ТОП 10:

Распределите фразы логической связи по темам


To my mind;


To sum up;



on the other hand;

What is more;

all things considered;


For example/instance;

such as;



in addition to;


for this reason;

to begin with;


in the first place;

one point in favour of /against is

a further advantage of

in spite of;


at the same time;


in particular;



in conclusion;

I personally believe;


as far as I am concerned;

it seems to me that;

as a result

To introduce points To add more points To make contrasting points To express personal opinion To introduce examples To conclude


Давайте поработаем с сочинением на заданную тему.

Выполните два задания:

1) Заполните пропуски соответствующими словами:
• such as • In addition • Another negative effect
• To begin with • On the one hand • As a result
• On the other hand • All things considered • Finally

Can you imagine life without computers? Whether in the office, school or at home, computers have become an indispensable part of our everyday existence. Yet, have the changes they brought about really been for the better?

1) .........................................., the benefits of computers cannot be denied.
2) .........................................., they save valuable time and space. Time-consuming tasks,
3) ....................................... checking bank accounts, can now be done in a matter of minutes and large amounts of information are economically stored on tiny disks.
4) ........................................, with immediate access to the Internet, they allow us to explore the world from the comfort of our homes.
5) ........................................, we can keep up-to-date with global and current issues.
6) ......................................., computers provide entertainment, for instance in the form of amusing games.
7) .............................................., there are also disadvantages with the computer age. Computer technology may progress rapidly, but machines still make mistakes. It is not uncommon for computers to suddenly crash, deleting whole files of essential information.
8) .......................................... of computers is that people easily become dependent on them. How often do we see youngsters spending all their free time in front of the computer, isolating themselves from other people their age?
9) .........................................., it seems to me that computers are admirable tools that improve the quality of life, but only when used sensibly. No matter how advanced a machine is, it can never replace a human being.

2) Ответьте на вопросы:
1 What are the topic sentences in the main body paragraphs? Underline them and suggest other appropriate ones.
2 What are the supporting sentences?
3 What technique is used to start/end the essay?

Ключи к заданию на предыдущей странице

1) 1 To begin with; 2 On the one hand; 3 such as; 4 in addition; 5 As a result; 6 Finally; 7 On the other hand; 8 Another negative effect; 9 All things considered.

Ответы на вопросы к тексту

1 What are the topic sentences in the main body paragraphs? Underline them and suggest other appropriate ones.
To begin with, the benefits of computers cannot be denied. Firstly, no one can deny that computers are useful. On the other hand, there are also disadvantages with the computer age. However, computers also have a number of disadvantages.

2 What are the supporting sentences?
The remaining sentences are both paragraphs.

3 What technique is used to start/end the essay?
start – a rhetorical question
end – state a personal opinion



Перед вами высказывание на тему: Is it better to get education abroad?

1. Вставьте слова-связки

Moreover In addition On the other hand As a result

Also All in all But However


Nowadays, with better co-operation, and relation with foreign countries, some students choose to study at a foreign university rather than a local, one.________________, there are drawbacks to studying in another country.
A reason why people want to study in another country is that they have the opportunity of learning the language of that country.___________, you learn to be more independent because you do not have your family nearby to rely on.__________________, you have the chance to get to know people from a different country and, apart from making new friendships and contacts, you become familiar with another culture and way of life. This helps to broaden the mind.
_________________, studying abroad can be very expensive and your family may have to give up things like holidays to be able to afford to send you to another country.______________, you may get homesick and unhappy there because you are far away from your family. ____________ you might mix only with other students from your own country and so, will not experience a different style of living.
________________, whether you would enjoy studying abroad depends on what kind of person you are and how much you can afford. If you have strong family ties, then it might be better to study in your own country. ___________ if you are the type who mixes well with people from different cultures, then it could be a challenging experience.
2. Найдите в сочинении аргументы «за» и «против»


Tasktakenfrom Successful Writing –Upper Intermediate, Virginia Evans, Express Publishing

Put these jumbled sentences in the correct order. Then write them out in two separate paragraphs, one including all the advantages, the other all the disadvantages. Finally, write a suitable beginning and ending for this topic.

Package holidays: Good or Bad?


A However, there are disadvantages to going on a package holiday.

В То start with, package holidays are cheaper than travelling on your own, as the price includes the air fare and hotel accommodation.

С Another negative aspect is that as you have paid for your accom­modation in advance, you often feel obliged to stay in that place rather than move around and explore.

D Furthermore, the brochures from which most people select a package holiday usually give you a good idea of what the resort offers, therefore reducing the chances of disappointment.

E Package holidays have several advantages.

F In the first place, as package holidays are less expensive, the hotel is unlikely to be top-class.

