Образец выполнения 1 (к упр. I).



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Образец выполнения 1 (к упр. I).



Методические указания

и контрольные работы

по английскому языку

для студентов I курса ОЗО

экономического факультета

 

 

г. Ростов-на-Дону

Учебно-методические указания обсуждены и утверждены на заседании кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов ЮФУ.

 

 

Протокол №

 

Составители: ст. преп. Андреева Л.Л.

ст. преп. Постукян М.М.

 

Печатается с разрешения кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов ЮФУ.

 

 

Методическая записка

 

 

Основной целью обучения студентов английскому языку в неязыковом вузе является практическое владение этим языком, что предполагает при заочном обучении формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения информации из иноязычных источников, развитие навыков устной речи (говорение и аудирование) в рамках определённой Программой тематики. Для контроля понимания прочитанного, в качестве способа передачи полученной при чтении информации, а также как средство обучения используется перевод.

Особенностью заочного обучения является то, что объём самостоятельной работы студента по выработке речевых навыков и умений значительно превышает объём практических аудиторных занятий с преподавателем, поэтому для того, чтобы добиться успеха, необходимы систематические самостоятельные занятия.

Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка включает в себя заучивание лексических единиц, овладение правилами словообразования и грамматики, чтение текстов вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения, построение вопросов и ответов к текстам, перевод на русский язык (устный и письменный).

Работая над учебным материалом, подлежащим обязательному изучению в течение семестра, студент должен вести словарь, выписывая слова с транскрипцией и в словарной форме. Словарь тетрадь с выполненными упражнениями должны быть представлены преподавателю.

Для ознакомления со специальной лексикой студентам рекомендуется использовать учебное пособие по английскому языку.

В выпуске представлены контрольные задания №1 и №2. Выполнение контрольных заданий предполагает владение студентами такими базовыми умениями по иностранному языку как:

Ø Осуществлять адекватный перевод профессиональных текстов;

Ø Отвечать на вопросы к тексту;

Ø Переводить с английского на русский язык предложения, содержащие изучаемые грамматические явления.

Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольной работы, следует изучить и закрепить с помощью упражнений грамматический материал семестра. Контрольные работы должны выполняться аккуратно, чётким подчерком. При выполнении контрольной работы следует оставлять в тетради широкие поля для замечаний рецензента. Материал контрольной работы следует располагать в тетради по следующему образцу:

 

Левая страница Правая страница

Поля Английский текст Русский текст Поля

 

Задания должны быть выполнены полностью и в той же последовательности, в которой они предложены: условия их необходимо переписывать. Контрольная работа должна быть выполнена в отдельной тетради, на обложке которой следует указать номер контрольного задания, номер варианта, факультет и фамилию студента. (Преподавателю на проверку должен быть представлен только один вариант контрольного задания, остальные варианты используются в качестве дополнительного материала).

Если контрольная работа выполнена без соблюдения указанных требований или не полностью, она возвращается без проверки.

 

Контрольное задание №1

Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить контрольное задание №1, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:

1.Структура английского предложения. Структура вопросительного и отрицательного предложений.

2.Present simple и Past simple глаголов to be, to have.

3.Местоимения.

4.Имя существительное. Артикль.

5.Имя прилагательное.

6.Present Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple смысловых глаголов.

7. Модальные глаголы:

Can (could) и его эквивалент to be able to;

May (might) и его эквивалент to be allowed to;

Must и его эквиваленты to have to, should, ought to.

 

 

Образец выполнения 1 (к упр. I).

1. solve / how / to / know /

problems / didn’t / he /.

He didn’t know how to solve Он не знал, как решать

problems. проблемы.

 

Образец выполнения 2 (к упр. II).

1. The number of very rich people Количество очень богатых

in Russia is increasing. людей в России увеличивается.

is – вспомогательный глагол

(is increasing – Present Continuous)

 

 

Вариант 1.

I. Составьте предложения, используя данные слова, переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. were / economies / before / there / few / examples / 1900 / of / planned /.

2. need / small / long-range / businesses / don’t / many / the / recognize / for / plans /.

3. the / economy / biggest / what / sector / is / the / of / Russian /?

