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Impact, features, challenge, novel, emerge, deliver, incorporated, assumed.
1. Unusual physical, chemical, and biological properties can … in materials at the nanoscale.
2. In the application of the substance, these individual particles may be … into a quantity of another substance, which could be a gas, a liquid or a solid.
3. Perhaps the greatest … to benefiting from nanotechnology is having the foresight to develop and use it wisely.
4. As a new field, nanotechnology is just beginning to … on its promise.
5. In addition, nanoparticles may also spread and persist in the environment, and therefore have an … on the environment.
6. This report has … that, unless otherwise stated, “ultrafine particles” are essentially equivalent to nanoparticles.
7. … mechanical properties of nanomaterials is a subject of nanomechanics research.
8. Many chemicals and chemical processes have nanoscale … .
7. Read the text and name the key points raised in it.
What Is Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the term given to those areas of science and engineering where phenomena that take place at dimensions in the nanometre scale are utilised in the design, characterisation, production and application of materials, structures, devices and systems.
Clearly the various forms of nanotechnology have the potential to make a very significant impact on society. In general it may be assumed that the application of nanotechnology will be very beneficial to individuals and organisations. Many of these applications involve new materials which provide radically different properties through functioning at the nanoscale, where new phenomena are associated with the very large surface area to volume ratios experienced at these dimensions and with quantum effects that are not seen with larger sizes. These include materials in the form of very thin films used in catalysis and electronics, two-dimensional nanotubes and nanowires for optical and magnetic systems, and as nanoparticles used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and coatings. The industrial sectors most readily embracing nanotechnology are the information and communications sector, including electronic and optoelectronic fields, food technology, energy technology and the medical products sector. Nanotechnology products may also offer novel challengies for the reduction of environmental pollution.
However, just as phenomena taking place at the nanoscale may be quite different to those occurring at larger dimensions and may be exploitable for the benefit of mankind, so these newly identified processes and their products may expose the same humans, and the environment in general, to new health risks, possibly involving quite different mechanisms of interference with the physiology of human and environmental species. These possibilities may well be focussed on the fate of free nanoparticles generated in nanotechnology processes and either intentionally or unintentionally released into the environment, or actually delivered directly to individuals through the functioning of a nanotechnology basic product. Of special concern would be those individuals whose work places them in regular and sustained contact with free nanoparticles. Central to these health risk concerns is the fact that evolution has determined that the human species has developed mechanisms of protection against environmental agents, either living or dead, this process being determined by the nature of the agents commonly encountered, within which size is an important factor. The exposure to nanoparticles having characteristics not previously encountered may well challenge the normal defence mechanisms associated with, for example, immune and inflammatory systems. It is also possible for there to be an environmental impact of the products of nanotechnology, related to the processes of dispersion and persistence of nanoparticles in the environment.
Wherever the potential for an entirely new risk is identified, it is necessary to carry out an extensive analysis of the nature of the risk, which can then, if necessary, be used in the processes of risk management. It is widely accepted that the risks associated with nanotechnology need to be analysed in this way.
8. Read the following statements and say whether they are true or false. Correct the false ones.
1. Nanotechnology deals with systems designed and manufactured at the scale of the atom, or the nanometer scale.
2. It may be assumed that the various forms of nanotechnology don’t make any impact on society.
3. The information and communications sector, including electronic and optoelectronic fields most readily embraces nanotechnology.
4. Nanotechnology can reduce environmental pollution.
5. The phenomena taking place at the nanoscale are the same as those occurring at larger dimensions.
6. Nanotechnology cannot do any harm to humans.
7. Those individuals who work in regular and sustained contact with free nanoparticles should be very careful.
8. There is no need to take into account the risks associated with nanotechnology.
9. Express your attitude to the importance of nanotechnology.
10. Using the information from the text speak about the benefits and disadvantages of nanotechnology.
11. Make an outline of the text.
12. Make a short summary of the text in written form using your outline.
13. Scan the text and choose the best title.
1. Nanotechnology and Nanostructures;
2. Introduction to Nanotechnology;
3. Nanotechnology and Electronics;
4. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.
14. Divide the text into logical parts. Entitle each part.
15. Read the text and write out key words and phrases revealing the contents of each part.
Nanotechnology is already being used by the electronic industry and you will be surprised to know that many of today’s electronics have already incorporated many applications that the nanotechnology science has developed. For example, new computer microprocessors have less than 100 nanometers (nm) features. Smaller sizes mean a significant increase in speed and more processing capability.
These advances will undoubtedly help achieve better computers. However, at some point in time (very near in the future) current electronic technology will no longer be enough to handle the demand for new chips microprocessors. Right now, the method for chip manufacturing is known as lithography or etching. This way of building circuits in electronic chips has a limitation of around 22 nanometers (most advanced chip processors uses 60-70 nm size features). Below 22 nm errors will occur and short circuits and silicon limitations will prevent chip manufacturing.
