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Morphology and syntax as parts of gr. Main units and types of relations between gr. units in language and speech



Morphology and syntax as parts of gr. Main units and types of relations between gr. units in language and speech

Units of gr: morpheme, word, w group, sentence, suprapharsel unities. Every unit stays in relations with other units of the same level. Synt. rel, in speech. Paradigm- rel in the lang system.

Functword- a unit of lang both gr & lexical, sem & struct unity, ready-made u, naming u=> nominative func. Sentence u of lang & u of speech, not a ready-made u, naming & communicative u => nominative& communicative func.Grammar is devided into:-morphology –syntax Morphology studies paradigmatic rel of ws (structure, forms, classific of ws) Syntax studies syntagmatic rel of ws & paradmatic& synt rel of sent(structure, forms, classific of sents) Paradigmatic syntax-diff forms of sents(- ? !) Syntagmatic morphology –linear connection of ws Grammar, as a phen-on – a subsystem of lang, as a ling discipline – type of describing the phen-on as a university course –subject to learn (WHAT? HOWpract,WHY-theor)

 

Main gr notions.gr mng and gr.form. Gr categories. Method of opposition.

Gr mng.- plane of content. It is general, abstract, indirect(connected with objective reality through the lexical mng), obligatory, relative(it is revealed in relations of w forms: speak-speaks)

Gr form- plane of expression- wide sence: all means of expressing gr mngs.; narrow s- denote means of exp a particular gr mng(plur,tense,numb).

In En no direct correspondence btw gr mng & gr form=> 1.2 or more units of the plane of expression mau correspond to 1 unit of plane of content (allomorphs)-boys-children. 2. 2 or more units of the plane of content -//-1 unit of plane expression (polysemy, homonymy) –s: boy’s, dogs, asks.

A gr category - is a generalized gram mg revealed through formal & meaningful opposition of variants of 1 & same unit.

The features of gram category: 1.is represented by 2 gramm form( at least) 2.one word can represent diff gram categories: boy’s (number and case) 3.one word form can express only one gram mg of the same category 4.one particular gram mg can not be expressed in all forms of the word

asked- past tense, non-cont aspect, non-perfect order, active voice.

Gr categories are revealed on the basis on the method of oppositions. Types of opp: 1) acc to the number of members( binary, ternary, quaternary) 2)-//- quality: privative (strong memb(special marker)<-> weak- dog-dogs); equipollent-both membs strong & marked(am-is); gradual- degrees of comparison.

Oppositional reduction: 1.neutralisation- the weak memb acquires the mng of the strong one(Tonight we start for London) 2)Transposition-the strong memb is used in the context typical for the weak memb(She is always complaining of smth)

 

Structure of words. Types of morphemes.

The main task of morphology is the study of the structure of ws. The smallest meaningful unit of gr-morpheme. Free m-can occur as separate ws <-> bound. Monomorphemic <-> polymorphemic w.

Morph: lexical(roots), lexico-gramm(w-build affixes) & gr(form-building aff).

Positional variants of morpheme- allomorphs( cats, dogs, foses, oxen.)

3types of morphemic distribution: contrastive(position same< mng –diff: charming-charmed), non-contrastive (position&mng-same: learned-learnt), complementary( posit-diff, mng-same: asks-theaches)

Zero morpheme-mengful absence of m(book-books)

Semi-bound m-word m(funct of the m performed by a separate w : will work)

Means of form- b & gram f are divided: 1)synthetical (bound m: inflextions, sound interchange, suppletivity) 2)analytical 1.2 parts(w-operator& notional p) 2.anal f develop gr idiomaticity – is writing 3. within a cat anal f should be opposed to synth ones(is writing-writes) 4. funct as 1 memb in the sent 5. aux are lexically empty 5. lex mng is understood from the npotional part 6. aux change grammatically.

 

 

Means of form-building. Synthetic and analytical forms.

Means of form- b & gram f are divided: 1)synthetical (bound m: inflextions, sound interchange (sell-sold), suppletivity)

2)analytical (with the help of semi-bound m) 1.2 parts(w-operator& notional p) 2.anal f develop gr idiomaticity(the mng of the whole differs from the mng of its parts) – is writing 3. within a cat anal f should be opposed to synth ones(is writing-writes) 4. funct as 1 memb in the sent 5. aux are lexically empty 6 lex mng is understood from the notional part7. aux change grammatically

is more difficult an analytical comparative degree or is more difficult a free phrase?

an analytical form: 1) The actual meaning of formations like more difficult, (the) most difficult does not differ from that of the degrees of compar larger, (the) largest. 2) Qualitative adjectives, like difficult, express properties which may be present in different degrees, and therefore they are bound to have degrees of comparison.

a free phrase: 1) The words more and most have the same meaning in these phrases as in other phrases in which they may appear, e.g. more time, most people, etc. 2) there are also the phrases less difficult, (the) least difficult, and there seems to be no sufficient reason for treating the two sets of phrases in different ways, saying that more difficult is an analytical form, while less difficult is not. Besides, the very fact that more and less, (the) most and (the) least can equally well combine with difficult, would seem to show that they are free phrases and none of them is an analytical form

 


 

Parts of speech. Principles of classification

A part of speech-grammatically relevant class of ws which is specified on the basis of gr, semantic & lexical properties.

