Make up your own dialogues using the models from the task 4.1



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Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


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Make up your own dialogues using the models from the task 4.1



Unit 1. My Biography

I. Before you read:

1.1 Pronounce the words properly:

Eighteen, born, fifth, August, childhood, possibility, first, laboratory, favourite, higher mathematics, physics, in advance, listening, Agrarian, youth, biography, to graduate from.

1.2 State the part of speech:

Eighteen, elder, only, child, my, last, former, now, to attend, it, easy, me, some, our, other, to meet, everything, youth.

1.3 Pay attention to the compounds and translate them:

housewife, kindergarten, everything.

1.4 Match the columns:

1. to be born 1. старший брат
2. the only child in the family 2. родиться
3. an elder brother 3. провести детство
4. to spend one’s childhood 4.единственный ребенок в семье
5. a native town 5.первокурсник
6. to have no possibility to be a housewife 6. переехать
7. had to be taken to a kindergarten 7.закончить среднюю школу
8. to move to 8.не иметь возможности быть домохозяйкой
9. to leave secondary school 9. пришлось посещать детский сад
10. to enter the State University – Education Science and Production Complex 10. бывший
11. former 11. поступить в Госуниверситет – УНПК
12. a first-year student 12. родной город
13. to get good and excellent marks 13. сдавать зачеты автоматом
14. to take credit tests in advance 14.получать хорошие и отличные оценки
15. to be good at smth. 15. молодежь
16. youth 16. успевать в чем-л.
17. to hope 17.воплотиться в реальность
18. to come true 18.надеяться
19. to graduate from 19.высокооплачиваемая работа
20. a well-paid job 20.закончить вуз

1.5 Comment on the grammar. Pay attention to the verb to be. You may continue the sentences:

I am …

He/she/it is …

You/we/they are …

I was …

He/she/it was…

You/we/they were …

I/he/ she/it will be …

1.6 Comment on the grammar. Pay attention to the plural forms of the nouns:

Doctor - doctors

childhood - childhood

lecture - lectures

seminar - seminars,

class – classes

subject - subjects

book - books

game – games

music- music

youth – youth

disco - discos

II. Reading:

My name is Denis Grishin. I am eighteen years old. I was born on the fifth of August, 1995 in the town of Mtsensk, Orel region. My parents are doctors. I am not the only child in the family. I have an elder brother. I spent my childhood in my native town. As my mother had no possibility to be a housewife I had to be taken to a kindergarten when I was three years old. In 2003 our family moved to the city of Orel. Last year I left the secondary school number 5 and entered the State University – Education Science and Production Complex, former Orel State Technical University. Now I am a first-year student of the Institute of Transport.

I try to attend all lectures, seminars, laboratory and practical classes. My favourite subjects are higher mathematics and physics. I am good at them. I also like the Russian History, English and Physical Training.

It is easy and interesting for me to study at our University. I would like to get good and excellent marks at the examinations. Also I am going to take some credit tests in advance.

My hobbies are reading books and playing computer games. I also like listening to music and playing football.

I have many friends. Some of them study at our University and the other study at the Agrarian University. We like to spend our time together. We meet and talk, listen to good music. On Sundays my friends and I go to the cinema, to the fitness center or to a disco. We do everything what is interesting for youth.

You see my biography is not long. I hope my dream will come true and I shall graduate from the university and get an interesting and well-paid job.

III. After you have read:

3.1 Answer the following questions:

1. How old are you?

2. Where do you live?

3. What school did you leave?

4. When did you leave the school?

5. Where do you study now?

6. When did you enter the University?

7. What faculty do you study at?

8. Are you a second- year student?

9. Do you attend all classes?

10. Do you like to study at the university?

3.2 Fill in the gaps:

1. I … eighteen years old.

2. I … born on the fifth of August.

3. I … an elder brother.

4. I … to be taken to a kindergarten when I … three years old.

5. My favourite subjects … higher mathematics and physics.

6. It … easy and interesting for me to study at our University.

7. I … many friends.

3.3 Put the verb into the correct tense-form:

1. My name (to be) Max Smirnov.

2. What (to be) her brother name?

3. (to be) your parents engineers?

4. (to have) you an younger sister?

5. I (to have, not) a brother. I (to have) two sisters.

6. My hobbies (to be) playing tennis and learning languages.

7. Where (to be) you from?

8. (to be) your friends at the disco yesterday?

9. We (to be) at 10 0’clock in the library tomorrow.

10. My grandmother (to be) a teacher at the secondary school 20 years ago.

3.4 Give the English for:

Родной город, детский сад, провести детство, старший брат, студент-первокурсник, зачет, переехать в город , хорошо разбираться в физике, любимые предметы, посещать лекции и семинары, молодежь, закончить университет, устроиться на высокооплачиваемую работу.

IV. Brush up your talk:

4.1 Complete the short dialogues using the phrases from the text:

-What is your name?

-My name is ….

 

-Were you born in Orel?

-No, I was born in….

 

-Where were you born?

-I was born on ….

 

-Are you the only child in the family?

-No, I am not. I …

 

-Where did you spend your childhood?

-I spent….

 

-Did you leave the secondary school in your native town?

-No, I ...

 

-Why so? Because my family….

-What school did you leave in Orel?

-I ….

 

-Where do you study?

-I study….

 

-What are your favourite subjects?

-They are …

 

-What are your hobbies?

-My hobbies are…

 

-How do you spend your free time with your friends?

-I …

 

Make up your own dialogues using the models from the task 4.1

Tell about your own biography using all information you have got.