4. market / a / free / the / economy / does not / in / truly / exist / world / anywhere /.

5. without / the / markets / people / in / lived / money / past / shops / and /.

 

II. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните глаголы to be и to have, определите их функцию и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. In 2005, there were a record 18 new IKEA stores - 15 in Europe and three in North America.

2. It is difficult for governments of planned economies to know exactly how much to produce to meet demand.

3. Telephone companies have to spend millions of pounds laying cables.

4. Neoclassical economists were writing at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries.

5. The demand for cars has decreased because of the crisis.

 

III. Перепишите предложения, поставьте глаголы, данные в скобках, в Present, Past или Future Simple активного залога и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. In 1975, Gates and his childhood friend (to start) a company, and they (to call) it Microsoft.

2. Today Microsoft (to employ) more than 70,000 people in 103 countries.

3. The company (to add) more stores to its existing network next year.

4. When interest rates (to go) up, borrowing money (to become) more expensive.

5. Last year the company (to increase) its sales in that niche market.

IV. Перепишите предложения, поставьте прилагательные, данные в скобках, в положительную, сравнительную или превосходную форму, переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. The need for planning is as (important) in a small business as it is in a large one.

2. In a monopoly, one company has a much (large) market share than any other company.

3. One of the problems with free markets is that producers always want (high) price.

4. An agreement called General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade made it (easy) and (cheap) for countries to buy and sell goods.

5. Internet business is the same as other kinds of business: only (good) companies are successful.

V. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты, переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. An effective management structure can reduce stress and direct the productive capacity of employees into business growth and profits.

2. Everyone who earns a salary must pay taxes to the government.

3. Resources may be material things such as food, housing and heating.

4. Russia will have to apply great efforts to rebuild existing industry and agriculture to increase their competitiveness.

5. The state sector industries do not need to compete with other companies because no other company is allowed to provide the same product or service.

VI. Прочитайте текст, перепишите и письменно переведите абзацы № 2, 4, 5.

David Hume (1711-1776)

1. Though better known for his treatments of philosophy, history, and politics, the Scottish philosopher David Hume also made several essential contributions to economic thought. His empirical argument against British mercantilism formed a building block for classical economics. His essays on money and international trade published in Political Discourses strongly influenced his friend and fellow countryman Adam Smith.

2. British mercantilists believed that economic prosperity could be realized by limiting imports and encouraging exports in order to maximize the amount of gold in the home country. The American colonies facilitated this policy by providing raw materials that Britain manufactured into finished goods and reexported back to the colonial consumers in America. Needless to say, the arrangement was short-lived.

3. But even before the American Revolution intervened in mercantilistic pursuits, David Hume showed why net exporting in exchange for gold currency, hoarded by Britain, could not enhance wealth. Hume’s argument was essentially the monetarist quantity theory of money: prices in a country change directly with changes in the money supply. Hume explained that as net exports increased and more gold flowed into a country to pay for them, the prices of goods in that country would rise. Thus, an increased flow of gold into England would not necessarily increase England’s wealth substantially.

4. Hume showed that the increase in domestic prices due to the gold inflow would discourage exports and encourage imports, thus automatically limiting the amount by which exports would exceed imports. Surprisingly, even though Hume’s idea would have supported Adam Smith’s attack on mercantilism and argument for free trade, Smith ignored Hume’s argument. Although few economists accept Hume’s view literally, it is still the basis of much thinking on balance-of-payments issues.

5. Considering Hume’s solid grasp of monetary dynamics, his misconceptions about money behavior are all the more noteworthy. Hume erroneously advanced the notion of “creeping inflation”—the idea that a gradual increase in the money supply would lead to economic growth.

6. Hume made two other major lasting contributions to economics. One is his idea, that economic freedom is a necessary condition for political freedom. The second is his assertion that “you cannot deduce ought from is”—that is, value judgments cannot be made purely on the basis of facts. Economists now make the same point by distinguishing between normative (what should be) and positive (what is).

Hume died the year The Wealth of Nations was published, and in the presence of its author, Adam Smith.

