Read the following quotes from different articles about the problems of higher education in Russia. Formulate the main idea of each statement. Do you agree with these opinions?



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Read the following quotes from different articles about the problems of higher education in Russia. Formulate the main idea of each statement. Do you agree with these opinions?



1. «One of the major problems of Russian higher education today is the relatively small number of graduates who find employment that matches their qualification. The statistical information varies considerably depending on the source. However, at present, around 40% of Russian students remain unemployed on graduation, a situation is aggravating (обостряется) by low salaries; only 25%–30% find a position that matches their qualification, while, realistically, some 20% of graduates are not equipped to fill a position demanding a high-level of knowledge».

(W. John Morgan & Grigori A. Kliucharev , «Higher Education and the Post-Soviet Transition in Russia»)

2. «Competition between higher education institutions in Russia changed most

dramatically after introduction of the unified state examination (EGE) and changing the admissions process. This exam gave the prospective students a much wider choice of schools where they could apply, while universities now had to compete for the best students and the educational market share. The government has also started the process of changing the legal status of educational institutions to give them more financial autonomy and has mandated (санкционировало) the creation of quality management systems in the universities to use the available money more efficiently. Just like many other governments in the world, the Russian policymakers have been trying to develop market»

(Natalia Forrat, PhD student in Sociology at Northwestern University , «Global Trends or Regime Survival the Reforms in Russian Higher Education»)

3. «The Unified State Examination may have played a role in setting up anti-corruption barriers between schools and universities. But in terms of assessing (оценка) the quality of education, in particular in humanitarian subjects, it is clear that the Unified State Exam does not give a clear and accurate assessment of the real capabilities of university applicants, their analytic abilities and creativity, in spite of all the efforts to improve the exercises in section C of the tests»

(Alexei Vlasov is deputy dean, Moscow Lomonosov State University, Faculty of History «What is wrong with higher education in Russia?»)

4. Russia is still not capable of raising the quality of its training of specialists. And even though we have apparently (очевидно) entered the “knowledge economy” phase, it is unclear as yet how competitive Russia really is in this field. The main problem we come up against is borrowing from the “progressive” Western experience, which is not always particularly suitable to the reality on the ground in Russia. As an example, take the transition to a two-stage model, as set out in the Bologna Process, when training graduates is carried out in the absence of any real demand for such people.

(Alexei Vlasov is deputy dean, Moscow Lomonosov State University, Faculty of History «What is wrong with higher education in Russia?»)

5. «The programs of targeted funding for large schools serve to ensure the

loyalty of the politically important group – the top administrators of the large universities. These people not only have administrative access to students, a potentially active political group, but they also provide the government with expert support in formulating social and economic policies. Although the possibilities for corruption embedded in these programs are high, loyalty will be achieved even if the money is not stolen. Finally, the quality assurance mechanisms, namely state licensing and accreditation, serve as a constant threat to the universities becoming an effective repression tool of the regime».

(Natalia Forrat, PhD student in Sociology at Northwestern University «Global Trends or Regime Survival the Reforms in Russian Higher Education»)

4.3 Discuss* these topics using all information you have got.

1. The transition to a two-stage model: pro and contra.

2. Is higher education a way to success?

3. Study at the State University – Education-Science-Production Complex (State University-ESPC): prospects and problems.

*Note:

1. Discussion is from the Latin word that means exchange of opinions. Discussion is based on equal conditions for everybody. Each participant has the right both to ask and to state. The problem is not always solved during discussion, differences in opinions are left sometimes. It is necessary to use argumentation – statements and explanations. Each participant should hold certain discussion regulations:

– to be well-prepared;

– to speak clearly and logically;

– to explain arguments;

– to express opinions quietly;

– not to digress from the topic;

– not to speak too long;

– to listen to others without interrupting them.

2. Here you can see some discussion phrases. They may help you.

– May I put a word in? –Можно вставить слово?

– Generally speaking...- В общих чертах

– Strictly speaking...Честно говоря

– That depends on...-Это зависит от

– I want to press the point that...-Я хочу подчеркнуть,что

– On the one hand...- С одной стороны

– On the other hand...- С другой стороны

– As far as I am able to judge...-Насколько я могу судить

– To sum it all up...- Подведя итоги…

– On the whole...В целом

– To be brief/ In a short word...Короче говоря

– If I am not mistaken...-Если я не ошибаюсь

– If my memory serves me rightly...-Если память меня не подводит..