4.4 * Tell about your friends’s biography.

 

 

Unit 2. My Family

I. Before you read:

1.1 Pronounce the words properly:

Average, to characterize and describe, appearance, civil engineer, cheerful, pleasant-looking, first-rate, to be fond of, lyceum, quick-tempered, though, surgeon, energy, gardening, kind-hearted, pensioner, united, circus, agree, to quarrel, uncle, each other.

1.2 State the part of speech paying attention to the suffix:

Appearance, sporty, tactful, historical, friendly, local, pensioner, mathematical, engineer, specialist, construction, officer, librarian.

1. 3 Match the columns:

1. average 1.описать
2. to be going to 2.что касается
3. to describe 3. собираться что-л. сделать
4. as for 4.средний
5. appearance 5.прямой нос
6. dark and short hair 6.внешность
7. straight nose 7.строительная компания
8. construction company 8.темные, короткие волосы
9. civilengineer 9. проводить время
10. to spend time 10.быть строгим к кому-л.
11. to be strict with smb. 11. инженер-строитель
12. to consider smb. to be a good mixer 12. веселый
13. cheerful 13.считать кого-л. общительным человеком
14. kind-hearted 14.родственник
15. relative 15.добрый, добродушный
16. well-read 16.улекаться чем-л.
17. to be fond of smth. 17.высокий
18. tall 18. начитанный
19. pleasant-looking 19.светлые волосы
20. fair-hair 20.серые глаза
21. grey eyes 21. симпатичный
22.first-rate specialist 22.быть похожим на кого-л.
23. to look like smb. 23.первоклассный специалист
24. quick-tempered 24. вспыльчивый
25.to get along with 25.общительный
26. skilled surgeon 26. ладить с кем-л.
27. to take care of smb. 27. квалифицированный хирург
28. united 28. заботиться о ком-л.
29. to attend 29. ссориться
30. to quarrel 30. сплоченный

Find

- antonyms to the following words:

to like, to finish, bad, a lot, light, few, old, to love, to hate, to agree , tactful, young, tall, to disagree, short ,to dislike ,happy, good, to start, dark, tactless, to quarrel, cheerful, sad, unhappy, to get along with.

- synonyms to the following words:

Much, dad, big ,to attend, wood, visit, forest, to speak to talk, to like, to be fond of,toargue, to get along with, large, be on good terms with, woman, a lot of, kind-hearted, father, lady, kind, strict, merry, severe, discreet, cheerful, tactful, to quarrel.

3.3 Put the verb into the Past Simple or Future Simple. Use the words: yesterday, ago, last/next week, month, year, tomorrow, in some years/months etc. Give the negative and question –forms.

1. They attend theaters and museums.

2. They spend much time together.

3. They travel a lot with the parents.

4. He studies at the mathematical lyceum.

5. He is a civil engineer.

6. She does all the cooking for the family.

7. In the evenings the parents and the children watch TV, read books and newspapers, talk about the events of the day.

IV. Brush up your talk:

4.1Complete the short dialogues using the phrases from the text:

- Is your family big?

- We are ….

 

- Do you a have a dad?

-Yes, I …

 

- What’s your dad’s name….

- His name is…

-How old is your dad?

- He is…

 

- What about his appearance?

- My dad has got…

 

- Where does your father work?

- He works …

 

- What are his hobbies?

- My dad is fond of …

 

- What is your mum’s job?

- She works …

 

- What about her hobby?

-My mum ….

- Do you have a sister or a brother?

- I have …

 

- Does he study at the university?

- No, he …

 

- What about his character?

- My brother is …

 

- Do you get along with your brother?

- Well, …

 

- Do you have grandparents?

- Yes, I …

-Say some words about them, please!

-My grandpa…

-My grandma …

-What do think, is your family friendly?

-To my mind …

Unit 3. My House

 

 

Unit 4. My University

I. Before you read:

1.1 Read the words properly:

Science , tutorial, former, unique, dynamically, perspective, comprise, subdivision, architecture, sociology, humanities, finance, design, biotechnology, merchandizing, library, recreation, equipment, personnel, bachelor, strength, chemistry, culturology, foreign language, advantage, abroad, thesis, fascinating, post-graduate.

1.2 State the part of speech:

Science - scientific, education - educational, to integrate – integration, technology- technological, to train- training, nature - natural, to begin - beginning, difference - different, chemistry- chemical, to produce - production, to practice- practical , profession - professional, to qualify - qualification, to participate - participation, to apply - application, to develop – development, competition – competitive.

1. 3 Find the Russian equivalents:

State University – Education-Science-Production Complex, educational (training) and tutorial station, Institute of Information Technologies, Institute of Architecture and Construction, branch, Institute of Sociology and Humanities, Institute of Additional Professional Education, Faculty of Technology and Design and Technology Informatics, Faculty of Light Production, perspective science, Faculty of Food Biotechnology and Merchandizing, professors and tutorial staff, teaching personnel , state-of-art equipment, academic year, general engineering subjects, descriptive geometry, strength of materials, machine elements, keen interest, credit test, to be strictly oriented on modern market demands, competitive professionals, memorable, self-development.

Comment on the grammar.

The largest,higher, more effective, the most perspective, younger, more interesting, further.

II. Reading

We study at the State University – Education-Science-Production Complex (State University-ESPC), the former Orel State Technical University. Our university was founded in 1954 as an educational (training) and tutorial station. Now it is one of the largest higher schools in Orel. It is a unique and dynamically developing education-science-production complex in Russia which integrates qualitative education, perspective science and effective production. At present the university comprises 3 branches in Livny, Mtsensk, Karachev, 8 educational institutions, 11 faculties, 47 departments and various scientific and research, educational, innovative, consulting and other subdivisions.