 

VII. Дайте письменные ответы на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What conception of the British mercantilism did D. Hume oppose?

2. What are the most important contributions of D. Hume to the economic science?

3. Were any of Hume’s conceptions wrong?

 

 

Вариант 2.

Milton Friedman (1912-2006)

1. Milton Friedman was a well-known American economist and professor of statistics at the University of Chicago. In 1976 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in economics for “his achievements in the field of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy”. He acted as an economic advisor to the U.S. President Ronald Reagan and was president of the American Economic Association in 1967. After retiring from the University of Chicago in 1977, Friedman became a senior research fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University.

2. In 1935, he started his work on the National Resources Committee, which was carried on a large consumer budget survey. The ideas of this project came from his Theory of the Consumption Function. In 1937, Friedman began employment with the National Bureau of Economic Research to assist Simon Kuznets in his work on professional income. This work resulted in their co-authored publication Incomes from Independent Professional Practice (1945), which introduced the concepts of permanent and transitory income and gave light on the major component of the Permanent Income Hypothesis. Friedman worked on it more elaborately in the 1950s.

3. His landmark 1957 work, A Theory of the Consumption Function, took on the Keynesian view that individuals and households adjust their expenditures on consumption to reflect their current income. Friedman showed that, instead, people’s annual consumption is a function of their “permanent income,” a term he introduced as a measure of the average income people expect over a few years.

4. Although much of his work was done on price theory—the theory that explains how prices are determined in individual markets—Friedman is popularly recognized for monetarism. Defying Keynes and most of the academic establishment of the time, Friedman presented evidence to resurrect the quantity theory of money—the idea that the price level depends on the money supply. In Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money, published in 1956, Friedman stated that in the long run, increased monetary growth increases prices but has little or no effect on output.

5. He was the main propagator of the monetarist school of economics. He stated that price inflation and the money supply go hand in hand. Friedman’s monetarism came to the forefront when, in 1963, he and Anna Schwartz coauthored Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960. He stressed on the point that the money supply should have been expanded, instead of contracted. The Great Depression was caused by monetary contraction, which was the consequence of poor policymaking by the Federal Reserve and the continuous crises in the banking system.

6. Milton Friedman's works include monographs, books, scholarly articles, papers, magazine columns, television programs, videos, and lectures. He wrote on a variety of topics on microeconomics, macroeconomics, economic history, and public policy issues. His political philosophy that propagated the virtues of a free market economic system with little intervention by government is practiced by many governments. The Economist called him "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century". Friedman died at the age of 94 on 16th November 2006.

VII. Дайте письменные ответы на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. What fields of economics did M. Friedman contribute to?

2. What books reflect Friedman’s monetarist ideas most fully?

3. Did Friedman’s philosophy influence the economic policy of the US government?

 

 

Вариант 3.

Вариант 4.

John R. Hicks (1904-1989 )

1. Sir John Richard Hicks was a British economist and Nobel Laureate, who had made many important contributions to economic science. He had an extraordinary talent to think ahead of time and his theories are regarded as standard economic theories even today. No wonder he is esteemed as one of the most important and influential economists of the twentieth century. His unparalleled effort to revive economics and his urge to learn more and more was recognized by the world and he was honored with the prestigious Nobel Prize in 1972. He was a research fellow in much prestigious institution and never hesitated to share the knowledge he gathered.

2. John Hicks’ remarkable contributions to economics, especially to macro-economic and social choice theory, made him one of the greatest economists of all times. Hicks-Hansen IS-LM model is the best example of his contribution to microeconomics. As a formal interpretation of John Maynard Keynes’s theory, this work is viewed as his most significant work until date. This book represents economy as a balance between money, consumption and investment. His invention of what is called the IS-LM model, is a graphical depiction of the argument John Maynard Keynes gave in his General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936) about how an economy could be in equilibrium with less than full employment.

3. John Hicks’s experience as a labor economist led to the formulation of The Theory of Wages. He formulated these theories with a long-term vision. Hicks’ neutral technical change formulated in 1932, in this book is an important concept, which represents change in the production function of an industry that satisfies certain economic neutrality conditions.

