Part of creativity is an awareness of our surroundings,



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Part of creativity is an awareness of our surroundings,



Kit 3

 

topic pages exercises
Simple sentence structure 1-3, 4 1-4, 8
Composite sentence 3-5, 7-8, 22 5-7, 9-10, 14-16, 42
- clauses 5, 16-31 10, 31-60
Mood 6, 9-16 11, 17-30
Reported speech 31-35 61-68

Exercise 1 : Review of Subjects, Verbs, Objects

Find the subjects, verbs, objects in the following sentences.

Underline each subject once and each verb twice and label both. Circle the objects.

 

1. Most of these students have studied some English before coming

to an English-speaking country.

2. Many already read and write English fairly well.

3. A major difficulty for all new students, however, is to understand

and speak English.

4. Making phone calls or understanding directions can be difficult.

5. Many Americans speak quite fast or use a lot of slang.

6. Each part of the country has variations in vocabulary and

pronunciation.

7. Nevertheless, after the first few weeks, most new students will

notice tremendous improvement.

8. All of a sudden, English becomes a lot clearer and easier!

On Your Own Write six original sentences about your own experiences

during the first few days here. After your teacher has

checked your sentences, exchange your paper with a classmate.

Find the subject(s), verb(s), object(s) in the sentences your classmate has written.

 

Exercise 2:

Indicate whether the following are complete or incomplete

sentences. If the sentence is incomplete, add words to correct it.

Example: Learning a new language.

Incomplete: She is learning a new language. Or:

Learning a new language is challenging.

1. Is difficult.

2. It can be frustrating.

3. The experience may be rewarding.

4. Another language will open doors for you.

5. To experience a world of new people, places, and ideas.

6. Cultures from every part of the earth.

7. Think about the similarities and differences.

8. The experience can show you a great deal.

9. You will learn a lot.

10. You will meet.

 

Exercise 3: Review of Sentence Types

Label the subject(s), verb(s), objects (o) in each of the following sentences.

Tell whether the sentences are simple, compound, or

complex. If the sentence is compound or complex, circle the connectine word.

1. My friend Kunio is from Tokyo, Japan.

2. He has studied English in the United States for a year, and now

he is hoping to study at an Australian university.

3. Because Kunio wants to study both English and veterinary

science, he has applied to schools in the United States and

Australia.

4. Is he working on an undergraduate or a graduate degree?

5. Kunio already has his bachelor's degree.

6. He will get his master's degree and then will begin a doctoral

program.

7. What did he study as an undergraduate?

8. I'm not really sure.

9. Why don't you ask him when you next see him?

10. He's so busy enjoying American life that I never see him!

On Your Own Write at least six original sentences about a friend

of yours. Include at least three sentences that use connecting

words. After your teacher has checked your sentences, exchange

your paper with a classmate. Analyze your classmate's sentences

as you did before.

Exercise 4:

Separate into small groups and read the following passage together.

Take ten minutes to discuss the ideas in the passage

and your opinions about them. Then analyze the passage. Find the

subject(s) and verb(s) in each sentence. Note whether the sentences

are simple, compound, or complex.

 

Thoughts on Creativity

According to the dictionary definition of create, ordinary people

are creative every day. To create means "to bring into being, to cause

to exist"—something each one of us does daily.

We are creative whenever we look at or think about something in

a new way. First, this involves an awareness of our surroundings.

It means using all of our senses to become aware of our world. This

may be as simple as being aware of color and texture, as well as

taste, when we plan a meal. Above all, it is the ability to notice things

that others might miss.

A second part of creativity is an ability to see relationships among

things. If we believe the expression, "There is nothing new under

the sun," then creativity is remaking or recombining the old in new

ways. For example, we might do this by finding a more efficient way

to study or a better way to arrange our furniture. Or, we might make

a new combination of camera lenses and filters to create an unusual

photograph.

A third part of creativity is the courage and drive to make use of

our new ideas, to apply them to achieve some new result. To think

up a new concept is one thing; to put the idea to work is another.

These three aspects of creativity are involved in all the great works

of genius, but they are also involved in many of our day-to-day

activities.

Looking at Structures

1. Find the subject(s) and verb(s) of the first sentence. Is this

sentence simple, compound, or complex?

2. Find the subject(s) and verb(s) of the first sentence of the second

paragraph. Is this sentence simple, compound, or complex?

What word is used to join the two clauses in the sentence? Can

each part of the sentence stand alone?

3. Find the subject(s) and verb(s) of the second sentence of the

fourth paragraph. Is this sentence simple, compound, or

complex? It is made up of two sentences joined by a semicolon.

The same sentence can be written with but, or it can be written

as two sentences. Is there any difference in meaning or in

emphasis? Why do you think the author chose to use a

semicolon?

4. Find the subject(s) and verb(s) of the last sentence. Is this

sentence simple, compound, or complex?

 

Exercise 5: Review of Compound Sentences

Combine the following sentences by using commas and and, but, or, for, so, yet,

or nor. In some sentences, more than one conjunction may be

appropriate. Change nouns to pronouns and add punctuation where necessary.

