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Раздел: Учебно-методические материалы
|| Regular plurals
|| singular noun
|| plural noun
|| Most nouns form their plural by adding -s to the singular noun.
We add -es if the singular noun ends in -ch, -sh, -s or -x.
Some nouns ending in -o add -es in the plural.
Other nouns ending in -o, add -s only.
Nouns ending in a consonant + -y, change the -y to i and add –es.
|| Book, sport, car
Church, dish, bus, box
tomato, potato, echo, hero, negro
|| Books, sports, cars
Churches, dishes, buses, boxes
tomatoes, potatoes, echoes, heroes, negroes
|| Irregular plurals
|| || |
|| Some nouns ending in -f/-fe drop the –f/-fe and add -ves in the plural
half, thief, leaf, loaf, self, shelf, wolf, knife, wife
|| halves, thieves, leaves, loaves, selves, shelves, wolves, knives, wives
|| Some nouns form the plural by changing their vowel(s).
mouse, man, woman, foot, goose
|| mice, men, woman, feet, goose
|| A few nouns form the plural with -en.
|| children, oxen
|| Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural.
|| sheep, deer, salmon
species, series, means
|| sheep, deer, salmon,
species, series, means
|| ü fish is the normal plural of fish; fishes is also possible, but less usual. We use fishes to talk about different kinds and species of fish
ü The usual plural of person is people (not persons). We use peoples to talk about citizens of different countries.
|| Some nouns borrowed from Greek and Latin have Greek or Latin plural endings.
|| Singular (plural) examples
|| basis (bases), crisis (crises)
|| criterion (criteria), phenomenon (phenomena)
|| radius (radii), alumnus (alumni), terminus (termini), stimulus (stimuli)
|| alga (algae), vita (vitae)
|| datum (data), medium (media)
|| -ix /-ex
|| index (indices), appendix (appendices)
|| The algae in the pool are hard to remove.
The radius of the circle is two inches.
|| Normally, we use singular nouns with singular verbs and pronouns, and plural nouns with plural verbs and pronouns.
'Where's thekey?' 'It's on the table.'
'Where are the keys?' 'They're on the table.'
The house on the hill belongs to my friend.
These houses over there are very luxurious.
|| Group nouns are usually singular, but may be plural if the members are functioning independently. Watch the pronouns for clues to the singular or plural nature of the subject. Some of these words are:
Class, team, police, committee, group, company, government, crowd, audience, family, army, jury, country, headquarters, press, faculty…
The crew consists of 30 men.
Now all the crew are on the deck watching the wale in the sea.
That class has its final test on Friday.
The class are working on their individual projects today.
We use plural verbs and pronouns when we think of these groups as a number of people. My family are on holiday.
Thegovernment think they can solve the problem.
We use singular verbs and pronouns when we think of the group as an impersonal unit. The family is a very important part of society.
The government was elected a month ago.
The team was the best in the country. (= the team as a group)
The team wereall given medals. (= each member separately as individuals)
|| Some nouns are always plural in form and always take plural verbs.
Clothes: trousers, pants, jeans, sunglasses, pyjamas, shorts, tights.
Tools & instruments: scissors, pliers, tweezers binoculars, compasses, spectacles
Abstract: riches, thanks, means, arms, ashes, barracks, cattle, congratulations, earnings, (good) looks, outskirts, people, police, premises, riches, stairs, surroundings, wages etc.
However, some of them are followed by a singular verb when used in expressions such as a pair of ..., a word of ...
I like these pants most of all.
That pair of pants is dirty.
Your thanks are enough for me.
A word of thanks is enough.
· Some nouns use the same form for both singular and plural meanings. The pronouns and modifiers with these words will indicate whether they are singular or plural in meaning.
always with s: species, series, etc. That speciesis rare.
Those species are common.
never with s: sheep, deer, etc. That deeris young.
Those deer are old.
Expressions stating one amount of time, money, weight, volume… are plural in form but take a singular verb.
Two weeks is enough lime for a nice vacation.
Five hundred dollars is required as a down payment.
Ten extra pounds is a lot to lose in a week.
Twenty gallons of gasoline costs a lot of money.