Criteria for grouping into classes:1)Semantic(mng)-generalized mng which is an abstraction from lexical mngs of constituent ws( N-substance)

2)Formal(morphological)-inflectional(form-b feat: fights) & derivational(w-b feat: whitness) features

3)Functional(syntactic). Synt properties are: distribution(set of all possible environments of a w=> combinability: adj with N) Typical syntactic func(N-subj, obj)

POS-as a field: central elements & marginal(substantivized adj)

1-criterion classifications:

1)Morphological(Sweet):in(particles)/declinable(N-ws, adj-ws…)

2)Syntactico-distributional(Fries)-each class of ws is characterized by a set of positions in a sentence=> 4 main classes of ws(1-N, 2-V, 3-adj, 4-adv) & funct ws(15 classes)

 

Notional and functional classes of words

All the words of the English language are grouped into different types of classes. This classification is based on three main principles: 1) their grammatical meaning; 2) their form and 3) their syntactical characteristics.

Criteria for differentiating N & F ws: 1)the prominence of their lexical mng 2) peculiarities of their combinability 3) ability to be substituted by a w of a more general mng 4)ability to add(create new items)

N ws:1)complete nominative mng 2) self-dependent fnc, can be used in isolation 3)subst by a w with more general mng 4)open class.

F ws: 1)incomplete nominative fnc 2)obligatory combinability, linking/ specifying fnc 3)cannot be -//- 4)closed class

F ws(Fries): 1.with unilateral combinability(art, aux, modals, particles) 2.with bilateral comb(prep, conj which connect 2 or more not ws) 3. heterogeneous(interrogative ws, it/there)

 

 

The Category of voice.

I)Sem cr-prosses developing dynamically in time II)Morph a)form build(Cat of tense, person, number, aspect, order, posteriority, mood, voice, representation) b) wd-build derivational zero-suffixation( to park) sound interchange(feed) –ate (cultivate), -en (broaden be- ( befriend) and prefixes are: re- (remake)III)Synt(funct predicate, non-finite verb performs different functions, combinability:N, adv, prep)

The verbal category of voice shows the direction of an action as viewed by the speaker. .Act V-action issuing from the Subj. Pass V- action directed towards its object. In pass constr the gr subj is the object of the act.

absence of direct correspondence btw meaning & form =>problem of number of voices. Middle voice.mng passive, form active; no opposition in form=> no gr category. The door opened It differs from the act v in meaning and syntactical construction. Reflexive voice: He hurt himself. Meaning – the action is concentrated on one and the same person. Form – verb + reflexive pronoun. But reflexive pronouns can be omitted and the meaning of reflexivity remains: He shaved and dressed. Prof. Ilyish: He hurt himself and the child. Besides: He makes toys – He makes mistakes. And 15. The caegory of mood.

I)Sem cr-prosses developing dynamically in time II)Morph a)form build(Cat of tense, person, number, aspect, order, posteriority, mood, voice, representation) b) wd-build derivational zero-suffixation( to park) sound interchange(feed) –ate (cultivate), -en (broaden be- ( befriend) and prefixes are: re- (remake)III)Synt(funct predicate, non-finite verb performs different functions, combinability:N, adv, prep)

Cat of M denotes modality(relation of the contents of the utt to reality as viewed by the speaker).Means of expr modality: phonetic, lexical(mod v), grammatical(mood).

imperative: let us let him do it. but! don’t let us...

Diversiry of moods. causes: 1) cat of mood is in state of development. 2) homonymy of forms(diff to distinguish aux & mod v ; from indicative: do-ind, subj, imper)

Principle for distinguishing forms: meaning, form, mng&form.( Ilyish 3 MOODS (indicative, subjunctive, imperative)- meaning; Prof. Smirnitsky: 6 MOODS (indicative, imperative, subjunctive I, subjunctive II, suppositional, conditional) - form и meaning;L.S.Barhudarov, D.A. Shteling: 2 MOODS (indicative, subjunctive)

Subj I(he be) Supp(he should be)- problematic act, SubjII(he were), Cond(should/would be)- unreal act.

Subj have cat of aspect, order, voice, prospect, person.

not always reflexive pronouns can be omitted: He found himself in a dark room. pronoun is not lex empty(cat of gender)+ add elements Reciprocal voice: They met each other at the station. Meaning – mutuality of the action. The subject is often plural. Form – verb + reciprocal pronoun. But They met at the station.