– As far as I know...- Насколько я знаю

– There is no doubt... Без сомнений

– It is quite obvious/ evident...- Это совершенно очевидно

– It is common knowledge that...- Это общеизвестно, что

– It seems to me...- Мне кажется

– To tell the truth...- По правде говоря

– And what about you? – А ты?

– As for me...- Что касается меня

– To begin with...Начнем с ..

- What for? — Зачем?

-Let's drop the subject — Давай оставим эту тему

-Let's clear it up — Давай разберёмся.

-What are you talking about? — О чём ты!

-What are you driving at? — К чему ты клонишь?

That's not the point — Это не относится к вопросу

-It doesn't prove a thing — Это ничего не доказывает

-That's very well, but — Это всё очень хорошо, но…

-So what? — Ну и что?

-You can take it from me — Можешь мне поверить

-What of it? — И что из этого?

I have no idea — Понятия не имею

I wish I knew — Хотел бы я знать!

It doesn’t matter — Это не важно

It's all the same to me — Мне без разницы

It's beside the point — Это не относится к вопросу

It's out of place — Это неуместно

It's waste of time — Это трата времени

It's a lie — Это ложь

It doesn't make sense — Это не имеет смысла

It's new to me — Первый раз слышу

Enough of it — Довольно об этом

I mean it! — Я серьёзно

UNIT 5. OUTSTANDING PEOPLE IN THE ENGINEERING, TRANSPORT AND ARCHITECTURE

TEXT 1. IVAN KULIBIN (1735 - 1818)

I. Before you read:

1.1 Read the words properly:

Mechanic, inventor, childhood, mechanisms, special interest , prolific imagination, egg-shaped clock, Catherine II, to assign, pocket-clock, current, month, design, miniature, microscopes, girder, push-cycle cart, lantern, source, industrially, lighthouses, flywheel, gearbox, roller bearing, prosthetic device, entrepreneur, screw, feasible, cargo, poverty.

1.2 Find the Russian equivalents:

Mechanical tools, clock mechanisms, prolific imagination, egg-shaped clock, complex automatic mechanism, to be in charge of, the Academy of Sciences, «planetary» pocket-clock, miniature clock-in-a-ring, push-cycle cart, one-arch bridge, roller bearing, sailing upstream, to display an interest, realization, to inspire, current moon phase, to facet, flywheel, screw mechanisms, prosthetic, to reject, span

богатая фантазия, часы овальной формы, часовой механизм, механические станки, быть ответственным за что-л., Академия наук, «планетарные» карманные часы, миниатюрные «часы в кольце», механический экипаж с педальным приводом, автоматический механизм, роликовый подшипник, одноарочный мост, плыть против течения, проявить интерес, осуществление, способствовать, винтовой механизм, текущая фаза луны, совершенствовать, маховое колесо, пролёт (моста), протезный, отклонять,

1.3 State the part of speech:

Mechanic, inventor, mechanical, mechanism, prolific, imagination, to inspire, planetary, complex, automatic , current, miniature , optical, during, model, commission , wooden ,three, light , device, later , over distance, to return , poverty.

1.4 Analyse the use of modal verbs and their equivalents. Translate the following sentences:

1. Who can answer my question?

2. Nobody could translate this text.

3. He ought to do this task at once.

4. He is to go home at 7 p.m.

5. The students were permitted to do this test again.

6. I asked him to help me, but he wouldn't listen to me.

7. They should visit her, she is in the hospital.

8. Last semester we would often go to the swimming pool.

9. He will be able to do this project next week.

10. Ivan Kulibin had to leave the academy.

11. Your friend should give up smoking.

12. May I leave for a while? — Yes, you may.

13. She should be more attentive at the lessons.

14. Must I attend this meeting? - No, you needn't.

15. You needn't come so early.

II. Reading:

Ivan Petrovich Kulibin was a Russian mechanic and inventor. He was born in 1735 in Nizhny Novgorod in the family of a trader. From childhood, Kulibin displayed an interest in constructing mechanical tools. Soon, clock mechanisms became a special interest of his. His realizations as well as his prolific imagination inspired the work of many.

During 1764 -1767 he built an egg-shaped clock, containing a complex automatic mechanism. In 1769 Kulibin gave this clock to Catherine II, who assigned Kulibin to be in charge of the mechanical workshop in the Academy of Sciences of Saint Petersburg. There, Kulibin built a «planetary» pocket-clock, which showed not only the current time, but also the month, day of the week, the season and the current moon phase. Kulibin also designed projects for tower clocks, miniature "clock-in-a-ring" types and others. He also worked on new ways to facet glass for use in microscopes, telescopes and other optical instruments.