Nanotechnology may offer new ways of working for electronics. Nanotechnology science is developing new circuit materials, new processors, new means of storing information and new manners of transferring information. Nanotechnology can offer greater versatility because of faster data transfer, more “on the go” processing capabilities and larger data memories.
A new field is emerging in electronics that will be a giant leap in computer and electronics science. It is the field of quantum computing and quantum technology. Quantum computing is area of scientific knowledge aimed at developing computer technology based on the principles of quantum theory. In quantum computing the “qbit” instead of the traditional bit of information is used. Traditionally, a bit can assume two values: 1 and 0. All the computers up-to-date are based on the “bit” principle. However, the new “qbit” is able to process anything between 0 and 1. This implies that new types of calculations and high processing speeds can be achieved.
We are bound to see many nanotechnological applications within the electronic industry in the near future. These will undoubtedly increase the quality of life of our society.
16. Find the sentences containing:
a) the main idea of the text;
b) the examples of use of nanotechnology in electronics;
c) the information about future development of nanotechnology;
d) the description of quantum computing.
17. Express your attitude to the facts given in the text. You may use the following phrases:
- It is full of interesting information…
- I find the text rather / very cognitive…
- I’ve learnt a lot …
- I don’t agree with …
18. Give the summary of the text using the key words, phrases and the outline.
19. Say which facts presented in the text you’ve already been familiar with.
20. Look through the following text, define the information presented in it and entitle it.
Nanomaterials is a field which takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology. It studies materials with morphological features on the nanoscale, and especially those which have special properties stemming from their nanoscale dimensions. Nanoscale is usually defined as smaller than a one tenth of a micrometer in at least one dimension, though this term is sometimes also used for materials smaller than one micrometer.
Materials referred to as “nanomaterials” generally fall into two categories: fullerenes, and inorganic nanoparticles.
The fullerenes are a class of allotropes of carbon which conceptually are graphene sheets rolled into tubes or spheres. These include the carbon nanotubes (or silicon nanotubes) which are of interest both because of their mechanical strength and also because of their electrical properties.
For the past decade, the chemical and physical properties of fullerenes have been a hot topic in the field of research and development, and are likely to continue to be for a long time.
Nanoparticles or nanocrystals made of metals, semiconductors, or oxides are of particular interest for their mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, chemical and other properties. Nanoparticles have been used as quantum dots and as chemical catalysts.
Nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic or molecular structures. A bulk material should have constant physical properties regardless of its size, but at the nano-scale this is often not the case.
21. Find the following information in the text:
a) what nanomaterials are;
b) what categories nanomaterials fall into;
c) what the fullerenes are;
d) why nanoparticles are of great scientific interest.
22. Say where the information presented in the text can be used.
1. Define the following words as parts of speech and give the initial words of the following derivatives.
Earliest, integrated, fabrication, processing, repeatedly, handling, productive, deposition, contaminated, reconstruct, completely, sophisticated, actually.
2. Read the following words in each line and define their roots. Translate the words into Russian:
1) technical, technique, technically;
2) scale, scaling, scaled;
3) classify, classified, classification;
4) application, applied, apply;
5) fabricate, fabrication, fabricator;
6) designer, designing, design;
7) process, processing, processed;
8) conduct, conductor, conductive, semiconductor.
3. Match the following terms with their definitions.
4. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type.
1. Microfabrication technologies originate from the microelectronics industry, and the devices are usually made on silicon wafers.
2. Microfabrication is actually a collection of technologies which are utilized in making microdevices.
3. The substrate enables easy handlingof the micro device through the many fabrication steps.
4. To fabricate a microdevice, many processes must be performed, one after the other, many times repeatedly.
5. The complexity of microfabrication processes can be described by their “mask count”.
6) Microfabricated devices are not generally freestanding devices but are usually formed over or in a thicker support substrate.
5. Read the text and name the key points raised in it.
6. Divide the text into logical parts and entitle them.
Microfabrication or micromanufacturing are the terms to describe processes of fabrication of miniature structures, of micrometre sizes and smaller. Historically the earliest micromanufacturing was used for semiconductor devices in integrated circuit fabrication and these processes have been covered by the term “semiconductor device fabrication”, “semiconductor manufacturing”, etc. Miniaturization of various devices presents challenges in many areas of science and engineering: physics, chemistry, material science, computer science, ultra-precision engineering, fabrication processes, and equipment design. It is also giving rise to various kinds of interdisciplinary research. The major concepts and principles of micromanufacturing are laser technology, microlithography, micromachining and microfinishing (nanofinishing).