Two weeks isn't long to wait.
Ten miles is a long way to ride.
Ten thousand pounds is too much to spend on this house.
|| Countable • Uncountable Nouns
ü Nouns can be countable (those that can be counted)1 book, 2 books etc or uncountable (those that can't be counted)flour.
ü Uncountable nouns take a singular verb.Information is available at the front desk.
ü Uncountable nouns are not used with a/an. Some, any, no, much, the etc can be used with them.
I need some advice. The furniture is expensive.
But we say: a relief, a pity, a shame, a wonder, a knowledge (of sth), a help although they are uncountable.
What a pity! It's such a shame!
She has a deep knowledge of mathematics.
|| The most common uncountable nouns are:
Fluids: blood, coffee, milk, oil, tea, water, etc
Solids: bread, butter, china, coal, fish (meaning food), food, fruit, glass, ice, iron, meat, soap
Gases: air, oxygen, pollution, smoke, smog, steam
Particles: corn, dust, flour, hair, pepper, rice, salt, sand, sugar, wheat
Subjects of study: chemistry, economics, history, literature, mathematics, physics, psychology
Languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Spanish, Turkish
Games: baseball, billiards, chess, football, golf, poker, rugby, soccer, tennis
Diseases: cancer, flu, measles,mumps etc
Natural phenomena: darkness, fog, gravity, hail, heat, humidity, light, lightning, rain (but: the rains = season of continuous rain in tropical countries), snow, sunshine, thunder, weather, wind
Some abstract nouns: accommodation, advice, anger, applause, assistance, behaviour, business, chaos, countryside, courage, damage, dirt, education, evidence, housework, homework, information, intelligence, knowledge, luck, music, news, peace, progress, seaside, shopping, traffic, trouble, truth, wealth, work etc
Collective nouns: baggage, crockery, cutlery, furniture, jewellery, luggage, machinery, money, rubbish, stationery
|| • Many uncountable nouns can be made countable by adding a partitive:
a piece of paper/cake/information/advice/furniture;
a glass/bottle of water; a jar of jam; a box/sheet of paper;
a packet of tea; a slice/loaf of bread; a pot of yoghurt;
a pot/cup of tea; a kilo/pound of meat: a tube of toothpaste;
a bar of chocolate/soap; a bit/piece of chalk; an ice cube;
a bag of flour; a pair of trousers; a game of soccer;
a(n) item/piece of news; a drop/can of oil;
a can of Coke; a carton of milk; a block of wood;
a flash/bolt of lightning; a clap/peal of thunder etc
|| Some words are always plural in form but singular in meaning.
These words require singular verbs.
Academic subjects: mathematics, physics, economics, statistics, civics...
Diseases: measles, mumps, herpes...
Abstract nouns: news, ethics, politics, athletics, billiards, rabies....
Mathematics is a difficult subject. The news was very good.
A compound noun is a noun that is made of two (or more) parts.
Compound nouns form their plural by adding -s/es:
•to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns,
ball game - ball games
•to the noun if the compound consists of an adjective and a noun. frying pan - frying pans
•to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected by a preposition or to the noun If the compound has only one noun. mother-in-law — mothers-in-law, passer-by — passers-by
• at the end of the compound if it does not include any nouns,
letdown – letdowns
|| We use plural nouns, verbs and pronouns with a number of and a group of.
A number of my friends are planning a holiday together.They hope to go to Greece and Turkey.
The expression a number of is plural, but the expression the number of is singular.
A number of students were missing from class. The number of students in class is increasing every year.
|| Possessive case
We usually form possessive case with:
1. Personal nouns (eg Sally,Andrew)
Andrew's bedroom. Sally’s car.
2. Personal indefinite pronouns (someone’s, nobody’s)
Someone’s passportnobody's problem
3. Names of animals
a dog's life the cat'smilk
4. With a group of people or with a place where people live, work
thecompany's office the world's problems London's traffic
5. With periods of time and in some expressions of time
yesterday's newspaperlast week's accident
a week's holiday, BUT a five-year trip
two days' work, BUT a two-day work
6. We can add the possessive 's to a whole phrase.
Sue and Frank's daughter. But with a longer phrase, we often use ...of... instead eg the daughter of the Australian couple who live next door.
