its 4) toast, they

 

19. When I came into ______ cottage, the family ____ sitting round the table reading something funny.

1) the Holley’s, were 2) Holleys, was

3) the Holleys’, were 4) Holleys’s, was

 

20. He conducted a lot of _____ into _____ but ______ a failure.

1) researches, hay fevers, they were 2) research, hay fevers, they were

3) research, hay fever, it was 4) research, hay fever, it was

 

ТЕМА 4

 

Grammar: The Noun. The Article.

Vocabulary: Sports. Keeping fit.

Содержание темы

 

 

1. Regular plurals

2. Irregular plurals.

2.1. Greek and Latin Nouns.

2.2. Group nouns.

2.3. Countable. Uncountable Nouns.

2.4. Compaund Nouns.

Possessive case.

4. Rules for Subject.

5. Use of a/an

6. Use of the.

7. Geographical names.

 

 

Рекомендуемая литература

 

English Grammat in Use, Raymond Murphy, Cambridge University Press, 1997 (pp 136-160)



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