Microfabrication technologies originate from the microelectronics industry, and the devices are usually made on silicon wafers even though glass, plastics and many other substrate are in use. Micromachining, semiconductor processing, microelectronic fabrication, semiconductor fabrication, MEMS1 fabrication and integrated circuit technology are terms used instead of microfabrication, but microfabrication is the broad general term.
Traditional machining techniques such as “electro-discharge machining”, “spark erosion machining”, and “laser drilling” have been scaled from the millimeter size range to micrometer range, but they do not share the main idea of microelectronics-originated microfabrication: replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures. This parallelism is present in various imprint, casting and molding techniques which have successfully been applied in the microregime. For example, injection moulding of compact discs involves fabrication of micrometer-sized spots on the disc.
Microfabrication is actually a collection of technologies which are utilized in making microdevices. Some of them have very old origins, not connected to manufacturing, like lithography or etching. Polishing was borrowed from optics manufacturing, and many of the vacuum techniques come from 19th century physics research. Electroplating2 is also a 19th century technique adapted to produce micrometre scale structures, as are various stamping and embossing techniques.
To fabricate a microdevice, many processes must be performed, one after the other, many times repeatedly. These processes typically include depositing a film, patterning the film with the desired micro features, and removing (or etching) portions of the film. For example, in memory chip fabrication there are some 30 lithography steps, 10 oxidation steps, 20 etching steps, 10 doping steps, and many others are performed. The complexity of microfabrication processes can be described by their “mask count”. This is the number of different pattern layers that constitute the final device. Modern microprocessors are made with 30 masks while a few masks suffice for a microfluidic device or a laser diode. Microfabrication resembles multiple exposure photography, with many patterns aligned to each other to create the final structure.
Microfabricated devices are not generally freestanding devices but are usually formed over or in a thicker support substrate. For electronic applications, semiconducting substrates such as silicon wafers can be used. For optical devices or flat panel displays, transparent substrates such as glass or quartz are common. The substrate enables easy handling of the micro device through the many fabrication steps. Often many individual devices are made together on one substrate and then singulated into separated devices toward the end of fabrication.
Microfabrication is carried out in cleanrooms, where air has been filtered of particle contamination and temperature, humidity, vibrations and electrical disturbances are under stringent control. Smoke, dust, bacteria and cells are micrometers in size, and their presence will destroy the functionality of a microfabricated device. Cleanrooms provide passive cleanliness but the wafers are also actively cleaned before every critical step.
1MEMS – Micro Electro Mechanical Systems – микроэлектромеханические системы, технология MEMS (фотолитографическая технология, позволяющая изготавливать интегрированные кремниевые микросхемы, размером от десятков микрон до нескольких миллиметров, с крошечными механическими элементами – интеллектуальные устройства (микромашины) с самыми разными функциями.);
2electroplating – гальваностегия, нанесение покрытия методом электроосаждения, нанесение гальванического покрытия.
7. Read the following statements and say whether they are true or false. Correct the false ones.
1. Historically semiconductor devices were made with the help of microfabrication.
2. Only a few technologies are used in making microdevices.
3. Modern microprocessors are composed of many different masks.
4. Silicon wafers can be employed in production of many electronic devices.
5. Some devices can be mounted on one substrate and then separated toward the end of fabrication.
6. Different contaminations can affect the functionality of a microdevice.
8. Match parts A and B to complete the sentences.
9. Using the information from the text speak about the fabrication of microdevices.
10. Make an outline of the text.
11. Make a short summary of the text in written form using your outline.
12. Look at the title. Make your predictions about the contents of the text.
13. Read the text and write out key words and phrases revealing the contents of the text.
14. Divide the text into logical parts. In each part find the key sentence.
Micro Electro Mechanical Systems
The term MEMS1, for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, was coined in the 1980’s to describe new, sophisticated mechanical systems on a chip, such as micro electric motors, resonators, gears, and so on. Today, the term MEMS in practice is used to refer to any microscopic device with a mechanical function, which can be fabricated in a batch process (for example, an array of microscopic gears fabricated on a microchip would be considered a MEMS device but a tiny laser-machined stent or watch component would not). In Europe, the term MST for Micro System Technology is preferred, and in Japan MEMS are simply referred to as “micromachines”. The distinctions in these terms are relatively minor and are often used interchangeably.
Though MEMS processes are generally classified into a number of categories – such as surface machining, bulk machining – there are indeed thousands of different MEMS processes. Some produce fairly simple geometries, while others offer more complex 3-D geometries and more versatility. A company making accelerometers for airbags would need a completely different design and process to produce an accelerometer for inertial navigation. Changing from an accelerometer to another inertial device such as a gyroscope2 requires an even greater change in design and process, and most likely a completely different fabrication facility and engineering team.
In one viewpoint MEMS application is categorized by type of use: sensor, actuator3, structure.
In another view point MEMS applications are categorized by the field of application:
- Inkjet printers.
