Indispensable, performed, penetrate, superposition, cells, researchers, enables.



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Indispensable, performed, penetrate, superposition, cells, researchers, enables.



1. Flash memory chips found in USB drives also use quantum tunneling to erase their memory … .

2. Most of the calculations ... in computational chemistry rely on quantum mechanics.

3. … are currently seeking robust methods of directly manipulating quantum states.

4. Quantum tunneling is vital, as otherwise the electrons in the electric current could not … the potential barrier.

5. The state may be in a … of basis values.

6. The study of semiconductors led to the invention of the diode and the transistor, which are … for modern electronics.

7. The ability to manipulate quantum information … us to perform tasks that would be unachievable in a classical context.

 

7. Read the text. Choose the sentences covering the main idea of the text.

Quantum Mechanics

 

The discovery that waves have discrete energy packets (called quanta1) that behave in a manner similar to particles led to the branch of physics that deals with atomic and subatomic systems which we today call quantum mechanics. The foundations of quantum mechanics were established during the first half of the twentieth century by Werner Heisenberg, Max Planck, Louis de Broglie, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli, David Hilbert, and others. Some fundamental aspects of the theory are still actively studied.

Quantum mechanics has had enormous success in explaining many of the features of our world. The individual behaviour of the subatomic particles that make up all forms of matter – electrons, protons, neutrons, photons and others – can often only be satisfactorily described using quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics has strongly influenced string theory, a candidate for a theory of everything and the multiverse hypothesis. It is also related to statistical mechanics.

Quantum mechanics is important for understanding how individual atoms combine covalently to form chemicals or molecules. The application of quantum mechanics to chemistry is known as quantum chemistry. (Relativistic) quantum mechanics can in principle mathematically describe most of chemistry. Quantum mechanics can provide quantitative insight into ionic and covalent bonding processes by explicitly showing which molecules are energetically favorable to which others, and by approximately how much. Most of the calculations performed in computational chemistry rely on quantum mechanics.

Much of modern technology operates at a scale where quantum effects are significant. Examples include the laser, the transistor (and thus the microchip), the electron microscope, and magnetic resonance imaging. The study of semiconductors led to the invention of the diode and the transistor, which are indispensable for modern electronics.

Researchers are currently seeking robust methods of directly manipulating quantum states. Efforts are being made to develop quantum cryptography, which will allow guaranteed secure transmission of information. A more distant goal is the development of quantum computers, which are expected to perform certain computational tasks exponentially faster than classical computers. Another active research topic is quantum teleportation, which deals with techniques to transmit quantum states over arbitrary distances.

In many devices, even the simple light switch, quantum tunneling2 is vital, as otherwise the electrons in the electric current could not penetrate the potential barrier made up, in the case of the light switch, of a layer of oxide. Flash memory chips found in USB3 drives also use quantum tunneling to erase their memory cells.

 

Notes:

1quantum (pl. quanta) – доля, часть; квант;

2tunneling – туннельный эффект; туннельный переход;

3USB drive (another name for flash drive) – флэш-память.

 

8. Mark the following statements as true or false in relation to the text. If a statement is false, change it to make it true.

1. Some basic questions of quantum mechanics are still actively studied.

2. Much of modern technology operates at a scale where quantum effects are unimportant.

3. At present scientists are searching for robust methods of indirectly manipulating quantum states.

4. Another active research problem is quantum teleportation, which is related to techniques to transmit quantum states over arbitrary distances.

5. A more distant aim is the elaboration of quantum computers.

 

9. Match parts A and B to complete the sentences.

A B
1. Efforts are being made to develop quantum cryptography … 2. Much of modern technology operates at a scale … 3. Quantum mechanics is important for understanding … 4. The application of quantum mechanics to chemistry … 5. The individual behaviour of the subatomic particles that make up all forms of matter … a) can often only be satisfactorily described using quantum mechanics. b) how individual atoms combine covalently to form chemicals or molecules. d) is known as quantum chemistry. c) where quantum effects are significant. e) which will allow guaranteed secure transmission of information.  

 

10. Using the information from the text speak about the importance of quantum mechanics.

 

11. Make an outline of the text.

 

12. Make a short summary of the text in written form using your outline.

 

Part B

 

13. Read the text and write out key words and phrases revealing the contents of the text.

 

14. Divide the text into logical parts and entitle each part.

 

15. Find one or two sentences which can be omitted as inessential in each logical part.

Quantum Information

 

In quantum mechanics, quantum information is physical information that is held in the “state” of a quantum system. The most popular unit of quantum information is the qubit, a two-level quantum system. However, unlike classical digital states (which are discrete), a two-state quantum system can actually be in a superposition of the two states at any given time.

Quantum information differs from classical information in several respects, among which we note the following:

It cannot be read without the state becoming the measured value.

An arbitrary state cannot be cloned.

The state may be in a superposition of basis values.

However, despite this, the amount of information that can be retrieved in a single qubit is equal to one bit. It is in the processing of information (quantum computation) that a difference occurs.