As for institutes and faculties in our University there are:

Institute of Law, Institute of Finance and Economics, Institute of Technology, Institute of Information Technologies, Institute of Architecture and Construction, Institute of Transport, Institute of Sociology and Humanities, Institute of Additional Professional Education, Faculty of Finance, Faculty of Economics and Management, Faculty of Technology and Design and Technology Informatics, Faculty of Light Production, Faculty of New Technologies and Production Automation, Faculty of Food Biotechnology and Merchandizing, Faculty of Physical Training and Sports, Faculty of Natural Science, Faculty of Distance Learning, Faculty of Evening Courses, Faculty of Secondary Education.

The University has several buildings for training and laboratory works, a computer center, a scientific and technical library, a canteen, several hostels, a camp for physical recreation and sports and a health center.

Our University trains students on three levels of the higher education: Bachelors, Specialists and Masters. The students are trained by experienced professors and tutorial staff. There are more than 80 doctors of science and members of different academies, more than 300 candidates of technical, economical, juridical, physical-mathematical, biological, chemical and other sciences. The use of state-of-art equipment for educational purposes allows improving specialist preparation quality and more effective work of teaching personnel of our university.

The academic year begins as a rule at the beginning of September and ends in June. The academic year has two terms: the autumn term and the spring term. Each term ends with credit tests and examinations, which take place in January and June.

The students go the University every day except Sunday. Usually they have three or four lessons a day. The students attend lectures, seminars and tutorials (practical classes). Classes at our University begin at a quarter past eight in the morning and are over at ten minutes past three p.m.

In the first and second years of studies students take general engineering subjects such as technology of materials, computer graphics, descriptive geometry, strength of materials, machine elements, theoretical mechanics, some other special subjects as well as higher mathematics, physics and chemistry. They study also philosophy, the Russian History, culturology, a foreign language – English, German or French.

The students study at our University four or six years. At the end of the training course all graduates prepare their diploma projects or defend a thesis. Those graduates who have keen interest in research are recommended for further study at the post-graduate courses.

The important advantage of getting education in State University ESPC is the use of state of-art educational instruments in education process that are based on IT-technologies: multimedia CD, interactive educational courses, electronic workshops, business games. These developments is constantly improving educational process and preparing specialists at a high level.

High level of specialist preparation in State University ESPC is achieving through the special knowledge and orientation of educational process to practice. The graduates are strictly oriented on the modern market demands and have a wide range of demanding professional competences. High professional qualification, active participation of specialists-practitioners in educational process, application of modern educational technologies allow State University ESPC to train competitive professionals that can work within their specialty in Russia and abroad after graduating the university.

Students’ life in the State University ESPC is a fascinating world of activities that make education more interesting and memorable. Students have many opportunities to self-development from participation in festivals, contents to all-Russian and international competitions, conferences for students, post-graduate students and young scientists.

Ш. After you have read:

True or false?

1. We study at the Orel State Technical University.

2. Our university was founded in 1955 as an educational (training) and tutorial station.

3. Our University trains students on three levels of the higher education: Bachelors, Specialists and Masters.

4. The academic year begins as a rule at the beginning of October and ends in July.

5. Classes at our University begin at a quarter to eight in the morning and are over at ten minutes past two p.m.

6. The students study also philosophy, the Russian History, culturology, a foreign language – English, German or French.

7. The students study at our University four years.

8. Those graduates who have keen interest in research are recommended for further study abroad.

9. Students have many opportunities to self-development.

10. They take part in festivals, competitions, contents to all-Russian and international competitions, conferences for students, post-graduate students and young scientists.

1.2 Make up sentences from these words:

1. It, a, unique, is, dynamically, and, science, education, production, complex, in Russia ,developing.

2. credit, tests ,term ,ends, with ,and, examinations, take ,which, in ,place ,and, June, Each, January.

3. At, course defend, of, the, training, end, all, prepare, graduates, their, projects, diploma, or, the, a, thesis.

4. These, specialists, developments, is ,constantly, educational, improving ,process and , level ,preparing, at, a ,high.

5. at, University, our, at, a quarter, minutes, afternoon, past, eight, in ,morning , and ,Classes, are ,the ,over, at, ten, past, begin ,three, in, the.

6. Those, who, study , graduates, have, courses, keen, in, interest, research ,are, for ,recommended, further ,at, post-graduate.

1.3Give the missing forms of adjectives. Make up sentences with these adjectives.

the youngest, further, the best, more effective, newer, less, the worst, easier, higher, the most important, elder, older.

1.4 Put the verb to take part into the correct tense-form. Pay attention to the words given in the brackets.

Our students take part in various all-Russian and international competitions (every year, last year, next year, nowadays, from March till April next semester, the whole month, last semester).

II. Reading

Higher education plays an important role in the life of any country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists for future development and progress. It trains people to become engineers, doctors, architects, teachers and so on.

Every citizen of Russia has the right to education which is guaranteed by the Constitution. Every boy or girl must get secondary education. After finishing the 11th form of secondary school, lyceum or gymnasium young people can go on in higher education. They take the Unified National (State) Examination. Each exam is conducted by the independent examining boards. If a student gets high scores, such a result is considered to be good and he/she has an opportunity to enter some higher school. They can choose from a wide range of higher schools according to their will. The typical academic program for university students is composed of various number of courses or subjects within a field of specialization. Courses are a combination of lectures, seminars and laboratory work. Many courses are available for disabled people.