- Accelerometers in modern cars for a large number of purposes including airbag deployment in collisions.
- Accelerometers in consumer electronics devices such as game controllers, personal media players / cell phones phone models, and a number of Digital Cameras. Also used in PCs to park the hard disk head when free-fall is detected, to prevent damage and data loss.
- MEMS gyroscopes used in modern cars and other applications to detect yaw4.
- Silicon pressure sensors e.g. car tire pressure sensors, and disposable blood pressure sensors.
- Optical switching technology which is used for switching technology and alignment for data communications.
- Bio-MEMS applications in medical and health related technologies.
- Interferometric modulator display5 (IMOD) applications in consumer electronics (primarily displays for mobile devices).
1MEMS – микроэлектромеханические системы;
2gyroscope – гироскоп;
3actuator – силовой привод; воздействующее устройство;
4yaw – отклонение от направления движения;
5interferometric modulator display – дисплей интерферометрического модулятора.
15. Make questions to the text to interview your partner about MEMS.
16. Speak about MEMS applications.
17. Say what new information you have learnt from the text.
18. Sum up the text using the key words, word combinations and the topical sentences.
19. Look through the following text, define its main idea and entitle the text.
Micromachines are mechanical objects that are fabricated in the same general manner as integrated circuits. They are generally considered to be between 100 nanometres to 100 micrometres in size, though that is debatable. The applications of micromachines include accelerometers that detect when a car has hit an object and trigger an airbag. Complex systems of gears and levers are another application.
Most micromachines act as transducers1; in other words, they are either sensors or actuators.
Sensors convert information from the environment into interpretable electrical signals. One example of a micromachine sensor is a resonant chemical sensor. A lightly damped mechanical object vibrates much more at one frequency than any other, and this frequency is called its resonance frequency. A chemical sensor is coated with a special polymer that attracts certain molecules and when those molecules attach to the sensor, its mass increases. The increased mass alters the resonance frequency of the mechanical object, which is detected with circuitry.
Actuators convert electrical signals and energy into motion of some kind. The three most common types of actuators are electrostatic, thermal, and magnetic. Electrostatic actuators use the force of electrostatic energy to move objects. Two mechanical elements, one that is stationary (the stator) and one that is movable (the rotor) have two different voltages applied to them, which creates an electric field. The field competes with a restoring force on the rotor (usually a spring force produced by the bending or stretching of the rotor) to move the rotor. The greater the electric field, the farther the rotor will move. Thermal actuators use the force of thermal expansion to move objects. When a material is heated, it expands and amount depending on material properties. Two objects can be connected in such a way that one object is heated more than the other and expands more, and this imbalance creates motion. The direction of motion depends on the connection between the objects.
1transducer – преобразователь; датчик; приемник.
20. Find the following information in the text:
a) what micromachines are;
b) how micromachines act;
c) what the size of micromachines is.
21. Say what you have learnt about micromachines.
1. Define the following words as parts of speech and give the initial words of the following derivatives.
Accession, application, cancellation, capability, contribution, disclose, evaluating, government, moderation, processing, protection, storage, reassure.
2. Translate the following words paying attention to the suffixes and the prefixes.
Economical, application, identical, additional, responsible, self-protection, functional, categorization, unprotected, widely, commonly, acceptability, impossible.
3. Study the following words and choose:
1) apply, application, applied, applicant, appliance
2) processing, process, processor, procession
3) protection, protect, protectioning, protectional
4) information, inform, informative, informer
1) differ, differently, difference, different
2) availability, avail, available
3) accessibility, access, accession, accessible
4) direct, direction, directly, directness
4. Match the words with their definitions.
5. Fill in the gaps with the words derived from the words in brackets.
1. Many of these new (applicant) involve both storing information and simultaneous use by several individuals.
2. A flight boarding agent might have the (addition) authority to print out the list of all passengers.
3. The airline example is one of (protect) of corporate information for corporate self-protection.
4. It is convenient to divide protection schemes according to their (function) properties.
5. These are systems that provide (isolate) of users, sometimes (moderate) by total sharing of some pieces of information.
6. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the words in bold type. What part of speech do they belong to?
1. It is not always easy to separate hardware and software and this fact has been demonstrated on several occasions in the courts.
2. We like fast computers, the latest operating system, neat software and expensive peripherals as much as anyone.
3. In addition, many companies make contributionsto employee retirement plans at the start of the year.
4. A schemeto share the costs between insurers and taxpayers has been agreed to, but Parliament has yet to approve it.
5. Security is maintained by terminal operators using unique identification and password codes to gain accessto the system.
6. Internet Explorer and Netscape, for example, can restrict access according to a rating system.
7. A computer has a wide range of applications for businesses.
8. The new network will enable datato be processed more speedily.
7. Fill in the gaps with one of the following words:
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