Creativity and the Senses

Examples: Part of creativity is an awareness of our surroundings.

This awareness involves using all of our senses.

Part of creativity is an awareness of our surroundings,

And this involves using all of our senses.

 

1. Some people use all of their senses often. Most of us rely on

our sight much of the time.

2. Many people don't pay attention to sounds. Many people don't

take time to listen.

3. A musician pays attention to sounds. A musician wants to find

interesting new combinations.

4. A musician can find music in exotic sounds. A musician can

hear music in ordinary noises.

5. A car horn may produce a new rhythm. A bird may sing a new

sequence of notes.

6. Another person may not hear these combinations. A music lover

will find these combinations.

Exercise 6:

Label subject(s) and verb(s) in the following

quotations. Then indicate what type of sentence each is (simple,

compound, or complex). If the sentence is compound or complex,

circle the connecting word. Underline the dependent clauses in

the complex sentences.

Examples:In order to create, there must be a dynamic force.

(simple sentence)

What force is more potent —Igor Stravinsky

(complex sentence)

 

1. The creative person is both more primitive and more cultivated,

more destructive, a lot madder, and a lot saner than the average

person is.—Frank Barron

2. Creative minds always have been known to survive any kind

of bad training.—Anna Freud

3. All men are creative, but few are artists.—Paul Goodman

4. Human salvation lies in the hands of the creatively maladjusted.

—Martin Luther King, Jr.

5. In creating, the only hard thing's to begin;

A grass blade's no easier to make than an oak.

—James Russell Lowell

6. One must still have chaos in oneself to be able to give birth

to a dancing star.—Friedrich Nietzsche

7. He who does not know how to create should not know.

—Antonio Porchia

8. A creative artist works on his next composition because he was

not satisfied with his previous one.—Dmitri Shostakovich

 

Exercise 7:

Combine the following sentences, using for example,

in addition, on the other hand, however, therefore, orin fact. Add

appropriate punctuation and make other necessary changes.

Example: Being creative involves making the best use of your

senses. Being creative means looking at the same object

from many different perspectives.

Being creative involves making the best use of your

Senses; for example, it means looking at the same

A scientist may make an outstanding discovery. Or: If a scientist

Genius.

 

1. When an artist produces a masterpiece.

2. People are creative not only in art or science, they

are also creative in their daily lives.

3. Ordinary people are creative every day.

4. Creativity involves awareness, it means noticing the

world around us.

5. To think up a new concept.

6. It is the courage and drive to make use of new ideas.

 

Exercise 9: Sentence Problems

The following passage contains errors: fragments, run-on sentences, and comma splices.

First, read the passage once to understand the ideas. Then, correct the

passage by adding or omitting punctuation.

Creativity

One form of creativity is the sudden flash of insight. When an

idea pops into your head. This is what Arthur Koestler called the

Eureka process. Eureka comes from the story of the ancient

Greek scientist Archimedes. Archimedes supposedly leapt naked

from his tub. Shouting "Eureka!" Eureka means "I have found

it," he had suddenly figured out why some things float.

Not all creative discoveries come like a flash of light, though.

In fact, Thomas Edison, the inventor of the light bulb, tried

hundreds of metal combinations in his laboratory. Before he

found the right one to conduct electricity. Edison was able to

create something new and valuable because of his energy and

tenacity. He gave his own definition of genius, it is 1 percent

inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.

Despite their differences, Edison and Archimedes had much in

common, they followed the same process. First, both recognized

a problem. And were aware of previous steps to solve it. Both

consciously or unconsciously worked toward a solution. Finally,

both arrived at a solution, this was the creative idea.

Activity "Poetic license" is the poet's "permit" to break any rule

of grammar or punctuation in order to be creative. In small groups,

read the following poem and try to find any instances where rules

are broken. As you read, consider why the poet wrote in this

manner. Would the piece still be poetry if it followed all the rules?

 

Exercise 10:

Describe the following processes by using statements and time clauses.

Explain:(a) what you should do before you begin . . . , (b) what

you should do while you are . . . , and (c) what you

should do after you have finished.

Piece of watercolor paper.

 

1. Painting a watercolor

• Choose a good piece of watercolor paper.

• Sketch your drawing lightly.

• Wet the paper with water.

• Use watery paint for large areas.

• Catch any drips.

• Use a drier brush for details.

• Let your painting dry completely.

• Mount your picture.

2. Sculpting clay

• Put a mat down to protect the table.

• Work the clay with your hands.

• Add water to soften the clay.

• Shape individual parts of the sculpture.

• Attach each part by pinching it on.

• Smooth the sculpture with water.

• Use tools to draw any details.

• Carefully put the sculpture on a piece of paper.

• Let the scuplture dry at least twenty-four hours.

On Your Own Give a brief but detailed description of another

process that you are familiar with. It may be a hobby or craft,

or it may be some other process.

 

Exercise 11:

According to Paul Heist in The Creative College

Student, the following are some of the chief characteristics of

creative students and of creative people in general. Creative people

are: independent, innovative, spontaneous, flexible, rebels,

complex in their outlook, open to a wide range of experience.