In 2007 within the Bologna Processthe government of the Russian Federation has approved the bill of transition to two-level higher education system. The bill provides introduction in Russia such levels of higher education, as a bachelor’s degree (the first level) and a master’s degree (the second level). These degrees are equivalent to B. Sc and M. Sc degree provided in the US or Western Europe.

The first level prepares the student for performing functions in industrial, social, economic sphere (administrators, managers, experts in sales, etc.). Preparation at the first level passes in base directions, and profound specialization occurs at the second level. The persons with master's degree focuses on analytical, design, research activity. Training at the first level lasts 4 years, and at the second level - 2 years. After completing the Master’s students can go for the doctoral programs. For this they carry out independent research, prepare and defend a thesis. The Ph. D (candidate's degree) is a degree received as a result of completion of dissertation.

Some higher educational institutions keep training of specialists. Graduates of medical, military and technical higher schools will receive the diploma with qualification "specialist" in 5-6 years. This is because the Russian system of a professional training for these specialties cannot keep within in 4 years.

The two-level system will allow to raise efficiency of using state funded places, to involve employers in forecasting of requirements for education and to expand their participation in professional training financing. Now Russian students can continue study without problems in any higher school of Europe and easier get a job abroad.

But some people is not ready to joining Russia to Bologna Process. The opinion exists that bachelors are half-educated persons. Many students still wish to study 5 years and to end the higher school with the diploma of the specialist. But the bachelor has full higher education. Transition to two-level system will make Russian education system more dynamical and modern.

Higher educational institutions, that is, universities, institutes, and academies have full-time, part-time (or evening) and distance education system. The evening and distance education departments give their students an opportunity to study without leaving their jobs. Some students of full-time departments get scholarship. Most of the students have to pay for their education.

The academic year in Russian higher schools starts in September and ends in June. The academic year is divided into two semesters: the autumn semester and the spring one. At the end of each semester students take their exams. Twice a year students have holidays.

The first- and second-year students obtain knowledge in the fundamental sciences. Specialization usually begins in the third year. Students get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their special interests so to say, their «major» subjects.

The profound study of theory is accompanied by practical training, first in specially equipped laboratories and workshops, then in various plants. Besides their studies students carry on research in different fields of science and technology and take part in students’ scientific and technical conferences where they make reports on their investigations.

The system of secondary and higher education in Russia is going through a transitional period. The main objectives of the reform are: to decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedoms to faculties and students. Although the standards of higher education in Russia are considered to be one of the best, there are many problems we are facing in our higher education. For instance, universities complain that the equipment which is used at universities is not modern enough, tuition fees are growing and many talented young people cannot receive higher education. All these problems are widely discussed in Russian society.

 

Ш. After you have read:

3.1 Make up the sentence of two parts:

1. Every citizen of Russia has the right to education 1. young people can go on in higher education.
2. After finishing the 11th form of secondary school, lyceum or gymnasium 2. provided in the US or Western Europe.
3. If a student gets high scores, such a result is considered to be good 3. which is guaranteed by the Constitution.
4. In 2007 within the Bologna Process the government of the Russian Federation has approved 4. and he/she has an opportunity to enter higher school.
5. These degrees are equivalent to B.Sc and M.Sc degree 5. training of specialists.
6. Some higher educational institutions keep 6. the bill of transition to two-level higher education system.
7. The opinion exists 7. first in specially equipped laboratories and workshops, then in various plants.
8. Transition to two-level system will make Russian education system 8. through a transitional period.
9. The profound study of theory is accompanied by practical training, 9. more dynamical and modern.
10.The system of secondary and higher education in Russia is going 10. that bachelors are half-educated persons.

 

3.2 Make up all possible questions to these sentences.Give the negative form:

1. At the end of each semester students take their exams.

2. The students are taking Unified National Exams in the classroom Nr. 27 now.

3. The new laboratory equipment will be installed in the building 2 next year.

3.3 Write the Passive Progressive of these sentences. Use words now, from … till, the whole month/morning etc:

1. All these problems are widely discussed in Russian society.

2. The new educational standards were developed by the experts last month.

3. Each exam is conducted by the independent examining boards.

4. A group of experts discussed a very serious matter yesterday.

5. We use these programs in our work.

6. The experts were discussing the transition to two- level system the whole academic year.

7. The teacher is correcting mistakes in our tests now.

8. This experiment was carried out by our professor last semester.

9. The dean is looking through the list of the applicant now.

10. Our group was examined in the room Nr. 224 yesterday.

 

IV. Brush up your talk:

4.1 Study the advantages and disadvantages of the higher education of the transitional period in Russia. Do you agree or disagree with them? Begin your answer with phrases:I agree/disagree with this statement, To my mind it is true, As for me I am for it, I'm not sure, in fact, I'm afraid I entirely disagree with , I don't think that's right, I'm exactly of the same opinion, That's one way of looking at it, but… I think it goes further than that.

Advantages of higher education system of the transitional period Disadvantages of higher education system of the transitional period
Efficiency of using the state funded places Bachelors are half-educated persons
More academic freedoms to faculties and students Master’s program is not clear enough
Involving of employers in forecasting of requirements for education Talented young people cannot receive higher education
Expanding their participation in professional training financing The equipment which is used at universities is not modern enough
Opportunity for students to continue study without problems in any higher school of Europe Lack of educational materials in the university library
Easier to get a job abroad Reducing of the state funded places at the higher schools
Development of a new financial mechanism Not adequate teachers' salaries at the higher school
  Scholarship is low
  Bribery
  Tuition fees are growing
  Getting job on the specialty after graduating from the higher school

 

TEXT 1. IVAN KULIBIN (1735 - 1818)

I. Before you read:

1.1 Read the words properly:

Mechanic, inventor, childhood, mechanisms, special interest , prolific imagination, egg-shaped clock, Catherine II, to assign, pocket-clock, current, month, design, miniature, microscopes, girder, push-cycle cart, lantern, source, industrially, lighthouses, flywheel, gearbox, roller bearing, prosthetic device, entrepreneur, screw, feasible, cargo, poverty.