4. Hicks’s third major contribution is his 1939 book Value and Capital, in which he showed that most of what economists then understood and believed about value theory (the theory about why goods have value) can be derived without having to assume that utility is measurable. His book was also one of the first works on general equilibrium theory, the theory about how all markets fit together and reach equilibrium.

5. Downward sloping Marshallian demand curves - another important contribution from John Hicks, explains the outcome of price change on quantity. It explains that when the price of a commodity rises, the quantity of that commodity falls, thus making wealth and other prices constant. These changes in price are due to the income effect and substitution effect.

6. Hicks was very active even during the later years of his life. He wrote on many concepts including money and on international trade, growth and fluctuations, applied economics with a stress to problems of "developing" countries and many more.

 

VII. Дайте письменные ответы на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. Why can we view J. Hicks as one of the greatest economists of all times?

2. What are Hicks’s most remarkable contributions to economics?

3. Are the ideas and conceptions of J. Hicks still popular today?

 

 

Контрольное задание №2

Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить контрольное задание №2, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:

1. Видо-временные формы глагола:

Simple (Present, Past, Future),

Continuous (Present, Past, Future),

Perfect (Present, Past, Future)

в действительном залоге.

2. Видо-временные формы глагола:

Simple (Present, Past, Future)

в страдательном залоге.

Вариант 1.

Вариант 2

Market Economy

1. In a pure market economy all productive activities are privately owned, as opposed to being owned by the state. The goods and services that a country produces, and the quantity in which they are produced, are not planned by anyone. Rather, production is determined by the interaction of supply and demand and signaled to producers through the price system. If demand for a product exceeds supply, prices will rise, signaling producers to produce more. If supply exceeds demand, prices will fall, signaling producers to produce less. In this system consumers are sovereign. The purchasing patterns of consumers, as signaled to producers through the mechanism of the price system, determine what is produced and in what quantity.

2. For a market to work in this manner there must be no restrictions on supply. A restriction on supply occurs when a market is monopolized by a single firm. In such circumstances, rather than increase output in response to increased demand, a monopolist might restrict output and let prices rise. This allows the monopolist to take a greater profit margin on each unit it sells. Although this is good for the monopolist, it is bad for the consumer, who has to pay higher prices. Moreover, it is probably bad for the welfare of society. Since, by definition, a monopolist has no competitors, it has no incentive to search for ways of lowering its production costs. Rather, it can simply pass on cost increases to consumers in the form of higher prices. The net result is that the monopolist is likely to become increasingly inefficient, producing high-priced, low-quality goods, while society suffers as a consequence.

3. The role of government in a market economy is to encourage vigorous competition between private producers. Governments do this by outlawing monopolies and restrictive business practices designed to monopolize a market (antitrust laws serve this function in the United States). Private ownership also encourages vigorous competition and economic efficiency. Private ownership ensures that entrepreneurs have a right to the profits generated by their own efforts. This gives entrepreneurs an incentive to search for better ways of serving consumer needs. That may be through introducing new products, by developing more efficient production processes, by better marketing and after-sale service, or simply through managing their businesses more efficiently than their competitors. In turn, the constant improvement in product and process that results from such an incentive has been argued to have a major positive impact on economic growth and development.

 

VII. Дайте письменные ответы на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. How does a market economy differ from a planned economy?

2. Why is the situation, when a market is monopolized by a single firm, dangerous for the whole society?

3. How can the competition between private producers benefit potential consumers?

 

 

Вариант 3

The Planned Economy

1. In a planned economy all the economic decisions are taken by the state. The state (government) owns all the means of production. Therefore, all workers from labourers to managers are employees of the state; all land, factories and machines are owned by the state; and all goods are distributed through state-owned shops. In this way the state can direct production and decide what is produced, how much is produced and who will benefit from this production. For this reason planned economies are also known as command economies because the state dictates all economic activity.