Creative people: play with ideas and concepts, develop their own

sense of beauty, have different styles of performing.

 

Use this information to form at least eight sentences with ifor unless. Add

your own opinions and ideas to each. You may want to combine your ideas into several short paragraphs.

 

Example: independent

Progress.

 

2. are close to the customer

They get their ideas from the people they serve; they listen

carefully to their customers.

3. encourage independence and ingenuity

They don't hold people back; they encourage people to be

creative and to take risks. They support experimentation.

4. work for productivity through people

They treat everyone in the company as an important source

of ideas; they never encourage a "we/they" management/

worker situation.

5. keep "quality" as the basic philosophy of the organization

Quality is the most important thing, not status, organization,

resources, or technology.

6. stick to their own business

They don't get involved in things that are outside of their

area of expertise; they don't acquire jobs or businesses they

don't know how to run.

7. keep their organization simple and their staff to a minimum

Their structures and systems are simple; they avoid having

too many managers.

8. are both centralized and decentralized

Control is loose because workers at all levels have authority

and responsibility; on the other hand, control is tight because

top management decides the basic direction of the company.

Activity Think about the various descriptions of creativity,

innovation, and excellence in this chapter. Try to put these ideas

to use as you consider the problems of teaching and learning a

language. Imagine that you and your classmates are educational

consultants. You have been asked to design a program for a private

language school.

Separate into small groups. Discuss your ideas on the best ways

to learn languages. Then, as a group, make a list of recommendations

for planning a language program. Be sure to consider

the following and to add any of your own ideas:

1. How many students should there be per class? How many

different teachers should students have?

2. How many hours a day should students have classes? When

should the classes be offered?

3. What kinds of classes should be offered?

4. Should there be a language lab? Should use of the lab be

optional or mandatory?

Remember that both money and time may be problems for the

students. Some may be working. Some may have families. Many

will not be able to afford expensive classes. How should you plan

if you want to offer economical and effective classes?

 

Exercise 18: Wish

Underline the verbs in the dependent clauses. Do

the verbs refer to the present, past, or future? Indicate the time

frame of each. Then, rephrase each sentence to show its meaning.

Examples:I wish I were going to go to Spam. (I m probably not

You.)

I wish that I had gone with you. (I didn't go with you. I

Regret that.)

 

1. I wish that I had saved more money.

2. I wish that I had enough money to go to Spain.

3. I wish that plane tickets were cheaper.

4. I wish that the airlines would lower the fares.

5. I wish that I were flying to Madrid.

6. I wish that I had studied Spanish.

7. I wish that I could study in Spain.

8. I wish that I knew how to speak Spanish.

 

Exercise 19: Wish

North Americans love to put bumper stickers on

their cars. One popular type of bumper sticker begins, "I'd rather

be . . . ," meaning "I wish I were . . ." It tells about our hobbies

and interests. Rephrase the following sentences to use wish.

Example:I'd rather be skiing.

I wish I were skiing.

 

1. I'd rather be sailing.

2. We'd rather be jogging.

3. I'd rather be in Paris.

4. I'd rather be windsurfing.

5. We'd rather be playing tennis.

6. I'd rather be in Rio.

On Your Own Right now you are studying English. As you are

reading this, what do you wish you were doing (or not doing)? Give

at least six sentences.

Example:I wish I were swimming. I wish I didn't have to do this

work. I wish I could go to the beach. . . .

 

Exercise 20: Wish

In pairs, take turns making statements and responses.

Use the example as a model. Change nouns to pronouns when

necessary.

Example:My cousin had the chance to study abroad.

Abroad, too?

Present or Unspecified Time

Imaginative conditional sentences express conditions that the

speaker or writer thinks of as unlikely, untrue, or contrary to fact.

They may be wishes and dreams, or they may express advice to others.

The following conditional sentences refer to the moment of

speaking or to habitual activities, depending on the context.

 

If I had more money, I might travel.

If I spentless money, I could savemore.

If I wererich, I wouldvisit every country.

If I were you, I wouldtry to save more money.

 

A modal auxiliary is used in

the main clause. The subjunctive

is used in the if clause.

In most cases, this form is

the same as the simple past

tense. For the verb be, however,

were is used for all persons

in formal English.

 

Answer the following questions in your own words.

1. Where would you be if you weren't here (in this class, city, etc.)?

What might you be doing?

2. If you had the chance to go anywhere you wanted, where might

you go? Where would you go if you could return to some place

for another visit?

3. If you could travel differently, how would you go?

4. If you were able to go back in time, which year or era would

you choose? Why would you choose that time?

5. If you had the opportunity to talk with a special person again,

who would it be? Why?

6. If you were able to do a part of your life over, what would you

do differently?

 

Exercise 23:

Add to the following statements by making a sentence with if.

Example:I wish I had more free time. If. . . .

Places to Live and to Visit

Example:I wish I had visited New York. Then, I could have seen

the Statue of Liberty.

Of Liberty.

 

1. I wish I had gone to San Francisco. Then, I could have ridden

the cable cars all the time.

2. I wish I had chosen to study in Hawaii. Then, I could have gone

swimming every day.