1.2 Find the Russian equivalents:

Mechanical tools, clock mechanisms, prolific imagination, egg-shaped clock, complex automatic mechanism, to be in charge of, the Academy of Sciences, «planetary» pocket-clock, miniature clock-in-a-ring, push-cycle cart, one-arch bridge, roller bearing, sailing upstream, to display an interest, realization, to inspire, current moon phase, to facet, flywheel, screw mechanisms, prosthetic, to reject, span

богатая фантазия, часы овальной формы, часовой механизм, механические станки, быть ответственным за что-л., Академия наук, «планетарные» карманные часы, миниатюрные «часы в кольце», механический экипаж с педальным приводом, автоматический механизм, роликовый подшипник, одноарочный мост, плыть против течения, проявить интерес, осуществление, способствовать, винтовой механизм, текущая фаза луны, совершенствовать, маховое колесо, пролёт (моста), протезный, отклонять,

1.3 State the part of speech:

Mechanic, inventor, mechanical, mechanism, prolific, imagination, to inspire, planetary, complex, automatic , current, miniature , optical, during, model, commission , wooden ,three, light , device, later , over distance, to return , poverty.

1.4 Analyse the use of modal verbs and their equivalents. Translate the following sentences:

1. Who can answer my question?

2. Nobody could translate this text.

3. He ought to do this task at once.

4. He is to go home at 7 p.m.

5. The students were permitted to do this test again.

6. I asked him to help me, but he wouldn't listen to me.

7. They should visit her, she is in the hospital.

8. Last semester we would often go to the swimming pool.

9. He will be able to do this project next week.

10. Ivan Kulibin had to leave the academy.

11. Your friend should give up smoking.

12. May I leave for a while? — Yes, you may.

13. She should be more attentive at the lessons.

14. Must I attend this meeting? - No, you needn't.

15. You needn't come so early.

II. Reading:

Ivan Petrovich Kulibin was a Russian mechanic and inventor. He was born in 1735 in Nizhny Novgorod in the family of a trader. From childhood, Kulibin displayed an interest in constructing mechanical tools. Soon, clock mechanisms became a special interest of his. His realizations as well as his prolific imagination inspired the work of many.

During 1764 -1767 he built an egg-shaped clock, containing a complex automatic mechanism. In 1769 Kulibin gave this clock to Catherine II, who assigned Kulibin to be in charge of the mechanical workshop in the Academy of Sciences of Saint Petersburg. There, Kulibin built a «planetary» pocket-clock, which showed not only the current time, but also the month, day of the week, the season and the current moon phase. Kulibin also designed projects for tower clocks, miniature "clock-in-a-ring" types and others. He also worked on new ways to facet glass for use in microscopes, telescopes and other optical instruments.

During the 1770s, he designed a wooden one-arch bridge over the Neva river with a span of 298 metres, offering to use an original girder with a cross grate. In 1776 a model was tested by a special commission of academics. Kulibin’s project was praised by Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, but was never realized. After 1780, Kulibin worked on possibilities for a metallic bridge, but these projects were also rejected by the government. Kulibin designed three projects for wooden and three projects for metallic bridges.

In 1779, he built a lantern that could emit a powerful light using a weak light source. This invention was used industrially for lighting workshops, lighthouses, ships, etc. In 1791, Kulibin constructed a push-cycle cart, in which he used a flywheel, a brake, a gearbox and roller bearing. The cart was operated by a man pressing pedals. In the same year, he also designed "mechanical legs", a prosthetic device, which was later used by a French entrepreneur. In 1793, Kulibin constructed an elevator that lifted a cabin using screw mechanisms. In 1794, he created an optical telegraph for transmitting signals over distance.

In 1801 Kulibin was fired from the academy and returned to Nizhny Novgorod, where he designed a method of sailing upstream and built a ship which he had started to design back in 1782. Tests indicated that such ships were indeed feasible, but they were never used. During the same time, Kulibin had projects on using steam engines to move cargo ships, different kinds of mills, pianos and other projects.

Kulibin died in 1818 after spending his last years in poverty.

III. After you have read:

3.1 Say what is true and what is false. Correct the false statements:

1. From childhood, Kulibin displayed an interest in constructing mechanical tools.

2. During 1764-1767 he built a steam-engine.

3. Ivan Kulibin also designed projects for tower clocks, miniature clock-in-a-ring types and others.

4. Kulibin’s project was awarded the Nobel Prize.

5. In 1793, he constructed the four-stroke piston cycle internal combustion engine.

6. In 1794, he created an optical telegraph for transmitting signals over distance.

7. In 1801 Ivan Kulibin was appointed the rector of the academy in Nizhny Novgorod.

3.2 .Fill in the blanks with words from the text:

1. He was born in 1735 in ... in the family of a ... .

2. In 1769 Kulibin ... this clock to Catherine II, who ... Kulibin to be ... of the mechanical ... in the ... of Saint Petersburg.

3. There, Kulibin … a «planetary» …, which … not only the current time, but also the month, day of the week, the season and the … moon phase.

