Principles of classification of the sentences.

Sent-immediate integral unit of speech built according to a def synt pattern & distinguished by a contextually relevant communicative purpose. Based on 2 principles: 1)Communicative (declarative, interrogat, imperative, exclametary) 2)Structural 1.number of predication lines(1 → simple S, 2 or more → composite S), 2.the completeness of the predication line(only 2-member S can be discussed here: complete & incomplete (elliptical)), 3.the ways of its expression(1-member(nominal, adjective, adverbial, verbal) & 2-member S.), 4.in case of multiple predication – all the types of relations between the clauses( 1.equal -> coordination -> compound S (parataxis) 2.unequal -> subordination -> complex S (hypotaxis).

Incomplete (elliptical) 2-member S is built on the model of a 2-member S in which 1 or both principal parts are missing (in conversations, newspaper headlines, ads, stage directions).

One-member Ss are those the predication line of which comprises only 1 principal part which can’t be identified as a subject or a predicate. they are not context-dependent. Mainly used to describe emotions, subjective perception of reality.


Compound sentence. Semantic relations between the clauses.parataxis

The compound sentence consists of two or more clauses of equal rank which form one syntactical whole in meaning and intonation. Coordinate cls may be linked syndetically, asyndetically.Sem relations: 1.Copulativecoordination implies that two events or ideas conveyed by coordinate clauses are merely joined in time and place.(and, nor, neither ... nor, not only ...then, besides, again

2. Adversativecoordination joins clauses containing opposition, contradiction

or contrast. (the conj but, while, whereas, the conj adv yet, still, nevertheless the conjunctive particle only).

3. Disjunctiveconnection denotes choice, usually between two mutually exclusive alternatives. (or, either ... or, the conj adv else, otherwise):

4. Causative-consecutivecoordination joins clauses connected in such a way that one of them contains a reason and the other ― a consequence. The second clause may contain either the reason or the result of the event conveyed by theprevious clause. (for.The days became longer, forit was now springtime.)


Complex sentence. Structural classification of complex sentences.Hypotaxis

Complex sent consists of 2 or more clauses the rel bw which are dominational.

Complex Ss are often classified according to the type of sub cls. 2 approaches: 1)on categorical principal (on analogy with class of ws: noun cl, adjective cl) 2)functional principal (the position of what member of the S the cl fills: except predicate).

To characterize the complex S as a complex & to work out the classif of the structural patterns of complex Ss the following criteria are taken into consideration: 1)the structural completeness of the main part; 2)the means of connection & the way the parts are linked; 3)The relative importance of the main & the sub cl.=>Types (structural patterns:1.Inclusive type. The sub cl performs the function of a missing part in the main cl & is included into the structure of the main cl. The main clause is incomplete without the sub.The position of the sub cl results from its function.: What I want to know is why he didn’t come.

2. Ss with pronominal correlation. conj opening the sub cl is correlated with some pronominal element (a pronoun or an adv) in the main cl. The meaning & the function of the sub cl depends on the function of the correlative word. The connection is very tight. sub cl in post-position (sometimes in inter-position), but never precedes the main cl: It was just that which impressed me most.

3. Ss with complement or appositive connection. In this type the main clause contains a word devoid of meaning like ‘it’ or with a very general meaning (question, problem). The sub cl disclose its meaning. The word itselfis just an anticipatory element. The sub cl is often joined asyndetically. It can never be in preposition: She has a strange feeling as if smth has happened.

4. Ss with optional sub clause (adv cl of result, concession, cond).

5. Ss with mutual dependent cls: proportional agreement or comparison: The more I read the more I know.with patterns expressing temporal rel: Hardly had I entered the room the bell rang.

Syntactical structure of the cl( simple sentence). The model of the members of the sentence.

Parsing-the process of analyzing sent into their parts or constituents.