3. I wish I had studied Greek. Then, I could have gone to school

in Athens.

4. I wish I had applied to schools in Montreal. Then, I could have

studied both French and English.

5. I wish I had saved more money. Then, I could have made a

trip throughout North America.

6. I wish I had planned my studies differently. Then, I could have

visited more places.

 

Exercise 28:

Answer the following questions in your own words.

 

1. If you had had the choice, where would you have been born?

2. If you had had the choice, would you have grown up in a city

or in the country?

3. If you had chosen a different language to study, what would

it have been?

4. If you had chosen a different city to study in, where might you

have gone?

5. If you had been able to begin your studies at any time, when

would you have begun?

6. If you had chosen a different career, what might you have

studied?

Exercise 29:

Answer the following questions in your own words.

 

1. What would life be like today if someone hadn't invented the

automobile? The airplane? The telephone?

2. What might your life be like today if you had been born the

opposite sex? Sixty years ago? In a different climate or country?

3. What couldn't you do today if you hadn't enrolled in this school?

Learned English?

 

Exercise 30:

Boston is a very "livable" city. In recent years, it has

made major improvements. These have made the city even more

pleasant.

Change the following sentences to include ifclauses.

Change very to sowhen necessary. Use either simple or perfect

modals in the main clause.

Example:Boston valued its past; as a result, it restored many old

buildings.

Mountains and Weather

l their height, mountains are important

in the making of weather. When moisture-filled air

encounters mountains, it is forced upward.

2 the air cools at higher altitudes, water

vapor turns to rain or snow. By the time the air passes over

the mountaintops it has lost its moisture.

3 the air is much cooler and thinner

4 the dryness of then, it sinks. these

downward winds, Indians in the western United States call

them "snow eaters." They can evaporate snow at the rate of

two feet a day.

 

Exercise 32:

Complete the following passage by adding so thator in order to.

The Strange Weather of 1983

The years 1982-83 produced extremes of weather in

much of the world. Since then, meteorologists have been

watching many parts of the world 1

they can learn more about the causes of the unusual weather

Some scientists have studied volcanoes

2see their effect on temperature.

Others are researching "El Nino," a warm-water current

near the equator, 3 learn its role in

weather. In addition, meteorologists are studying air pollution

4 they can understand its effect on

weather, as well as its role in "acid rain." Most importantly,

scientists are collecting data worldwide

they can learn the interrelationships in global weather.

Exercise 33:

In the following sentences, change so that to in order to or in order to to so that.

Example:Meteorologists collect data in order to find patterns in

the weather.

In the weather.

 

1. Meteorologists study climates around the world in order to learn

about the interrelationships.

2. They measure wind speeds so that they can calculate the effects

on air pressure and circulation.

3. They watch high- and low-pressure areas in order to predict

changes in the weather.

4. They study mountainous regions in order to learn how mountains

affect weather.

5. Meteorologists take smog samples so that they can study the

effects of air pollution on weather.

6. Meteorologists work with oceanographers and geologists so that

they can understand the roles of oceans and land formations

in weather.

On Your Own Doctors take X-rays in order to look for broken

bones. A businesswoman learns accounting so that she can manage

her income. What do people in your career or hobby do? What

are they currently studying? Create at least five original sentences

using so that and in order to.

Exercise 34:

Combine the following sentences, using because or since.

Make any other changes and add punctuation when necessary.

Air Circulation Patterns

Example:The equator is closest to the sun. The atmosphere

around the equator absorbs the most solar energy.

North and south.

 

1. Outer space is frictionless. The earth's atmosphere moves at the

same speed as the earth.

2. The earth's circumference at the equator is almost 25,000 miles.

The air at the equator travels 25,000 miles each day.

3. There is little surface wind at the equator. The earth and the

air move at the same speed.

4. Away from the equator, the surface speed of the earth decreases.

The earth's circumference grows smaller toward the two poles.

5. Away from the equator, the air and the earth do not move at

the same speed. The midlatitude winds are born.

6. Wind patterns become extremely complicated. The earth's

surface affects wind patterns.

T. The oceans and mountains break wind patterns. High-altitude

winds going to the poles can lose their heat.

8. These high-altitude winds lose their heat. These high-altitude

winds sink and mix with the surface winds below.

On Your Own Summarize the information given in the preceding

exercise by answering these questions in your own words.

1. Why is there normally little wind at the equator?

2. Why do winds develop away from the equator?

3. What are three factors that affect wind patterns?

 

Exercise 36:

Each selection uses transitions of contrast. Rewrite

the sentences in bold type to include clauses with although, even

though, though, while, where, or whereas.

 

1. Fog

The earth cools at night, and water vapor condenses in

damp areas, such as river valleys, producing fog. We call it

by a different name; nevertheless, fog is simply a cloud that

Cirrus Clouds

Because high-altitude winds pull cirrus clouds apart, these

wispy clouds often look like spider webs. Cirrus clouds

often mean warm weather; however, they are the coldest

clouds.Because they often rise to heights of 40,000 feet, the

moisture contained in cirrus clouds is frozen into ice

crystals.

