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Future Simple 1. A predictedfuture action seen as inevitable and out of anybody’s control with the words tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, in a week (month, year, etc.), next year, in 2015 etc. Next year I’ll be 20. Spring will come soon. Reference to the future can also be clear from the situation. Spring has come and the birds will come back home. 2. An action decided on spontaneously. It looks like rain. I’ll take my umbrella. What would you like to drink? – I’ll have a coke, please. 3. An action which will happen with a certain degree of probability. I’m sure he’ll get better. I don’t think I’ll go out tonight. No doubt you’ll enjoy the performance. I’ll probably bea bit late this evening. 4.In the mainclause of complex sentences of time and real condition. I’ll phone you as soon as I arrive. I’ll be worried if you are late again. But: the subordinate clause takes Simple Present or Present Perfect. I’ll phone you as soon as I arrive. I’ll be worried if you are late again.  
Present Progressive 1.A near future action arising out of arrangement or plan. I’m leaving tomorrow. She saysshe’s baby-sittingtonight. Note: the verbs ‘see, hear’are used in the Progressive forms in the meaning of‘meet’and‘learn’.  
be going + Infinitive 1.Aplanor personal intention. Roger is going to sell his car. 2. A predictedfuture event based on evidence. Look at the clouds! Isn’tit going to rain?
Simple Present 1.Adefinite future arrangementin a moreformallanguage than the action expressed by the Present Progressive. The train leaves at 6 a.m. tomorrow. The conference begins on Monday.
Future Progressive 1.An action whichwill be going onat a definite momentor during a certain periodof timein the future. The moment is indicated either by an adverbial or by another future action. I’ll be driving to work at 9 tomorrow. This time next week we’ll be crossing the border. The granny will be knitting when I come back from work. You’ll recognize her easily when you see her. She’ll be wearing a yellow hat. From 8 till 12 I’ll be at university. I’ll be having classes at this time.
Future Perfect 1. An action completedbefore a definite future moment. The moment is indicated by an adverbial with the preposition ‘by’ or by another future action. I think she’ll have finished the essay by Monday. By the time you get back Mike will have left. 2.A future actioncoveringa certain period of time up toorincludingthe given moment( with verbs not used in Progressive tenses). He’ll have been in this business for five years by next summer.
Future Perfect Progressive 1.An actionlastingfor a period of timeup toor includinga certain future moment. By five o’clock I’ll have been doing thiscrosswordfor an hour. By the time hearrivesin London Maxwill have been driving for nearly five hours.

Note: In Reported Speech when the verb in the principal clause is in the Past tense-form ‘will’ is replaced by ‘would’ and the words ‘tomorrow, next day, etc.’ are replaced by ‘the next day, the next week, etc.’.

2nd Year 4th Term

PREPOSITIONS

Предлоги

WITH AN OBJECT AFTER

‘PREPOSITIONAL’ VERBS

He was accused of damaging the car. But: He was charged with damaging the car. Never ask for money you haven’t earned. We should apologize to them for waking them up. I don’t approve of your behavior. Who does this house belong to? Mike borrowed $15 from me. But: Mike lent $15 to me. She cares for him deeply. I don’t care about your smoking here. I’ll take care of the flowers while you are away. She complained to the manager about the poor working conditions. She complained to me of a headache. The report consisted of two parts. The unemployed depend on state support. It’s not easy to get rid of bad habits. Have you heard aboutPeter? He’s got married. Have you ever heard ofStrove Geodetic Arc? I haven’t heard fromhim for a month. She insisted on our staying to lunch. They invited us to the party. Everyone laughed at his joke. I usually listen to the news when driving the car. They lived on bread and butter for weeks. Look at the rainbow. Isn’t it beautiful? I have looked formy watch everywhere but I can’t find it. Don’t worry. I’ll look afterthe children. I’mlooking forward toseeing you in September. Ilooked throughthe newspaper while Iwaited foryou. Punishment mustpreventpeoplefromcommitting crimes. In such a situation one mustrely onone’s common sense. Jane remindsmeofmy former wife. Pleaseremindheraboutthe meeting. Has anyone sent for a doctor? Can I speak tothe manager, please? I talked toher half an hour ago. We are thinking of going out tonight. (=have an idea) What do you think of this plan? (= have an opinion) Before giving a final answer, think carefully about what I said. (=consider, concentrate the mind on) Don’t worry about the lunch. It’ll be ready in a moment.  

PHRASAL VERBS

Phrasal verbs are idiomatic expressions, combining verbs and prepositions to make new verbs whose meaning is often not obvious from the dictionary definitions of the individual words. They are widely used in both written and spoken English, and new ones are formed all the time as they are a flexible way of creating new terms.

Below are some of the widely used phrasal verbs.

 

When did the first world war break down? She was brought up in the country. Have you called on Ms Price? (=Have you visited Ms Price?) Margaret came across this ad in yesterday newspaper. You’ll have to carry out the court’s order. The rain stopped and the sky cleared up. In the end we found out the truth. How does she get on with her brother? We’ll have to get up early tomorrow. You should give up smoking. Go (keep) on writing. There were a few words I didn’t know, so I looked them up in the dictionary. It was very dark. We couldn’t make out anything. The meeting wasput offuntil the following week. She only puts on a hat when she goes to the wedding. Ann ran into her former boy-friend last week. We’ve run outof bread. I can’t join you tonight. I’m seeing off my Mum. Speak up! I can’t hear you. People say I take after my father. It’s getting dark. Turn on the light. It’s still dark in the room. Don’t turn off the light. It’s warm hear. Take off your coat. I’ll think your proposals over and let you know. She had tried on about ten pairs of shoes before she made her final choice. When she woke up it was still dark. He asked me to write (put) down my address.