4. He also … on new ways to … glass … use in …, telescopes and other … instruments.

5. During the 1770s, he … a wooden … bridge … the Neva river with a … of 298 metres, offering to use an original … with a cross grate.

6. After 1780, Kulibin worked … possibilities … a metallic bridge, but these projects … also … by the government.

7. In 1791, Kulibin … a …, in which he used a …, a brake, a … and roller bearing.

8. In 1801 Kulibin … from the academy and … to Nizhny Novgorod, where he designed a method of …and … a ship which he … to design back in 1782.

9. Tests … that such ships …indeed …, but they …never … .

10.During the same time, Kulibin had projects … using … to move … ships, different kinds of …, pianos and other projects.

3.3. Substitute the modal verbs for the possible equivalents:

1.The special commission of engineers must test a new device.

2. My friend can play tennis very well.

3. The students may attend the scientific conference.

4. We can’t prepare this report in time.

5. You make take my laptop till tomorrow.

6. She must go to Nizhniy Novgorod for several days.

3.4 Insert the modal verbs may or can:

1. The mechanic ... repair the brakes tomorrow if no one bothers him any more.

2. ... we come and see the head engineer next Monday at four o'clock in the afternoon?

3. What time is it? — It ... be about five o'clock, but I am not sure.

4. Only a person who physics the language very well ... answer such a question.

5. Let me look at your diploma project. I ... be able to help you.

6. The computer class is quite free, and anyone who likes ... work there.

7. ... I take your text book on higher mathematics till tomorrow?

10. Take your umbrella with you: it ... rain today.

11. Do you think you ... draw these diagram?

3.5 Insert the necessary modal verb or it equivalent:

1. I ... not go to the cinema with them yesterday, I ... to work on my term paper.

2. My friend lives not far from the university and ... go by foot.

3. All of us ... be in time for classes.

4. ... you ... to work hard to do well in special subjects?

6. One … know a foreign language.

7. My friend … to make a repot at the conference at 10 a.m.

8. Nobody … answer my question.

9. The scientist … … to carry on this experiment in the university laboratory.

10. … you … to start this program at once?

IV. Speaking

TEXT 2. KARL BENZ (1844- 1929)

I. Before you read:

1.1 Read the words correctly:

German, mechanical engineer, automobile , an internal-combustion engine, enterprise , unreliable, fiancée, dowry, misfortune, development , revenue, genius, successive, ignition , power sparks , to improvise , employee, horseless carriage, evaporative, vehicle, gasoline, pharmacy, quantity, simultaneously, laurel, scientific, nonprofit.

1.2 State the part of speech:

Internal, badly, unreliable, to marry, agreement, merely, to produce, opportunity, to generate, its, own, vehicle, nineteenth, the largest, horizontally, brand, design, to design, performance, now, facility, died, today, simultaneously, through, momentum.

1.3 Give the nouns for these verbs:

To produce, to generate, to develop, to maintain, to agree, to invent, to incorporate, to create, to transmit.

1.4 Match the columns:

1. internal-combustion engine 1. литейная мастерская, цех
2. fiancée 2. двигатель внутреннего сгорания
3. foundry 3. двухтактный двигатель
4. two-stroke engine 4. невеста
5.high performance engine 5. поставщик
6. to impound 6. оказываться
7. supplier 7. высокоэффективные двигатели
8.engine driver 8.машинист
9. to turn out 9. конфисковать
10. to buy out 10. приданое
11. dowry 11. доход, выручка
12. revenue 12. выкупить
13. spark plug 13. переключение передач
14. gear shift 14. появляться, возникать
15. to arise (arose, arisen) 15. свеча зажигания
16. to incorporate 16. вследствие, в результате
17. to withdraw (withdrew, withdrawn) 17. придумывать, организовывать (что-л.) экспромтом
18.production costs 18. уходить, удаляться
19. to maintain 19.производственные затраты
20. due to 20. сохранять, поддерживать
21. to improvise 21. регистрировать, оформлять
22. to bring to smth. 22. удовлетворять свои желания
23. to indulge 23. приводить к чему-л.
24. horseless carriage 24. батарейное зажигание
25. to feature 25. безлошадный экипаж
26. coil ignition 26. испаряющий; парообразующий
27. evaporative 27. содержать в себе как отличительный, особенный элемент
28. roller chain 28. привод
29. gear 29. втулочно-роликовая цепь  
30. unaided 30. исправлять
31. to rectify 31. без посторонней помощи
32. opposed piston 32 .скорость движения, импульс, толчок
33. flat engine 33. противоположно движущиеся поршни
34. momentum   34.плоский (горизонтальный) двигатель
35. dead centre 35. объединять
36. to merge 36. правление, руководство, совет, коллегия
37. board 37. мертвая точка
38. remainder 38. остроконечная звезда
39. pointed star 39. остаток
40. laurel 40. окружать
41. merger 41. лавр
42. nonprofit foundation объявлять, называть
43. interim слияние, объединение
44. to designate некоммерческий фонд
45. to surround промежуток времени

 

1.4 Analyse the use of modal verbs and their equivalents. Translate the following sentences:

1. Who can help me to translate this article?

2. Nobody could solve this task.

3. He ought to do this work at once.

4. He is to go home at 9 p.m.

5. The students were permitted to do this test again.

6. I asked him to help me, but he wouldn't listen to me.

7. They should visit her, she is in the hospital.

8. Last semester we would often go to the swimming pool.

9. He will be able to do this project next week.

10. Karl Benz had to enlarge the factory.

11. Your friend should give up smoking.

12. May I leave for a while? — Yes, you may.

13. She should be more attentive at the lessons.

14. Must I attend this meeting? - No, you needn't.

15. You needn't download this program.

II. Reading:

In 1885, German mechanical engineer, Karl Benz designed and built the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine.