Clouds and Oceans

Because the land and the sea affect clouds differently,

sailors often use clouds to help navigate. Clouds will often

form over land; the skies out at sea, on the contrary, will

Ice.

 

1. Almost three-quarters of the earth's surface is water. We cannot

easily use most of this water.

2. Seventy-one percent of the earth's surface is covered by

saltwater ocean. Seventy-five percent of all the world's fresh

water is in glacial ice.

3. Water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit (O degrees Celsius). Snow

and ice depend on other factors that influence temperature,

such as altitude.

4. Land masses in the Northern Hemisphere are large enough to

influence and even create climates. Land masses in the Southern

Hemisphere are too small and too far from the South Pole

to create cold climates.

5. The Arctic is a frozen ocean, covered by sea ice and surrounded

by land. The Antarctic is a frozen continent, covered by glacier

ice and completely surrounded by sea.

6. Snow and ice cover the peaks of many mountains. The regional

"snow line" varies greatly according to latitude.

7. Near the poles, the snow line is at sea level. In the tropics, the

snow line is above 20,000 feet (6,000 meters).

8. Glaciers can exist on moderately high mountains in the middle

latitudes. Near the equator, glaciers exist on only the highest

peaks, such as Chimborazo, Kilimanjaro, and Mount Kenya.

On Your Own After you have finished combining these

sentences, use them to write a paragraph on snow and ice. You

may want to rewrite, add, or omit portions in order to vary your

sentences.

Activity In pairs or in small groups, use the following to learn

how to read a weather map. Check the weather map in your local

newspaper and prepare a short forecast of upcoming weather. Tell

what you are basing your predictions on, using as many connectors

of cause, purpose, or contrast as you can.

 

Exercise 40:

Rephrase the following sentences, changing clauses

of opposition to clauses of comparison. Give at least two new

versions for each.

Example:Mt. Waialeale, Hawaii, gets 460 inches of rain annually,

while the Atacama Desert in Chile gets almost no rain.

Desert in Chile does.

Waialeale does.

Is.

Desert is.

1. Portland, Oregon, is almost always cloudy, while Los Angeles,

California, is almost always sunny.

2. Parts of upstate New York received fifteen feet of snow in 1978,

while almost no snow fell in Wisconsin that winter.

3. Parts of Libya can reach 130 degrees Fahrenheit, while parts

of the polar areas never get above O degrees.

4. Mount Washington in New Hampshire has winds of over one

hundred miles per hour, while areas around the equator almost

never have winds.

ActivityGive a brief description of the climate in your home

town, including information about temperature, wind, rain, snow,

clouds, and pollution. Then compare it to the city where you are

living now or to another city or area that you particularly like.

 

Exercise 41:

Combine the following sentences with so that.

Change or omit words when necessary.

Example:In parts of the world, rainfall is sparse. People in those

areas constantly conserve water.

Constantly conserve water.

 

1. In other parts of the world, rainfall is plentiful. Little effort is

made to conserve water.

2. People in these countries practice little water conservation. A

drought can have disastrous consequences.

3. For example, from May 1975 to August 1976, European rainfall

was far below normal. Reservoirs dried up, crops failed, and

water had to be rationed.

4. In other parts of the world, droughts are common. They are

a daily "fact of life."

5. Some droughts, such as in recent years in north-central Africa,

are long and severe. They can devastate entire populations.

 

Exercise 42: Review of Compound and Complex Sentences

Combine the following sentences, using a variety of connecting

words and phrases. Change or omit words and add punctuation

when necessary.

Tsunami

Tsunami is a Japanese word that means "large waves in harbors."

It is appropriate because only a major disturbance can produce

large waves in sheltered bays.

1. In the United States, tsunami are often called "tidal waves."

The name "tidal wave" is incorrect.

2. Tsunami have nothing to do with the tides. The approach of

tsunami on an open coast may look like a rapid rise of the

tide.

3. Almost all tsunami have followed tremendous earthquakes.

Some scientists believe a sudden lift or drop in the ocean floor

produces these giant waves.

4. An alternative explanation is that huge submarine landslides

produce them. There is no good proof of the idea of submarine

landslides.

5. Tsunami move at enormous speeds in the open ocean. Tsunami

can average 450 miles per hour.

6. Their height in the open ocean is small. They may have no

effect on the deep-sea floor. Along a coast, they become very

destructive.

7. A major earthquake shook Alaska in 1946. A tremendous

tsunami hit Hawaii several hours later.

8. The waves took only four hours to reach Hawaiian shores after

the earthquake. Then, the shallow waters off Hawaii slowed

them down.

9. The waves slowed very much. The waves moved at a rate of

only about fifteen miles per hour near the coast.

10. Their depth was limited in the shallow water. They grew in

height to the size of a three-story wall.

On Your Own Individually or in pairs, use your new sentences

to write a paragraph on tsunami.

Activity Think about yourself and your reactions to a disaster

situation. You may have experienced a flood, an earthquake, a

typhoon, a blizzard. In small groups, describe the disaster and talk

about how you felt and what you did.