2. Of course, it is not an easy task to decide what goods should be produced and how much of each. The government has to employ officials to find out what is needed and what resources are available to produce it. A consideration of just one product, steel, shows how difficult the problems are. The government will need to know the capacity of the steel industry and the amount of iron ore which is available to be mined and converted into iron. Will some iron have to be imported? How many plants and works are there? How much can they produce? Where are they located in relation to the iron ore? What transport facilities are available to carry the raw materials and the finished product? A great many products use steel, e.g. cars, ships, planes, trains, railway lines, washing machines, fridges. The officials will want to know how many of each of these products can be, and will be, produced. They will want to know what proportion of these goods are made of steel and thus how much steel will be needed.

3. Thus the system is extremely complex. The plans have to be coordinated, e.g. it is no good setting too high a target for output from the furniture industry if the timber industry is unable to supply enough wood. Also, decisions regarding the quantities of products cannot be made for just one year. It takes a long time for certain planning decisions to work through to affect final outputs, e.g. a decision to build a new steel works. Therefore decisions need to be made now about what will be required in a few years' time. The usual procedure is to organise production within the framework of a five-year plan. To construct the plan, targets are set for each sector of the economy and for all enterprises within each sector. The most difficult aspect of the plan is to ensure that all the hundreds of thousands of different targets match each other. However, circumstances change during the 5-year period and adjustments to the plan and the targets have to be made continually.

4. There are 2 major problems associated with the operation of a planned economy. The first is actually meeting the output targets. Some targets may have been based on too little information and may be unrealistic, some may be frustrated by the underfulfilment of other targets. Unforeseen circumstances may make targets impossible, e.g. poor weather conditions may affect grain targets. The second problem is getting the targets right in the first place. If the targets are wrong, which is very common, then too much of certain goods will be produced and not enough of other goods. This can lead to massive unsold stocks in some shops and queues for other goods.

 

VII. Дайте письменные ответы на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. Who is responsible for the main economic decisions in a planned economy?

2. What questions should be considered by the government before adopting a plan of actions?

3. What problems can arise in practice as a result of state planning?

 

 

Вариант 4

The Mixed Economy

1. A mixed economy uses elements of both the planned and market systems to allocate resources. There is a private sector, which allocates resources according to the market mechanism, and a public sector, which is under the control of the government.

2. In Britain since the Industrial Revolution an increasing amount of government intervention has been accepted in a basically private enterprise system, although this trend has been reversed by the Conservative government elected in 1979. At present just under half of all economic activity is directed in some way by the state.

3.The Private SectorThe private sector accounts for the largest proportion of all goods and services produced in Britain. There are hundreds of thousands of private businesses, from large multinational companies such as British Petroleum to small family businesses and individual traders. These businesses exist to operate at a profit by selling goods and services to the general public. They therefore operate according to market forces.

4. However, there are certain problems associated with leaving economic activity entirely to the private sector. The profit motive does not always lead to the best use of resources. The principal problems which occur in the market system are as follows:

5. There are certain goods and services which cannot be provided by a free market. These goods are known as public goods as they have to be provided to all consumers or not at all. Examples of public goods are national defence, the police force, street lighting and so on. Therefore these goods are provided by the state, which has the power to charge all consumers through the taxation system.

6. In addition to public goods there are goods which the government believes should be available to all but which not everyone would pay for if they were given the choice. These are known as merit goods because of the high value placed upon such goods. Examples may include the National Health Service, education, Social Service provision and so on. In Britain many of these merit goods are provided by the state and financed by taxation.

7. Some industries may be seen as too important to be left entirely in private hands because of their relationship to the whole economy. The government has always exercised some involvement in agriculture to prevent violent price fluctuations and to ensure long-term continuation of supply. Similarly, areas such as transport and basic industries, e.g. coal and steel, have always been regarded as too important to be left completely to the free market. Some of these industries have been taken under direct state control and others are carefully regulated.

8. These and other considerations have gradually led to a significant proportion of economic activity being undertaken by the state. It is this economic activity which constitutes the public sector of the economy.

9.The Public SectorThe public sector consists of all economic activity under the control of the state, at both national and local level. Government economic activity can be divided into 2 broad types:

10. The direct provision of services. The government levies taxes on the private sector and uses the revenue to provide certain national services. These are mainly public goods, and merit goods. These services are provided by the various departments of government at both national and local level, e.g. by the Ministry of Defence, the Departments of Health and Social Security and Local Education Authorities. This means that these services are under the direct political control of ministers and local councillors.