The ability to manipulate quantum information enables us to perform tasks that would be unachievable in a classical context, such as unconditionally secure transmission of information. Quantum information processing is the most general field that is concerned with quantum information. There are certain tasks which classical computers cannot perform “efficiently” (that is, in polynomial time) according to any known algorithm. However, a quantum computer can compute the answer to some of these problems in polynomial time; one well-known example of this is Shor’s factoring algorithm. Other algorithms can speed up a task less dramatically ‑ for example, Grover’s search algorithm which gives a quadratic speed-up over the best possible classical algorithm.

 

16. Make a questionnaire to the text and interview your partner on the problems raised in the text.

 

17. Sum up the text using the key words, word combinations and the topical sentences.

 

18. Express your attitude to the facts given in the text. You may use the following phrases:

- it is full of interesting information…

- I find the text rather / very cognitive…

- I’ve learnt a lot …

- I don’t agree with …

 

19. Say which facts presented in the text you’ve already been familiar with (already learnt).

 

20. Give your point of view on possibility of using presented in the text information in your future profession.

 

Part C

 

21. Look through the following text, define the information presented in it and entitle the text.

 

22. Scan the following text and say what problem is described in it.

Text C

 

In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum unit of any physical entity involved in an interaction. An example of an entity that is quantized is the energy transfer of elementary particles of matter (called fermions) and of photons and other bosons. The word comes from the Latin “quantus”, for “how much”. Behind this, one finds the fundamental notion that a physical property may be “quantized”, referred to as “quantization”. This means that the magnitude can take on only certain discrete numerical values, rather than any value, at least within a range. There is a related term of quantum number.

A photon, for example, is a single quantum of light, and may thus be referred to as a “light quantum”. The energy of an electron bound to an atom (at rest) is said to be quantized, which results in the stability of atoms, and of matter in general.

As incorporated into the theory of quantum mechanics, this is regarded by physicists as part of the fundamental framework for understanding and describing nature at the infinitesimal level, for the very practical reason that it works. It is “in the nature of things”, not a more or less arbitrary human preference.

 

23. Say where the presented information can be used.

 

24. Speak on one of the following points to your partner:

a) the minimum unit of any physical entity;

b) a single quantum of light.

 

 


 

Unit II

Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials in electronics

Word List

assume / q'sjHm / допускать, предполагать
challenge / 'CxlInG / сложная задача, проблема; ставить под сомнение, оспаривать, требовать (усилий)
deliver / dI'lIvq / поставлять; передавать
dispersion / dIs'pE:S(q)n / рассеивание; распространение
embrace / Im'breIs / включать; охватывать
emerge / I'mE:G / появляться, возникать
feature / 'fJCq / особенность; характерная черта
handle / 'hxndl / управлять, регулировать
identify / aI'dentIfaI / устанавливать, определять; опознавать, распознавать
impact / 'Impxkt / влияние, воздействие
imply / Im'plaI / значить, подразумевать
incorporate / In'kLp(q)reIt / соединять(ся), объединять(ся); включать
leap / lJp / прыжок, скачок
novel / 'nPv(q)l / неизвестный; новый

 

Part A

 

1. Compare the meanings of the following English words with the Russian ones. They may have different meanings.

Nanotechnology, term, phenomenon, utilize, design, production, structure, potential, individual, organization, film, optical, cosmetics, communication, technology, interference, physiology, generate, central, evolution, nature.

 

2. Define the following words as parts of speech and give the initial words of the following derivatives.

Engineering, characterization, application, experienced, assumption, embracing, environmental, protection, emergence, encountered, versatility, inorganic, semiconductor, incorporation, capability, novelize, quantum, computing, identification.

 

3. From the given words form a) nouns; b) adjectives; c) adverbs and translate them into Russian:

a) build, compute, function, calculate, pollute, limit, inform, imply, reduce, produce, interfere, differ, develop;

b) environment, electron, tradition, optics, significance, benefit, science, atom, differ;

c) radical, ready, especial, intentional, actual, direct, common, previous, wide, undoubted.

 

4. Fill in the gaps with the words derived from the words in brackets.

Nanotechnology, shortened to “nanotech”, is the study of the control of matter on an (atom) and molecular scale. (General) nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller. Nanotechnology is very diverse, ranging from extensions of (convention) device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to investigating whether we can (direct) control matter on the (atom) scale.

Nanotechnology has the potential to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of (apply), such as in medicine, (electron) and energy (produce).

 

5. Find words in paragraph 2 of the text which mean:

1) the force of impression of one thing on another;

2) practical purpose for which a machine, idea etc. can be used;

3) having a good effect;

4) a characteristic quality of anything;

5) any fact or happening which can be observed or can be known through the senses;

6) a very thin layer of a substance on a supporting material;

7) a microscopic particle whose size is measured in nanometers;

8) taking in or including as a part, item, or element of a more inclusive whole;

9) a branch of electronics that deals with electronic devices for emitting, modulating, transmitting, and sensing light;

10) difficulties in a job.

 

6. Fill in the gaps with one of the following words:



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