Example:When the earthquake hit Caracas, the buildings shook

so much that I thought everything would fall. I was so

frightened that I could hardly breathe....

 

Exercise 43:Recognition of Adjective Clauses

Underline the dependent clauses in each of the following sentences and circle the

word(s) they modify.

1. It is a river whose water is sacred to Hindus.

2. Hindus from all over the world travel to the Ganges, which is

the symbol of life without end.

3. Every day, the Ganges is filled with hundreds of thousands of

people who come to drink or bathe in the sacred water.

4. Millions of people come for the great Kumbh Mela Festival,

which is held once every twelve years.

5. This festival takes place at Allahabad, where the Ganges and the

Jumna rivers join.

6. Varanasi, which is another city on the Ganges, is the most

sacred for Hindus.

7. All Hindus hope to die at Varanasi, where the sacred water gives

eternal life.

8. The sacred ashes of those who have died at Varanasi are thrown

on the river, and their lives will continue forever.

 

Exercise 44:

Combine the following sentences to form adjective clauses with that.

Make any necessary changes in the sentences.

Buddhism

Example:Buddhism is a way of life. This way of life combines an

ethical philosophy and a religion.

Philosophy and a religion.

 

1. Buddha is a word from Sanskrit. This word from Sanskrit means

"the enlightened one."

2. Buddha was a Hindu. This Hindu sought to relieve suffering.

3. Buddha taught a way of life. This way of life avoids extremes.

4. Through meditation, Buddha learned laws of life. Laws of life

include the "Four Noble Truths" of Buddhism.

5. The first law is about suffering. The suffering comes from our

past actions or "karma."

6. The second law talks about desires. The desires are for the

wrong things.

7. The third law says changing our lives will solve the problems.

The problems come from desires.

8. The fourth law describes a way of living. The way of living is

Buddha's path to inner peace.

 

Exercise 45:

Combine the following sentences by using that, when,

or where. Eliminate words whenever necessary.

Nirvana

Example: Nirvana is a state of being. A person can reach nirvana

through learning.

Through learning.

 

1. The word is nirvana. Buddhists use this word to describe inner

peace.

2. Nirvana is the goal. Every Buddhist hopes to achieve this goal.

3. It is a feeling. People describe the feeling as inner peace.

4. According to an early Buddhist scripture, nirvana is an area.

There is no earth, water, fire, or air there.

5. It is a transformation. An individual achieves the end of suffering

then.

6. The way is through meditation. People can reach nirvana this

way.

 

Exercise 46:

As your teacher reads the following sentences aloud,

underline the adjective clause in each. Then, decide whether the

information is essential or extra. Add commas if the information

is extra.

Example:People who believe in Judaism are called Jews.

Jewish Holidays

Example:Passover celebrates the liberation of the Hebrews from

slavery in Egypt.

Passover is in the spring.

Judaism and Learning

Example:The Jewish tradition of learning comes from the Bible,

whose chapters stress the importance of education.

Food and Jewish Tradition

Example:The Talmud gives detailed rules for daily life. The

Talmud is the foundation for Jewish customs and traditions.

Holidays and Calendars

Example:The word holiday actually came from the words holy

(religious) and day. We use the word holiday to mean a

vacation day.

The Bible

Example: The Greek word biblia simply means "the books." The

word Bible is derived from biblia.

Christianity

1. The name Christianity was not used during the lifetime of Jesus.

The name Christianity includes all Christian sects.

2. Jesus is the Greek name for Joshua. Joshua means "Jehovah is

salvation" in Hebrew.

3. Christ comes from a Greek word. The Greek word means "messiah"

or "anointed one."

4. Christ was a name. The people of Antioch, Syria, gave the name

to Jesus.

5. The ending -ian was added to Christ. Ian comes from Latin.

6. The name Christian appeared in later portions of the New

Testament. Christian was soon adopted by the followers of

Jesus.

7. Many words in Christianity come from Greek. The Romans used

Greek as the common language of their empire.

8. The great missionary St. Paul wrote in Greek. Saint Paul's thirteen

letters are an important part of the New Testament.

 

Exercise 55: Review of Adjective Clauses

Combine the following sentences by using who, which, whose, that,orwhen.

Form adjective clauses from the second sentence in each pair.

Omit or change words when necessary and pay close attention to punctuation.

Christianity Today

1. Christianity has three major branches: Roman Catholic,

Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant. Christianity has over one

billion followers.

2. The largest group is the Roman Catholic church. The Roman

Catholic church is headed by the pope, the bishop of Rome.

3. The sources of Christianity's three major branches were two

historic movements. The attempts of these movements to make

reforms divided the Roman Catholic church.

4. The first branch, Eastern Orthodox, dates from 1054. The

"great schism" occurred between East and West (Greek and

Latin Christianity) in 1054.

5. Actually, differences had begun centuries before 1054. These

differences centered around authority and control.

6. The second branch developed from a sixteenth-century

movement. The movement is called the Reformation.

7. The Reformation began as a protest against some Roman

Catholic practices. The result of the Reformation was Protestantism.

 

Exercise 56:

In the following sentences, change the adjective clauses to appositive phrases.