At the funct level the sss is described in terms of members of the s performing certain funct. Parts of the s –notional s constituents as they name elements of the sit named by the sent: prosses, participants, circumst. They are in diff relations to other parts of the sent. Trad parts of the sent:principal(predication. Subj-structural center, pred-semantic& communicat) & secondary (obj, att, adv mod(they extend the basic structure). The model of parts of speech the basic relation of notional sent constituents (show the linear order of const)

Dep on synt-semanti properties of the v: obligatory (princip part& complem) & optional.

Structurally members: simple(single w), phrasal, complex(secondary predict constr), compound (sub cl)

Objs:in/direct, prep.

Complements- oblig constituent of s , completes the pred , cannot become a Subj in a passive constr.( subj compl:She is a teacher. obj compl: He painted the door green; predicate compl:The table costs $100)

Adverbials: adjuncts(additional inf: he briefly..), disjunct (speaker’s attitude: undoubtedly ), conjunct(logical link: he was wrong so he kept silent)


25.Structural models of sent analysis. Distributional model. IC-mode

S is a structural, sem & communicative unit. It can be analyzed at different levels. The most universally accepted are syntactic, semantic & logical-communicative.

The term distribution total set of environments of a certain element. may be in:1)non-contrastive distribn(the same position,no difference in mng;variants of the same element):hoofs-hooves;2)contrastive d.(the same position,different mngs):she’s charming-she’s charmed;3)complementary d.(the same mng,different position;variants of the same element):cows-oxen. class 1-N, cl2- V, cl3-adj, cl4-adv

TheDM shows the linear order of sent constituents. The synt structure of the sent is presented as a sequence of positional classes of words:The old man saw a black dog there (D A1 N1 V D A2 N2 Adv)”+”Showing the linear order of classes of words, “-“ doesn’t show how ws are connected semantically; no inf about actual syntactic relations of sentence constituents. The police shot a man in the red cap(in the right arm)

ICM(based on binary principle, shows the hierarchy of members of S). A sent is a structured string of words grouped into phrases, so sent constituents are words & word-group. The basic principle for grouping words into phrases(endo- or exocentric) is cohesion(the possibility to substitute a word for the whole group without destroying the structure of the sentence). Ex:The old man(NP) saw a black dog there(VP)→2 immediate constituents –NP & VP, each has constituents of its own. Constituents which cannot be further divided are called ultimate (UC). The ICM exists in 2 main versions:1)the analytical model & 2)the derivation tree. 1)divides the sentence into IC-s & UC-s. 2)shows the syntactic dependence of sentence constituents.So the ICM shows both the syntactic relations & the linear order of elements.



Transformational model (TM)

IC analysis is supplemented with rules for transforming1 S into another Sentences. TM investigates relations between various derivation trees. in which all constituents are obligatory are called basic structures or elementary sentences or kernel sentences.Linguists single out from 2 to 7 kernel sentences:1)NV 2)NVN 3)NVPrepN 4)NisN 5)NisA 6)NisAdv 7)NisPrepN. The structure of all other sentences may be explained as a result of transformations of kernel structures. This analysis, showing derivational relations of sentences, is called TM→is based on ICM and it goes further showing semantic and syntactic relations of different sentence types. TM describes paradigmatic relations of basic and derived structures or the relations of syntactic derivation.

Transf-ions may be subdivided into: intramodel or(1)single base(changing the kernel structure) and (2)2-base(combining 2 structures). (1)may be of 2 types: modifying the kernel structure(ex: she’s working hard-she’s not working hard) & changing it(ex: she’s working hard-her working hard-her hard work).

Some basic types of intramodel tr.:substitution, deletion(have you seen him?-seen him?);movement (he is here-is he here?);nominalization (he arrived-his arrival);

2-base transformations: embedding(I know that he has come) and word-sharing(I saw him cross the street)

TM shows that some sentences are ambiguous because they derive from distinct deep structures: Flying planes can be dangerous→1)Planes are dangerous, 2)Flying is dangerous. So TM is an effective method of deciding grammatical ambiguity.


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