Karl Friedrich Benz was born in 1844 in Baden Muehlburg, Germany (now part of Karlsruhe). He was the son of an engine driver. Benz attended the Karlsruhe grammar school and later the Karlsruhe Polytechnic University. In 1871, he founded his first company with partner August Ritter, the Iron Foundry and Machine Shop, a supplier of building materials.

The enterprise's first year went very badly. Ritter turned out to be unreliable. The business's tools were impounded. The difficulty was overcome when Benz's fiancée, Bertha Ringer, bought out Ritter's share in the company using her dowry. In 1872 Karl Benz and Bertha Ringer married, later having five children.

Despite such business misfortunes, Karl Benz led in the development of new engines in the early factory he and his wife owned. To get more revenues, in 1878 he began to work on new patents. First, he concentrated all his efforts on creating a reliable gas two-stroke engine. Benz finished his two-stroke engine on December 31, 1878, New Year's Eve, and was granted a patent for it in 1879.

Karl Benz showed his real genius, however, through his successive inventions registered while designing what would become the production standard for his two-stroke engine. Benz soon patented the speed regulation system, the ignition using white power sparks with battery, the spark plug, the carburetor, the clutch, the gear shift, and the water radiator.

Problems arose again when the banks at Mannheim demanded that Bertha and Karl Benz's enterprise be incorporated due to the high production costs it maintained. The Benz's were forced to improvise an association with photographer Emil Bühler and his brother (a cheese merchant), in order to get additional bank support. The company became the joint-stock company Gasmotoren Fabrik Mannheim in 1882.

After all the necessary incorporation agreements, Benz was unhappy because he was left with merely five percent of the shares and a modest position as director. Worst of all, his ideas weren't considered when designing new products, so he withdrew from that corporation just one year later, in 1883.

Benz's lifelong hobby brought him to a bicycle repair shop in Mannheim owned by Max Rose and Friedrich Wilhelm Esslinger. In 1883, the three founded a new company producing industrial machines: Benz&Cie. Quickly growing to twenty-five employees, it soon began to produce static gas engines as well.

The success of the company gave Benz the opportunity to indulge in his old passion of designing a horseless carriage. He used similar technology when he created an automobile. It featured wire wheels (unlike carriages' wooden ones) with a four-stroke engine of his own design between the rear wheels, with a very advanced coil ignition and evaporative cooling rather than a radiator. Power was transmitted by means of two roller chains to the rear axle. Karl Benz finished his creation in 1885 and named it the Benz Patent Motorwagen

It was the first automobile entirely designed as such to generate its own power. Benz began to sell the vehicle (advertising it as the Benz Patent Motorwagen) in the late summer of 1888, making it the first commercially available automobile in history.

Early customers could only buy gasoline from pharmacies that sold small quantities as a cleaning product. The early-1888 version of the Motorwagen had no gears and could not climb hills unaided. This limitation was rectified after Bertha Benz made her famous trip driving one of the vehicles a great distance and suggested to her husband the addition of another gear.

The great demand for stationary, static internal combustion engines forced Karl Benz to enlarge the factory in Mannheim, and in 1886 a new building was added. Benz & Cie. had grown in the interim from 50 employees in 1889 to 430 in 1899. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899.

In 1895, Benz designed the first truck in history, with some of the units later modified by the first motor bus company: the Netphener, becoming the first motor buses in history.

In 1896, Karl Benz was granted a patent for his design of the first flat engine. It had horizontally opposed pistons, a design in which the corresponding pistons reach top dead centre simultaneously, thus balancing each other with respect to momentum.

This design is still used by Porsche, Subaru, and some high performance engines used in racing cars.

1903 sales of Benz & Cie. reached 3,480 automobiles, and the company remained the leading manufacturer of automobiles. 1926, Benz & Cie. and Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG) finally merged as the Daimler-Benz company and gave the model of the DMG automobiles the name Mercedes Benz. The name of that DMG model had been selected after ten-year-old Mercédès Jellinek, the daughter of Emil Jellinek who had set the specifications for the new model. Between 1900 and 1909 he was a member of DMG's board of management and long before the merger Jellinek had resigned.

Karl Benz was a member of the new Daimler Benz board of management for the remainder of his life. A new logo was created, consisting of a three pointed star (representing Daimler's motto: engines for land, air, and water) surrounded by traditional laurels from the Benz logo, and the brand of all of its automobiles was labeled Mercedes Benz. Model names would follow the brand name in the same convention as today

1929, Karl Benz died at home in Ladenburg at the age of eighty-four. The Benz home now has been designated as historic and is used as a scientific meeting facility for a nonprofit foundation, the Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz Foundation, that honors both Bertha and Karl Benz for their roles in thehistory of automobiles.

III. After you have read:

3.1. Say what is true and what is false. Correct the false statements:

1. Karl Friedrich Benz was born in 1844 in Baden Muehlburg, Germany.

2. He was the son of an engineer.

3. Benz attended the Karlsruhe grammar school and later the Karlsruhe Polytechnic University.

4. In 1881, he founded his first company with partner Emil Jellinek.

5. Karl Benz concentrated all his efforts on creating a reliable gas four-stroke engine.

6. Benz soon patented the speed regulation system, the ignition using white power sparks with battery, the spark plug, the carburetor, the clutch, the gear shift, and the water radiator.