The Koran

Example:The Koran, which is the sacred book of the Muslims, is

viewed as a perfect revelation from God.

How Can People Learn Best?

1. The greatest puzzle of education is a question.

How can a child learn best?

2. People everywhere agree on an idea.

Education is important.

Few people agree on something.

How should we provide education?

3. Does a child learn well in these ways?

Information is taught by practice.

Information is taught by repetition.

Information is taught by memorization.

4. Does a child learn better in other ways?

The teacher stimulates the child's curiosity.

The teacher makes learning fun.

The teacher makes learning pleasant.

5. Are there certain subjects?

These subjects must be memorized.

These include the alphabet and numbers.

These include the rules of spelling.

These include the multiplication tables.

6. Memorization is a part of education.

Repetitive drill is a part of education.

7. Does this mean something?

Can most learning be taught in that way?

Should most learning be taught in that way?

8. Should learning be fun for the student?

Is schooling very hard work?

The student must be forced to do it.

On Your Own In pairs or in small groups, discuss the questions

raised in Exercise B. What are your opinions on the best ways to

study and to learn? After you have finished your discussion, choose

one member to give a brief summary for the entire class. Be sure

to use reported speech in your summary

Exercise 60: Review of Clauses, Phrases, and Transitions

What is your reaction to the following quotation?

Think about your own educational experience and use your ideas to complete the

sentences to form a short paragraph. Then present it to the class.

"I am always ready to learn, but I am not always ready to be

taught."—Winston Churchill

 

a. I agree / disagree with Churchill's idea because....

b. I believe that....

c. I remember a time when....

d. While I was....

e. After I had....

f. As a result....

g. If I hadn't

h. Nevertheless....

On Your Own Organize a debate on the merits of education and

experience. Let half the class argue in favor of education and the

other half in favor of experience. If you want, have your debate

center on the process of language learning: Can you really learn

a language in a classroom? Without a class and a teacher, do people

have enough discipline to learn a language well?

 

Exercise 61:

The following quotes are students' responses to various questions.

Change each quote to reported speech.

Make all necessary changes in verb tenses.

Example: "I have really, really learned a lot here."—Noriko,

female, Japan

Ever did (does).

 

1. In his journals, Emerson remarked, "It is one of the blessings

of old friends that you can afford to be stupid with them."

2. Shakespeare said, "A friend should bear his friend's infirmities."

3. In Thus Spake Zarathustra, Nietzsche wrote, "A friend should

be a master at guessing and keeping still."

4. La Rochefoucauld wrote in his Maxims, "However rare true love

may be, it is less rare than true friendship."

5. In the first century, a Roman author wrote, "The friendship that

can come to an end never really began."

On Your Own Share your own thoughts with your classmates.

Do you agree with the statements from Exercises C and D? Can

you think of other sayings about love or friendship from your

culture?

 

Exercise 64:

Answer the following questions in your own words,

using reported speech where appropriate.

 

1. When did you last talk to your best friend or another friend

who you hadn't seen for a while? What did you talk about? What

news did your friend tell you? What did you say about that?

What news did you tell your friend?

2. Have you made a promise lately? To whom did you make the

promise? What did you promise?

3. Have you had an argument lately? What was it about? Whom

did you argue with? What did you say to each other? How did

you settle the argument?

4. Have you had to make a decision or solve a problem lately?

What was the situation? Did you discuss it with anyone? What

did you talk about? What advice did the person give you?

 

Exercise 65:

Do you have a final assignment or test in the next

few days? Take this opportunity to ask your teacher for more

information about the final days of this session. Change the

following direct questions to noun clauses. Be sure to use correct

word order. Begin your questions with the following: Would (could,

More homework this quarter.

 

1. Will there be a final test in this class?

2. Do I have to take a proficiency exam?

3. Is it necessary to study for the proficiency test?

4. Have I completed all of the assignments for this class?

5. Am I going to pass this course?

6. Could I talk to you about my progress?

7. Will we have a class party?

8. Does anyone want to plan one?

 

Exercise 66:

Imagine that you have to write a term paper for a class.

Change the following questions about the assignment to noun clauses.

Be sure to use correct word order. Begin your new sentences with the following:

• Could (would, can) you tell me . . . ?

• I would like to know....

• I wonder....

• I don't know (understand)....

Example: When is the paper due?

Understand each other.

 

1. Is the problem the lack of a common language?

2. Can a universal language solve our problems?

3. Do experiences with other cultures help us communicate better?

4. How can we learn to understand each other?

5. When will there be world peace?

 

As a class, pose the questions and discuss your opinions on them.

On Your Own On a piece of paper, write a general question that

you would like to ask your class. Be sure to sign your name. Then

ask someone to collect all the papers and mix them. Take turns

selecting a paper and reporting the question to the class. Everyone

should try to help answer the question.

 

Exercise 68:

First change each quotation to reported speech.

Then reduce the noun clauses to infinitive phrases.

Examples:Our teacher warned us, "Do all the homework."

Homework.