VERB TENSES IN THE PASSIVE VOICE

Времена глагола в страдательном (пассивном) залоге

Tense Structure Example
Present Simple am/are/is + V3 English is spoken here.
Past Simple was/were + V3 His legwas hurtin an accident.
Future Simple will be + V3 The matterwill be discussedtomorrow.
Present Progressive am/are/is being + V3 She is being interviewednow.
Past Progressive was/were being + V3 I feltI was being watched.
Present Perfect have/has been + V3 The windows are really dirty.Theyhaven’t been cleanedfor years.
Past Perfect had been + V3 The bridgehad been builtby winter time.
Future Perfect will have been + V3 Everything will have been doneby Tuesday.

Note 1: V3 = Past Participle (Participle II)

Note 2: Future Progressive PassiveиPerfect Progressive Passiveare unusual and are not normally used.

Note 3: The use of the verb-tenses in the Passive Voice follows the same rules as in the Active Voice.

Changing Active to Passive

Part of speech Subject Verb Object    
Sentence in the Active Voice The group will present the report next week.

STEP 1:move the object to the subject position

The report ...  

 

STEP 2:change the verb to the passive, making sure that BE takes the same tense as the verb in the active sentence

The report will be presented...  

STEP 3:drop the subject

The report will be presentednext week. (Example of passive voice without the subject)  

ormove it to a position after the verb

The report will be presentedby the group next week. (Example of passive voice with the subject)  

Changing Passive to Active

Part of speech Subject Verb Object    
Sentence in the Passive Voice   The cookie was eaten by John

STEP 1:The original object becomes the subject (the star of the sentence).

John ...  

 

STEP 2:The BE + -en or (-ed) ending is removed from the active verb. (was eaten). The active verb takes the same tense as BE in the active sentence

John ate...  

STEP 3:The original subject becomes the direct object (the person or thing on which the subject acts).

John ate the cookie.  

Why Use the Passive Voice?

1. When the agent of the action is unknown:

My wallet was stolen last night. (we don’t know who stole the wallet)

2. When the agent is unimportant:

The new students’ centre was completed last week. (the people who built the centre are unnecessary information for the meaning of the sentence)

3. When the agent of the action is obvious from the context:

I was born in March of '55. (Everyone knows that it was my mother who bore me then)

4. To emphasize (put importance on) the recipient (receiver) of the action:

a) Only Jane was injured in the accident; the remainder of the passengers were unhurt.(we want Jane to be the subject of the sentence and to emphasize her importance)

b) Erika was chosen as best student, and of course this made her happy. (the teacher who chose Erika is not what we want to emphasize)

5. To connect ideas in different clauses more clearly:

The music was being played too loud by the students, who were finally asked to turn it down.

6. To make generic statements, announcements, and explanations:

a) Something should be done about the traffic jams in this town.

b) It's said that it's going to rain tonight.(Often, people will say, 'They say that it's going to rain tonight', the ‘they’ being the weatherman.)

MODAL VERBS

Модальные глаголы

Expressing Ability

CAN/ COULD/ BE ABLE

We use can, be able to and could to show that someone has (or doesn’t have) an ability to do something.

Present/Future Ability Negative Past Ability Negative
Alan can swim well. Jackie cannot play the piano. Paul could speak Chinese when he was a child. Mary couldn’t finish her homework last night.
I can meet you after school. We can’t visit Vancouver this weekend. Last night, there were no clouds in the sky and they could see all the stars. I couldn’t find the website this morning.
I am able to speak two languages. I am not able to speak Arabic When I was a young man, I was able to walk longer distances. I wasn’t able to finish my test yesterday.
Brenda is able to run quickly. Stacey isn’t able to finish a marathon. Shaun was able to complete the assignment. Paula wasn’t able to pass the class.
You are able to program a computer. We aren’t able to make a reservation tonight They were able to catch six fish on their trip. You weren’t able to understand the answer, were you?

Note:

How can we make questions about ability? It’s easy!

Can she play the guitar?

Could you speak English when you were a child?

Are you able to understand the homework?

Were you able to finish the test?

Was he able to pass the exam?

 

Expressing Possibility

MAY/ MIGHT/ COULD

The verbs may,mightandcouldshowpossibility nowandin the future.In this case, they have the same meaning.

A: My mother said that it may snow tomorrow. B: Really? It might snow?! That’s great! I could make a snowman or go for a “snow” walk. A: Don’t get too excited. If the temperature is high, it may not snow. It may rain. B: Well, I guess I could still go for a walk in the rain.  

 

Note:

Be careful with may be and maybe. Compare these sentences. Both are correct.

Ann is not here today. She may be sick. ‘may be’ is a modal.

Ann is not here today. Maybeshe is sick.Maybe’ is an adverb.

 



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