During the 1770s, he designed a wooden one-arch bridge over the Neva river with a span of 298 metres, offering to use an original girder with a cross grate. In 1776 a model was tested by a special commission of academics. Kulibin’s project was praised by Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, but was never realized. After 1780, Kulibin worked on possibilities for a metallic bridge, but these projects were also rejected by the government. Kulibin designed three projects for wooden and three projects for metallic bridges.

In 1779, he built a lantern that could emit a powerful light using a weak light source. This invention was used industrially for lighting workshops, lighthouses, ships, etc. In 1791, Kulibin constructed a push-cycle cart, in which he used a flywheel, a brake, a gearbox and roller bearing. The cart was operated by a man pressing pedals. In the same year, he also designed "mechanical legs", a prosthetic device, which was later used by a French entrepreneur. In 1793, Kulibin constructed an elevator that lifted a cabin using screw mechanisms. In 1794, he created an optical telegraph for transmitting signals over distance.

In 1801 Kulibin was fired from the academy and returned to Nizhny Novgorod, where he designed a method of sailing upstream and built a ship which he had started to design back in 1782. Tests indicated that such ships were indeed feasible, but they were never used. During the same time, Kulibin had projects on using steam engines to move cargo ships, different kinds of mills, pianos and other projects.

Kulibin died in 1818 after spending his last years in poverty.

III. After you have read:

3.1 Say what is true and what is false. Correct the false statements:

1. From childhood, Kulibin displayed an interest in constructing mechanical tools.

2. During 1764-1767 he built a steam-engine.

3. Ivan Kulibin also designed projects for tower clocks, miniature clock-in-a-ring types and others.

4. Kulibin’s project was awarded the Nobel Prize.

5. In 1793, he constructed the four-stroke piston cycle internal combustion engine.

6. In 1794, he created an optical telegraph for transmitting signals over distance.

7. In 1801 Ivan Kulibin was appointed the rector of the academy in Nizhny Novgorod.

3.2 .Fill in the blanks with words from the text:

1. He was born in 1735 in ... in the family of a ... .

2. In 1769 Kulibin ... this clock to Catherine II, who ... Kulibin to be ... of the mechanical ... in the ... of Saint Petersburg.

3. There, Kulibin … a «planetary» …, which … not only the current time, but also the month, day of the week, the season and the … moon phase.

4. He also … on new ways to … glass … use in …, telescopes and other … instruments.

5. During the 1770s, he … a wooden … bridge … the Neva river with a … of 298 metres, offering to use an original … with a cross grate.

6. After 1780, Kulibin worked … possibilities … a metallic bridge, but these projects … also … by the government.

7. In 1791, Kulibin … a …, in which he used a …, a brake, a … and roller bearing.

8. In 1801 Kulibin … from the academy and … to Nizhny Novgorod, where he designed a method of …and … a ship which he … to design back in 1782.

9. Tests … that such ships …indeed …, but they …never … .

10.During the same time, Kulibin had projects … using … to move … ships, different kinds of …, pianos and other projects.

3.3. Substitute the modal verbs for the possible equivalents:

1.The special commission of engineers must test a new device.

2. My friend can play tennis very well.

3. The students may attend the scientific conference.

4. We can’t prepare this report in time.

5. You make take my laptop till tomorrow.

6. She must go to Nizhniy Novgorod for several days.

3.4 Insert the modal verbs may or can:

1. The mechanic ... repair the brakes tomorrow if no one bothers him any more.

2. ... we come and see the head engineer next Monday at four o'clock in the afternoon?

3. What time is it? — It ... be about five o'clock, but I am not sure.

4. Only a person who physics the language very well ... answer such a question.

5. Let me look at your diploma project. I ... be able to help you.

6. The computer class is quite free, and anyone who likes ... work there.

7. ... I take your text book on higher mathematics till tomorrow?

10. Take your umbrella with you: it ... rain today.

11. Do you think you ... draw these diagram?

3.5 Insert the necessary modal verb or it equivalent:

1. I ... not go to the cinema with them yesterday, I ... to work on my term paper.

2. My friend lives not far from the university and ... go by foot.

3. All of us ... be in time for classes.

4. ... you ... to work hard to do well in special subjects?

6. One … know a foreign language.

7. My friend … to make a repot at the conference at 10 a.m.

8. Nobody … answer my question.

9. The scientist … … to carry on this experiment in the university laboratory.

10. … you … to start this program at once?

IV. Speaking



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