Kit 3

 

topic pages exercises
Simple sentence structure 1-3, 4 1-4, 8
Composite sentence 3-5, 7-8, 22 5-7, 9-10, 14-16, 42
- clauses 5, 16-31 10, 31-60
Mood 6, 9-16 11, 17-30
Reported speech 31-35 61-68

Exercise 1 : Review of Subjects, Verbs, Objects

Find the subjects, verbs, objects in the following sentences.

Underline each subject once and each verb twice and label both. Circle the objects.

 

1. Most of these students have studied some English before coming

to an English-speaking country.

2. Many already read and write English fairly well.

3. A major difficulty for all new students, however, is to understand

and speak English.

4. Making phone calls or understanding directions can be difficult.

5. Many Americans speak quite fast or use a lot of slang.

6. Each part of the country has variations in vocabulary and

pronunciation.

7. Nevertheless, after the first few weeks, most new students will

notice tremendous improvement.

8. All of a sudden, English becomes a lot clearer and easier!

On Your Own Write six original sentences about your own experiences

during the first few days here. After your teacher has

checked your sentences, exchange your paper with a classmate.

Find the subject(s), verb(s), object(s) in the sentences your classmate has written.

 

Exercise 2:

Indicate whether the following are complete or incomplete

sentences. If the sentence is incomplete, add words to correct it.

Example: Learning a new language.

Incomplete: She is learning a new language. Or:

Learning a new language is challenging.

1. Is difficult.

2. It can be frustrating.

3. The experience may be rewarding.

4. Another language will open doors for you.

5. To experience a world of new people, places, and ideas.

6. Cultures from every part of the earth.

7. Think about the similarities and differences.

8. The experience can show you a great deal.

9. You will learn a lot.

10. You will meet.

 

Exercise 3: Review of Sentence Types

Label the subject(s), verb(s), objects (o) in each of the following sentences.

Tell whether the sentences are simple, compound, or

complex. If the sentence is compound or complex, circle the connectine word.

1. My friend Kunio is from Tokyo, Japan.

2. He has studied English in the United States for a year, and now

he is hoping to study at an Australian university.

3. Because Kunio wants to study both English and veterinary

science, he has applied to schools in the United States and

Australia.

4. Is he working on an undergraduate or a graduate degree?

5. Kunio already has his bachelor's degree.

6. He will get his master's degree and then will begin a doctoral

program.

7. What did he study as an undergraduate?

8. I'm not really sure.

9. Why don't you ask him when you next see him?

10. He's so busy enjoying American life that I never see him!

On Your Own Write at least six original sentences about a friend

of yours. Include at least three sentences that use connecting

words. After your teacher has checked your sentences, exchange

your paper with a classmate. Analyze your classmate's sentences

as you did before.

Exercise 4:

Separate into small groups and read the following passage together.

Take ten minutes to discuss the ideas in the passage

and your opinions about them. Then analyze the passage. Find the

subject(s) and verb(s) in each sentence. Note whether the sentences

are simple, compound, or complex.

 

Thoughts on Creativity

According to the dictionary definition of create, ordinary people

are creative every day. To create means "to bring into being, to cause

to exist"—something each one of us does daily.

We are creative whenever we look at or think about something in

a new way. First, this involves an awareness of our surroundings.

It means using all of our senses to become aware of our world. This

may be as simple as being aware of color and texture, as well as

taste, when we plan a meal. Above all, it is the ability to notice things

that others might miss.

A second part of creativity is an ability to see relationships among

things. If we believe the expression, "There is nothing new under

the sun," then creativity is remaking or recombining the old in new

ways. For example, we might do this by finding a more efficient way

to study or a better way to arrange our furniture. Or, we might make

a new combination of camera lenses and filters to create an unusual

photograph.

A third part of creativity is the courage and drive to make use of

our new ideas, to apply them to achieve some new result. To think

up a new concept is one thing; to put the idea to work is another.

These three aspects of creativity are involved in all the great works

of genius, but they are also involved in many of our day-to-day

activities.

Looking at Structures

1. Find the subject(s) and verb(s) of the first sentence. Is this

sentence simple, compound, or complex?

2. Find the subject(s) and verb(s) of the first sentence of the second

paragraph. Is this sentence simple, compound, or complex?

What word is used to join the two clauses in the sentence? Can

each part of the sentence stand alone?

3. Find the subject(s) and verb(s) of the second sentence of the

fourth paragraph. Is this sentence simple, compound, or

complex? It is made up of two sentences joined by a semicolon.

The same sentence can be written with but, or it can be written

as two sentences. Is there any difference in meaning or in

emphasis? Why do you think the author chose to use a

semicolon?

4. Find the subject(s) and verb(s) of the last sentence. Is this

sentence simple, compound, or complex?

 

Exercise 5: Review of Compound Sentences

Combine the following sentences by using commas and and, but, or, for, so, yet,

or nor. In some sentences, more than one conjunction may be

appropriate. Change nouns to pronouns and add punctuation where necessary.

Creativity and the Senses

Examples: Part of creativity is an awareness of our surroundings.

This awareness involves using all of our senses.

Part of creativity is an awareness of our surroundings,



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