G Last but not least, when visiting a new place it is often much easier to have all the details arranged in advance as it can be rather con­fusing to plan everything by yourself.

H Also package holiday destinations are usually popular tourist resorts, thus there is little opportunity to experience the true culture of the country you are visiting

Key: 1E,2B,3D,4G,5A,6F,7H,8C

Письменное высказывание с элементами рассуждения

Рассмотрим второй тип письменного задания — письменное высказывание с элементами рассуждения, в котором следует также об­ратить внимание не только на содержание и организацию текста, но и на его языковое оформление.

Сочинения рассуждения могут быть двух типов.

Первый тип представляет собой сочинение, где во введении должен быть представлен какой-либо тезис, а в основной части разворачивают­ся аргументы «за» и «против» него.

Plan 1

Paragraph 1. Introduction (Introducing the topic).

Paragraph 2. Arguments «for».

Paragraph 3. Arguments «against».

Paragraph 4. Conclusion.

Второй тип несколько отличается от первого тем, что в его основной части противопоставляются разные мнения по поводу одной и той же проблемы, обозначенной в вводной части. Это наглядно представлено в плане такого сочинения:

Plan 2

Paragraph 1. Introduction (State the problem).

Paragraph 2. Express your opinion and give reasons for it.

Paragraph 3. Give other people's arguments and explain why they are wrong.

Paragraph 4. Conclusion.

Вы должны раскрыть все пункты содержания, упомянутые в плане, не превышая лимит слов и времени; продемонстрировать умение использовать письменную речь для решения коммуникативной задачи; дать четкие и весомые аргументы в пользу своего мнения.

Письменные высказывания с элементами рассуждения имеют чет­кую структуру текста, а именно:

1. Вступление (формулировка темы, основной идеи; выдвижение общего тезиса).

2. Основная часть (раскрытие темы; развертывание тезиса: аргу­менты «за» и «против»/ высказывание чужого и своего мнения).

3. Заключение (общие выводы).

Организация текста письменного высказывания с элементами рас­суждения также предполагает правильное деление на абзацы, логич­ность изложения, использование средств логической связи, в том числе связующих слов. Написав текст, проверьте языковое оформление пись­ма: правильное употребление лексико-грамматических средств, соблю­дение правил орфографии, и пунктуации, поскольку все это будет оце­ниваться.

Ваше сочинение покажется скучным и примитивным, если будет со­стоять только из простых предложений (подлежащее + сказуемое + до­полнение). Старайтесь использовать сложные распространенные пред­ложения, чтобы ваш стиль в полной мере соответствовал принятому стилю сочинения с элементами рассуждения.

Упомянутые выше особенности структуры сочинения-рассуждения требуют определенных слов и выражений, например: firstly, secondly, on the one hand, on the other hand, in summary, etc. Помните, что сочи­нение пишется обычно в полуофициальном стиле. В нем необходимо четко изложить свои суждения и выразить свое мнение, подкрепляя их вескими аргументами. Обратите внимание на употребление оценочной лексики. Не забудьте проверить то, что вы написали.

Задание для учащегося

С2. You have 40 minutes to do this task.

Comment on the following statement:

Many parents encourage their children to study well by giving extra pocket money for each good mark.

What can you say for and against this practice? Write 200—250 words.

Use the following plan:

1. Introduction (State the problem).

2. Arguments «for».

3. Arguments «against».

4. Conclusion.

Текст письменного высказывания с элементами рассуждения, вы­полненного экзаменуемым

Many parents encourage their children to study well by giving extra pocket money for each good mark. Is it correct to do so? There are different opinions on this problem. Let's discuss some of them.

Some people think that this is the only way to encourage their children because to study is boring and difficult. Children have different subjects at school. Some of them such as maths and chemistry are very difficult. Some of them like geography and biology are boring. Children work at school all the morning and when they come home they must prepare their homework. So they work almost all day. Perhaps, many parents think that if they are given money for their work, why not to give money to the children for their work? They think the money will make their children to study better because they would like to have money for sweets and different games. Otherwise the children save the money for games not eating breakfast at school.

Unfortunately, this is not true. Firstly, children get used to study only if they are given money. So, their marks become worse and worse if parents can't give them money every day. Secondly, if there are many children in the family, it's impossible to give them all money for every good mark when they start going to school. Thirdly, children must study well not for the sake of money but because it's interesting and because the good knowledge will help them to make a career and to find an interesting work they like.

As for me, I wouldn't give extra pocket money for each good mark to my children. My parents sometimes gave me money for good marks and it didn't make me work better. But, I think, it's right to give children extra pocket money on holidays or when they ask for it. Otherwise they will find different ways to find the money they need themselves.

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