ü BUT Sue’s and Frank’s daughters were friends.
7. We can also use the possessive 's without a following noun:
She has just been to thehairdresser's.I went to thedoctor's yesterday.
8.We can use ...of... and a possessive form in a 'double possessive'. ...of... + possessive:
Ann is a friend of Peter's. A cousin of mine is coming to visit me.
|| Rules for Subject – Verb Agreement
1 When the following words are used as subjects, they are always singular. Some of these words are plural in meaning, but they always require Singular verbs
|| No one
Everyone is here. Neither of these books is very new.
|| 2 2 When each or every comes before singular subjects joined
3 by AND, a singular verb is required.
Every man and woman is eligible to vote.
Each student and teacher has a locker.
|| 4 3 Introdactory itis singular and always followed by a singular verb.
It was the dogs, which awakened me.
It is his grades that worry him.
|| 4 There, here, and where are never subjects (except in a sentence like this one). When a sentence begins with one of these words, the subject comes after the verb.
There are no dogs in this neighborhood.
There is little milk left in the fridge.
Here are the results of the experiments.
|| 5 Subjects joined by andor both ... and ... take a plural verb.
My mom’s Honda and a blue Ford are parked outside.
Both tigers and whales are becoming extinct.
|| 6 Pay attention to the following:
|| together with
in addition to
as well as
his ten children
is leaving soon.
|| 7 Alternatives
When subjects are joined by the following structures, the verb must agree with the closer subject.
Neither the studentsnor the teacher is allowed to smoke.
Either the teacheror the students have your books.
Not only the nurses but also the doctor is coming soon
|| 8 Many words may be singular or plural depending on what they refer to:
None, all, some, any, majority, most, half, etc.
When these words are followed by a prepositional phrase, the number of the object of the preposition will determine whether the words are singular or plural.
All of the book has been destroyed.
All of the books have been thrown away.
All of the money is in bank.
|| 9 Several, many, both, few are plural words and always take a plural verb.
Both are going to attend the University of Texas.
Only a few have passed the exam.
|| 10 Titles of books and movies, even if plural in form, take singular verbs.
The New York Times is a good newspaper.
Star Wars was a good movie.
| Use of a/an
|| 1. We use a/an before singular countable nouns.
A student a bookan idea
We do not use a/an before plural countable nouns.
We do not normally use a/an before uncountable nouns.
We do not use singular countable nouns alone,
without a/an, the, my, this, etc. I'm a student.
|| 2. We use a/an when the listener or reader does not know exactly which person or thing we mean.
There is a book on the table. (We don't know which book.)
He meta girl last night. She works in a bank.
(We don't know which girl, or which bank.)
|| 3. We use a/an when we say what someone or something is.
I am an optimist.
Are you a bus driver?
It was a good movie.
She is a vegetarian.
Hill is a really nice person.
What a lovely dress!
|| 4. We can use a = some: a number of, a few of, a group of, a pair of
A pair of jeans.
A number of students
|| 5. In measuring
Three times a week.
Fifty kilometers an hour.
3.50 a kilo.
$15000 a year.
Formally, per can replace a/an.
· How often? Once a week; 8 hours a day; once a month; …
|| 6. F We use a/an + noun meaning only one
(There is a pen on the desk) and one + noun when we want to emphasize that there is only one
(There is only one pen on the desk, not two.)
| Use of the
|| 1. We use the with singular countable nouns, plural countable nouns, and uncountable nouns.
the manthe shoesthe water
|| 2. We use the when the listener or reader knows exactly which person or thing we mean:
3. We use the to talk about people and things that we have already mentioned.
I met a girl and a boy. I didn't likethe boy much, butthe girl was very nice.
My father bought a shirt and some shoes.The shoes were quite expensive
4. We use the when we say which people or things we mean.
Who isthe man over there talking to Sue?
5. We use the when it is clear from the situation which people or things we mean.
'Where s Simon?' 'He's inthe bathroom.' ( = the bathroom in this house)
Are you hot? I'll openthe window. ( == the window in this room)
6. We use the before the same
Your pullover is the same color as mine.
