Noriko said that she had really learned a lot there 

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Noriko said that she had really learned a lot there



1. What has been the best part of your stay in California?

a. "I have met a lot of interesting people here."—Alfonso, male,


b. "I've made wonderful new friends during my stay here."

—Masahiko, male, Japan

c. "I learned how to surf."—Veronica, female, Brazil

d. "I got married."—Sulaiman, male, Saudi Arabia

2. What do you like best about Boston?

a. "I really enjoy the incredible variety of people here."

—Odelmo, male, Venezuela

b. "I'm leaning more every day! This city has a lot to offer."

—Soheila, female, Iran

c. "I can do almost anything here. This afternoon I may see a

movie—there are at least ten good ones to pick from. Or, I

may go to a museum—there are several excellent ones. If

I want to see sports, there's always something going on."

—Frank, male, Switzerland

3. How did you like the experience of spending a winter in


a. "We were extremely cold at first! We weren't used to cold

weather at all. Now, my family is learning to adapt to

it."—Lijia, female, Nicaragua

b. "I love winter, so it hasn't bothered me."—Patricia, female,


c. "It was difficult at the beginning. Some days, I almost froze

while I was walking home. I'm finally getting used to it."

—Bedi, male, Mauritania


Exercise 62:

Change the following quotes to reported speech.

Make any necessary changes. If you feel that these statements can

be true at any time, include both present and past forms.

Example:Ralph Waldo Emerson said, "The only way to have a

friend is to be one."

Ralph Waldo Emerson said that the only way to have

A friend was (is) to be one.


1. Wilson Mizner remarked, "The best way to keep your friends

is not to give them away."

2. Charles Colton wrote, "True friendship is like sound health; the

value of it is seldom known until it is lost."

3. Elbert Hubbard said, "Your friend is the person who knows all

about you, and still likes you."

4. Ned Rorem remarked, "Sooner or later you've heard all your

best friends have to say. Then comes the tolerance of real love."

5. Kurt Vonnegut wrote, "Love is where you find it... it's foolish to

go looking for it."


Exercise 63:

Change the following quotes to reported speech.

Be sure to change modals, verbs, or pronouns when necessary.

If you feel that these statements can be true at any time, include both

past and present forms.

Example:In her book Emma, Jane Austen wrote, "Business may

bring money, but friendship hardly ever does."

In her book Emma, Jane Austen wrote that business

Might (may) bring money, but that friendship hardly

Ever did (does).


1. In his journals, Emerson remarked, "It is one of the blessings

of old friends that you can afford to be stupid with them."

2. Shakespeare said, "A friend should bear his friend's infirmities."

3. In Thus Spake Zarathustra, Nietzsche wrote, "A friend should

be a master at guessing and keeping still."

4. La Rochefoucauld wrote in his Maxims, "However rare true love

may be, it is less rare than true friendship."

5. In the first century, a Roman author wrote, "The friendship that

can come to an end never really began."

On Your Own Share your own thoughts with your classmates.

Do you agree with the statements from Exercises C and D? Can

you think of other sayings about love or friendship from your



Exercise 64:

Answer the following questions in your own words,

using reported speech where appropriate.


1. When did you last talk to your best friend or another friend

who you hadn't seen for a while? What did you talk about? What

news did your friend tell you? What did you say about that?

What news did you tell your friend?

2. Have you made a promise lately? To whom did you make the

promise? What did you promise?

3. Have you had an argument lately? What was it about? Whom

did you argue with? What did you say to each other? How did

you settle the argument?

4. Have you had to make a decision or solve a problem lately?

What was the situation? Did you discuss it with anyone? What

did you talk about? What advice did the person give you?


Exercise 65:

Do you have a final assignment or test in the next

few days? Take this opportunity to ask your teacher for more

information about the final days of this session. Change the

following direct questions to noun clauses. Be sure to use correct

word order. Begin your questions with the following: Would (could,

Can, will) you tell me . . . ? I would like to know. . . .

Example:Will there be any more homework this quarter (semester)?

I would like to know whether (if) there will be any

More homework this quarter.


1. Will there be a final test in this class?

2. Do I have to take a proficiency exam?

3. Is it necessary to study for the proficiency test?

4. Have I completed all of the assignments for this class?

5. Am I going to pass this course?

6. Could I talk to you about my progress?

7. Will we have a class party?

8. Does anyone want to plan one?


Exercise 66:

Imagine that you have to write a term paper for a class.

Change the following questions about the assignment to noun clauses.

Be sure to use correct word order. Begin your new sentences with the following:

• Could (would, can) you tell me . . . ?

• I would like to know....

• I wonder....

• I don't know (understand)....

Example: When is the paper due?

Could you tell me when the paper is due?


1. How long should the paper be?

2. How many sources should I use?

3. Where can I get information on the topic?

4. Which section of the library should I check?

5. When could I discuss this with you?

6. Where can I find someone to type it?


Exercise 67:

Change the following direct questions to noun clauses.

Be sure to use correct word order.

Begin your questions with the following:

• I wonder....

• I would like to know. .. .

• Could anyone tell me... ?

• Could anyone explain... ?

Example:Why is it sometimes difficult for people to understand

each other?

I wonder why it is sometimes difficult for people to

Understand each other.


1. Is the problem the lack of a common language?

2. Can a universal language solve our problems?

3. Do experiences with other cultures help us communicate better?

4. How can we learn to understand each other?

5. When will there be world peace?


As a class, pose the questions and discuss your opinions on them.

On Your Own On a piece of paper, write a general question that

you would like to ask your class. Be sure to sign your name. Then

ask someone to collect all the papers and mix them. Take turns

selecting a paper and reporting the question to the class. Everyone

should try to help answer the question.


Exercise 68:

First change each quotation to reported speech.

Then reduce the noun clauses to infinitive phrases.

Examples:Our teacher warned us, "Do all the homework."

Our teacher warned us that we should do all the


Our teacher warned us to do all the homework.


1. Our teacher reminded us, "Study for the test!"

2. He told us, "Review the entire chapter."

3. He said, "Go over the information several times."

4. John asked the teacher, "Would you repeat the assignment,


5. Mary asked the teacher, "Could you explain noun clauses


6. Nancy asked the teacher, "How much time should I spend


7. The teacher said, "Don't spend more than two hours."

8. Harry asked, "When should I come for the test?"

9. Susan asked, "What should I bring?"

10. She asked, "May I use a dictionary?"

11. The teacher told her, "Don't bring a dictionary."

12. The teacher added, "Don't worry too much!"

On Your Own Much of the education process involves giving

commands and asking and answering questions. What are some

other typical classroom commands, questions, and answers? Write

at least five. After your teacher has checked your paper, exchange

it with another classmate. Change your classmate's sentences,

first to reported speech and then to infinitive phrases.


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