11. The indirect provision of goods and services. The government can set up bodies to undertake various aspects of economic activity on behalf of the public. The nationalized industries have been set up to run certain key industries, e.g. railways, postal services. One of the main reasons for the establishment of such organizations is to take natural monopolies under state control.

 

VII. Дайте письменные ответы на следующие вопросы к тексту:

1. How can you characterize a mixed economy?

2. What is the main difference between public and private sectors?

3. What are the possible forms of government activity in the public sector?

 

 

Методические указания

и контрольные работы

по английскому языку

для студентов I курса ОЗО

экономического факультета

 

 

г. Ростов-на-Дону

Учебно-методические указания обсуждены и утверждены на заседании кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов ЮФУ.

 

 

Протокол №

 

Составители: ст. преп. Андреева Л.Л.

ст. преп. Постукян М.М.

 

Печатается с разрешения кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов ЮФУ.

 

 

Методическая записка

 

 

Основной целью обучения студентов английскому языку в неязыковом вузе является практическое владение этим языком, что предполагает при заочном обучении формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения информации из иноязычных источников, развитие навыков устной речи (говорение и аудирование) в рамках определённой Программой тематики. Для контроля понимания прочитанного, в качестве способа передачи полученной при чтении информации, а также как средство обучения используется перевод.

Особенностью заочного обучения является то, что объём самостоятельной работы студента по выработке речевых навыков и умений значительно превышает объём практических аудиторных занятий с преподавателем, поэтому для того, чтобы добиться успеха, необходимы систематические самостоятельные занятия.

Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка включает в себя заучивание лексических единиц, овладение правилами словообразования и грамматики, чтение текстов вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения, построение вопросов и ответов к текстам, перевод на русский язык (устный и письменный).

Работая над учебным материалом, подлежащим обязательному изучению в течение семестра, студент должен вести словарь, выписывая слова с транскрипцией и в словарной форме. Словарь тетрадь с выполненными упражнениями должны быть представлены преподавателю.

Для ознакомления со специальной лексикой студентам рекомендуется использовать учебное пособие по английскому языку.

В выпуске представлены контрольные задания №1 и №2. Выполнение контрольных заданий предполагает владение студентами такими базовыми умениями по иностранному языку как:

Ø Осуществлять адекватный перевод профессиональных текстов;

Ø Отвечать на вопросы к тексту;

Ø Переводить с английского на русский язык предложения, содержащие изучаемые грамматические явления.

Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольной работы, следует изучить и закрепить с помощью упражнений грамматический материал семестра. Контрольные работы должны выполняться аккуратно, чётким подчерком. При выполнении контрольной работы следует оставлять в тетради широкие поля для замечаний рецензента. Материал контрольной работы следует располагать в тетради по следующему образцу:

 

Левая страница Правая страница

Поля Английский текст Русский текст Поля

 

Задания должны быть выполнены полностью и в той же последовательности, в которой они предложены: условия их необходимо переписывать. Контрольная работа должна быть выполнена в отдельной тетради, на обложке которой следует указать номер контрольного задания, номер варианта, факультет и фамилию студента. (Преподавателю на проверку должен быть представлен только один вариант контрольного задания, остальные варианты используются в качестве дополнительного материала).

Если контрольная работа выполнена без соблюдения указанных требований или не полностью, она возвращается без проверки.

 

Контрольное задание №1

Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить контрольное задание №1, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:

1.Структура английского предложения. Структура вопросительного и отрицательного предложений.

2.Present simple и Past simple глаголов to be, to have.

3.Местоимения.

4.Имя существительное. Артикль.

5.Имя прилагательное.

6.Present Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple смысловых глаголов.

7. Модальные глаголы:

Can (could) и его эквивалент to be able to;

May (might) и его эквивалент to be allowed to;

Must и его эквиваленты to have to, should, ought to.

 

 

Образец выполнения 1 (к упр. I).

1. solve / how / to / know /

problems / didn’t / he /.

He didn’t know how to solve Он не знал, как решать

problems. проблемы.

 



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