These two photos are the same.
7. We use the cinema, the theatre with a general meaning. Which do you prefer,the cinema orthe theatre
· The cinema, the theatre, the radio, but television.
We heard the news on the radio.
There is not a theatre in this town.
We watched the news on television.
I am going to buy a new radio.
There is a cat on TV. There is a cat on the TV.
The cat is on TV. The cat is on the TV.
|| 8. Bed, work, home
To go to bed, to be /to stay in bed ‘It is time to go to bed.
ü BUT I sat down on the bed (a particular piece of furniture)
Go to work, finish/start work, be at work What time are you at work?
Go home/come home/be at home’ It is late. Let’s go home.
|| 9. We use the when there is only one of something e.g. the moon, the sky, the earth, the world, the ground, the environment, the town, the country (side), the sea(side), the mountains, the rain, the wind, the sun(shine), the snow .
I enjoy lying inthe sun
Would you like to travel roundthe world?
I enjoy going for long walks inthe country.
They often go tothe mountains at weekends.
I like the soundof the rain.
· But space: There are millions of stars in space.
Another meaning: I was trying to park my car, but the space was too small.
|| 10. Prison, School, Church, Hospital, University.
We don’t use the when we are thinking of the general idea of these places.
When I leave school I want to go to University.
Excuse me, where is theUniversity, please? (the building)
He was sick, so he was taken to hospital.
Jill went to thehospital to visit him. (as a visitor)
|| 11. We sometimes use the with a singular countable noun to talk about something in general. For example, with the names of animals, flowers and plants.
The dolphin is an intelligent animal.
The orchid is a beautiful flower. (the dolphin = dolphins in general; the orchid = orchids in general)
The tiger is threatened with extinction.
The dollar is the currency (= money) of the United States.
|| 12. National groups; groups as a whole. ( THE English, Italian, French, Swiss, Japanese)
The French eat in restaurants more than theEnglish.
Note that all these words end in –sh, -ch, -ese( the English, the Irish, the French, the Dutch, the Japanese, the Chinese ).
With other nationalities we use a plural noun ending in –s with or without the: (the) Indians, (the) Germans, (the) Italians, (the) Mexicans, (the) Scots, (the) Turks
Single examples are not formed in the same way: a Frenchman/woman, an Englishman/woman.
|| 13. Other groups
If these are clearly plural: The Social Democrats, The Rolling Stones; Note: Pink Floyd, Queen (no article)
|| 14. Titles
These tend to be 'unique'. The director of studies
If the title is post-modified (has a description coming after the noun), the is more likely, but not essential.
She became President in 1998.
She became (the) President of the United States in 1998.
The may be part of the title, and so is capitalized.
Newspapers: The Independent, The Sunday Times;
Titles of books and films etc do not have the unless there is post-modification. The Phantom of the Opera.
|| 15. Musical instruments
The is included if ability to play is mentioned. Jane plays the flute. A description of playing might not use the.
Jane played a flute and Paul played a recorder.
|| 16. Emphatic use.
This is heavily stressed and emphasizes the following noun.
This hotel is the place to stay.
This book is the one that I was telling you about
|| 17. Mostand the most:
Most without an article means ‘the greater part’.
I live in London most of the time.
This is the most expensive hotel in town
|| 18.Means of transport
We use by car/bus/train/plane etc, without an article, to talk about how we travel. We went to Romeby train.
We also say on foot (= walking) I came homeon foot.
On the train, on the 6.25 train, on abike, on amotorbike,
In my\his\a car, in ataxi…
|| 19. The + adjective
We use the + adjective (without a noun) to talk about groups of people, especially:
the young, the old, the elderly, the rich, the poor, the unemployed, the homeless, the sick, the disabled, the injured, the dead
The young = young people, the rich = rich people etc.:
Do you think the rich should pay more taxes to help the poor?
The homeless need more help from the government.
These expressions are always plural in meaning. You cannot say 'a young' or 'an unemployed'.
You must say 'a young man', 'an unemployed woman' etc.
Note also that we say 'the poor' (not 'the poors'), 'the young' (not 'the youngs') etc.
|| 20. Meals We do not normally use an article with the names of meals.