The cup was broken-Бахударов-pv, compound nominal predicate(смирницкий). 100%Pass V when:1)doer of the act 2)modifying adverbials 3)marked forms of the V( Has been made) 4)madal verbs(can be broken) 5)corresponding act const.

get and become (He got wounded in the war. He became surprised). - the verbs get and become retain to some extent their lexical meaning; - though P is a dependent form

Passive constructions: -Direct P (The letter was written yesterday) -Indirect P (I was given a book) -Prepositional P (The doctor was sent for) -Phraseological P(Care should be taken not to confuse these words) -Adverbial P (The house has not been lived in for many years)

 

Transformational model (TM)

IC analysis is supplemented with rules for transforming1 S into another Sentences. TM investigates relations between various derivation trees. in which all constituents are obligatory are called basic structures or elementary sentences or kernel sentences.Linguists single out from 2 to 7 kernel sentences:1)NV 2)NVN 3)NVPrepN 4)NisN 5)NisA 6)NisAdv 7)NisPrepN. The structure of all other sentences may be explained as a result of transformations of kernel structures. This analysis, showing derivational relations of sentences, is called TM→is based on ICM and it goes further showing semantic and syntactic relations of different sentence types. TM describes paradigmatic relations of basic and derived structures or the relations of syntactic derivation.

Transf-ions may be subdivided into: intramodel or(1)single base(changing the kernel structure) and (2)2-base(combining 2 structures). (1)may be of 2 types: modifying the kernel structure(ex: she’s working hard-she’s not working hard) & changing it(ex: she’s working hard-her working hard-her hard work).

Some basic types of intramodel tr.:substitution, deletion(have you seen him?-seen him?);movement (he is here-is he here?);nominalization (he arrived-his arrival);

2-base transformations: embedding(I know that he has come) and word-sharing(I saw him cross the street)

TM shows that some sentences are ambiguous because they derive from distinct deep structures: Flying planes can be dangerous→1)Planes are dangerous, 2)Flying is dangerous. So TM is an effective method of deciding grammatical ambiguity.

 


Word order

The words in an English sentence are arranged in a certain order which is fixed for every type of sentence and is,therefore,meaningful. There exist two ways of arranging words-direct order and inverted order.

The most common pattern for the arranfement of the main parts in a declarative sentence is Subject-Predicate-(Object),which is called direct word order.

func: gram, communicat, emphatic

Gr: 2)distinguish bw declar & ?sent 2)differentiate synt rel(bw Subj & Direct O(Tom loves Mary) bw Indir O & Dir O(the nurse gave Mary her daughter)) 3)to express attributive connections(People here rise early)

Commun( disting bw TH &RH, connecting sent in the text)

Emph(subjective wo: the new preceeds the given- Very tired she looked)

fixed word order: in many cases, speakers can choose between different constituent orderings or constructional alternations as exemplified in the following sentence pairs: John gave the book to Fred vs. John gave Fred the book, John picked up the book vs. John picked the book up, the President's speech vs. the speech of the President.


30. TEXT In modern linguistics text is considered to be the main unit of linguistic analysis. Discourse refers to a continuousstrech of utt larger than a sent.text<->discourse(t-physical product, surface structure, monologue, discourse- dynamic process, deep structure, dialogue)

Supraphrasal unity-2 or more connected sent characterized by the topical unity & semantic-syntactic cohesion.upraph u ch-ed by communicative dynamism: new inf is based on the inf which has been communicated in the previous sent.

A text has texture (текстура, или фактура), and this is what distinguishes it from other linguistic units. The texture is provided by the cohesive relation (когезивные отношения, связующие отношения,) or the co-reference (отнесённости к объекту внеязыковой действительности - реальной или воображаемо) of two elements appearing in anaphoric or cataphoric relations .

Grammatical Cohesive Devices:Anaphora (анафора) is a kind of mng rel bw speech expressions where a subsequent element is interpreted with reference to an initial one. Anaphora is pointing back to some previous item. The presupposed element may be located elsewhere in the preceding context

Cataphora (катафора) is a kind of mng rel where the presupposing element is preceding the presupposed one. Thus cataphora is pointing forwards.

Tie (связка, связь) is a single instance of cohesion (отдельны» случай когезии) and the rel bw a pair of elements standing in anaphoric or cataphoric relations

Personal reference (референция, производимая при помощи личных и притяжательных местоимении) is reference by means of function in the speech situation, through the category of person. This reference is performed by personal and possessive (including absolute) pronouns.

Demonstrative reference (указательная референция) is reference by means of location, on a scale of proximity. It is a form of verbal pointing

Comparative reference (сравнительная референция) is indirect reference by means of identity or similarity. It is based on comparison

 

 

Morphology and syntax as parts of gr. Main units and types of relations between gr. units in language and speech

Units of gr: morpheme, word, w group, sentence, suprapharsel unities. Every unit stays in relations with other units of the same level. Synt. rel, in speech. Paradigm- rel in the lang system.

Functword- a unit of lang both gr & lexical, sem & struct unity, ready-made u, naming u=> nominative func. Sentence u of lang & u of speech, not a ready-made u, naming & communicative u => nominative& communicative func.Grammar is devided into:-morphology –syntax Morphology studies paradigmatic rel of ws (structure, forms, classific of ws) Syntax studies syntagmatic rel of ws & paradmatic& synt rel of sent(structure, forms, classific of sents) Paradigmatic syntax-diff forms of sents(- ? !) Syntagmatic morphology –linear connection of ws Grammar, as a phen-on – a subsystem of lang, as a ling discipline – type of describing the phen-on as a university course –subject to learn (WHAT? HOWpract,WHY-theor)

 





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