7. The success of the company gave Benz the opportunity to indulge in his old passion of designing a electric car.

8. The early-1888 version of the Motorwagen had no wheels and could not move unaided.

9. During the last years of the nineteenth century, Benz was the largest automobile company in the world with 572 units produced in 1899.

10. The name of that DMG model had been selected after the daughter of Karl Benz.

11. A new logo was created, consisting of a three pointed star (representing Daimler's motto: engines for land, air, and water) surrounded by traditional laurels from the Benz logo.

3.2 Fill in the blanks with words from the text:

1. In 1885, ... , Karl Benz … and … the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an … engine.

2. In 1871, he … his … company with partner August Ritter, the …. a supplier of building materials.

3. The difficulty ... overcome when Benz's ..., Bertha Ringer, .... out Ritter's share in the company using her ... .

4. Despite such ..., Karl Benz ... in the development of new engines in the early factory he and ... owned.

5. Benz ... his ... on December 31, 1878, New Year's Eve, and ... a patent for it in 1879.

6. The name of that DMG model ... after ten-year-old Mercédès Jellinek, the daughter of Emil Jellinek who ... the specifications for the new model.

7. A new logo ..., consisting of a three pointed star (representing Daimler's motto: engines for land, air, and water) ... by traditional laurels from the Benz logo, and the brand of all of its automobiles ... Mercedes Benz.

8. The Benz home now ... as historic and is used as a scientific meeting facility for a ... foundation.

3.3. Substitute the modal verbs for the possible equivalents:

1. The special commission of engineers must test a new device.

2. My friend can play tennis very well.

3. The students may attend the scientific conference.

4. We can’t prepare this report in time.

5. You make take my laptop till tomorrow.

6. She must go to Nizhniy Novgorod for several days.

3.4 Insert the modal verbs may or can:

1. The mechanic ... repair the brakes tomorrow if no one bothers him any more.

2. ... we come and see the head engineer next Monday at four o'clock in the afternoon?

3. What time is it? — It ... be about five o'clock, but I am not sure.

4. Only a person who physics the language very well ... answer such a question.

5. Let me look at your diploma project. I ... be able to help you.

6. The computer class is quite free, and anyone who likes ... work there.

7. ... I take your text book on higher mathematics till tomorrow?

10. Take your umbrella with you: it ... rain today.

11. Do you think you ... draw these diagram?

3.5 Insert the necessary modal verb or its equivalent:

1. I ... not go to the cinema with them yesterday, I ... to work on my term paper.

2. My friend lives not far from the university and ... go by foot.

3. All of us ... be in time for classes.

4. ... you ... to work hard to do well in special subjects?

6. One … know a foreign language.

7. My friend … to make a repot at the conference at 10 a.m.

8. Nobody … answer my question.

9. The scientist … … to carry on this experiment in the university laboratory.

10. … you … to start this program at once?

IV. Review:

V. Speaking

5.1 Answer the following questions:

1. Are the cars-model of Mercedes Benz Company popular nowadays?

2. Are they reliable?

3. Do you like these models? Why?

4. Would you like to have a car of Mercedes Benz Company?

5. Would you like to get a job as an engineer at the Mercedes Benz Company?

5.2 Speak about Karl Benz using his profile:

Born: 1844, Baden Muehlburg, Germany

Died : 1929, Ladenburg

Nationality: German

Education: Karlsruhe grammar school, Karlsruhe Polytechnic University

First company: with partner August Ritter, the Iron Foundry and Machine Shop, a supplier of building materials

Spouse - Bertha Ringer, married in 1872

Companies he worked for: the Iron Foundry and Machine Shop,Gasmotoren Fabrik , Benz&Cie, Benz Patent Motorwagen, Daimler-Benz Company.

Mercedes Benz - after ten-year-old Mercédès Jellinek, the daughter of Emil Jellinek .

A logo of the automobiles Mercedes Benz: a three pointed star surrounded by traditional laurels from the Benz logo.

Inventions:two-stroke engine (patent in 1879), the speed regulation system, the ignition using white power sparks with battery, the spark plug, the carburetor, the clutch, the gear shift, and the water radiator (patent), a first automobile featured wire wheels (unlike carriages' wooden ones) with a four-stroke engine of his own design between the rear wheels, with a very advanced coil ignition and evaporative cooling rather than a radiator, static gas engines, horseless carriage, first truck in history, first flat engine (patent)

5.3 Use the following phrases and word combinations to retell the text:

1. As I understood from the text ...

2. According to the text ...

3. According to the author ...

4. As it is described in the text ...

5. As it is said in the text ...

6. If I am not mistaken …

7. According to the figures (data, information) from the text...

8. As for me I learnt that Karl Benz…

 

Pre-reading task.

Give the Russian for:

The Kazan Cathedral, Nevsky Prospekt, Obvodnyi Canal, Neoclassicism, the Moscow Kremlin, the Model Album for Church Designs, Neo-Russian Grand Kremlin Palace, Soviet authorities, Orel region, Maloarkhangelsk district.

15.2. Words and word combinations to be remembered:

Jeweller ювелир

Notable известный

The Empire Style

Стиль ампир

To appoint назначать

7. division отделение (в учреждении)

Embankment набережная

To submit представлять

Revival style

Стиль Ренессанс

Revered почитаемый

Ambitious претенциозный

Date эпоха

Храм Христа Спасителя

Fellow коллега

Severe строгий

Nevertheless тем не менее

Emperor император

To approve одобрять

Church церковь

That of так называемый



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