What time do you usually havebreakfast?
When would you like to havedinner?
But we use the when we specify
I enjoyedthe dinner we had last night.
We can also say a/the meal
We hada meal on the plane.
We also use a/an when there is an adjective before Breakfast/lunch/dinner/ etc. They hada large breakfast.
|| 21. Nounsdenoting parts of the day and names of seasons
In spring, in autumn, in winter…In the afternoon, in the evening, in the morning….
Early morning, early evening, early spring, early autumn….
Late summer, late autumn, late evening….
At down, at night, at daybreak ….
A warm summer evening, a cool night.
|| The following use the
|| No definite article
|| The Antarctic, the Arctic, the North / South Pole
|| Asia, Europe, Africa, South America
| Oceans, seas, rivers, canals, lakes
|| the Mediterranean,
the Atlantic, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean,
the Suez Canal,
the Amazon, the Rhine,
the Thames, the Nile,
BUT the Baikal,
| Mountain ranges
|| the Rocky Mountains
|| Individual mountains:Mount Everest, Mount Etna, Mont Blanc,
| Groups of islands
|| the Canaries
the Canary Islands, the Bahamas,
the British Isles,
the West Indies
|| Individual islands: Corsica, Sicily, Crete, Long Island
| Countries, states, regions….
|| the United States of America (the USA) the United Kingdom (the UK)
the Dominican Republic,
the Federal Republic of Germany
|| England, Spain, Brazil, Japan,
| Other place-names
|| the Middle East,
the Far East
the Costa Brava,
the Ruhr, the Vatican
the Northern coast of France
|| West Africa
South - Eastern Spain
| Cities, towns and villages
|| the Hague
|| Sydney, Tokyo, Bilbao, Moscow
|| The High St,
|| Oxford Street,
|| the Sahara, the Kalahari
| Hotels, cinemas
|| the Plaza Hotel,
the Hilton Hotel
the Cannon Cinema
|| Macy's Hotel , Brown's, Woolworths,
Jack's Guest House,
| Museums, clubs
|| the Prado Museum,
the Black Cat Club,
the British Museum,
the Tate Gallery,
| Restaurants, pubs
|| the Hard Rock Cafe,
the Swan (pub),
the Bombay Restaurant
|| Brown's Restaurant
| Churches named after saints + the possessive 's
|| StPeter's Church,
St John's Church,
St Paul's Cathedral.
|| || Hyde Park
| Unique organizations and buildings
|| The (House of) Commons, the White House,
the Royal Palace,
the Empire State Building,
the Festival Hall,
the Eiffel Tower
|| the National theatre,
The before names with of
|| the Statue of Liberty,
the Bank of Scotland,
the Tower of London,
the University of London
the University of Leeds
|| Lloyds Bank,
| Names without ‘the’
|| Kennedy Airport, Waterloo Bridge, Fifth Avenue, Piccadilly Circus, Times Square, Victoria Station, London Zoo, Westminster Abbey
|| the Washington Post,
the Financial Times
| Names of companies, airlines etc.
|| Sony, Kodak, British Airways, IBM.
Study the important vocabulary:
Equipment - what you hold in your hand: golf - club, squash/tennis/badminton - racket, darts - dart, archery - bow, cricket/table tennis/baseball - bat, hockey - stick, snooker/pool/billiards - cue, canoeing - paddle, rowing - oar, fishing - rod/line
Sports: discus, javelin, high jump, long jump, pole vault, sprint,long-distance running, marathon, jogging, hand – gliding, windsurfing, bowls, darts, riding, snooker, pool, billiards, motor – racing, swimming.
Verbs: to win, to loose by three goals/points, to brake the record, to hold the record for, to be defeated, to score goals/points, to take up, to be interested in sports, to take an active part in, to watch sports on television, to make fun of stay-at-home sports, to enable to enjoy all kinds of sport events, to try to keep fit, to give up.
People who do particular sports:
-er can be used for many sports: footballer, swimmer, windsurfer, high-jumper, cricketer, golfer, etc
Player is often necessary: tennis - player, snooker - player, darts – player, football-player, cricket - player