ОРГАНІЗАЦІЯ ВІЛЬНОГО ТА РОБОЧОГО ЧАСУ



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

ОРГАНІЗАЦІЯ ВІЛЬНОГО ТА РОБОЧОГО ЧАСУ



Передмова

Активне прямування України до європейського та світового освітнього простору зумовлює розглядати іноземну мову як важливий чинник спілкування. Отримання якісної освіти неможливо уявити без вивчення іноземної мови. Реалізація освітніх і навчальних цілей вимагає оволодіння іншомовними компетенціями, яке здійснюється за рахунок не тільки читання пізнавального матеріалу, а й в процесі ознайомлення з новими лінгвістичними поняттями, у поглибленні знань про вже відомі явища. У свою чергу, вивчення іноземної мови сприяє розвитку мислення і формує комунікативні компетенції. Оволодіння такими компетенціями є необхідною умовою для підготовки фахівців і формування умінь використовувати отриманні знання в практичній діяльності.

Запропоновані методичні вказівки призначені для опрацювання комплексу розмовних тем з дисципліни «Іноземна мова» для самостійної роботи студентів першого і другого курсів усіх напрямків підготовки денної та заочної форм навчання.

Метою створення «Методичних вказівок…» є розвиток навичок практичного володіння англійською мовою у студентів денної і заочної форм навчання в обсязі, передбаченому програмою. «Методичні вказівки…» складено з урахуванням диференційного підходу до викладання англійської мови студентам з різним рівнем підготовки.

«Методичні вказівки…» укладено на основі кредитно-модульної системи організації навчання. Кожен модуль включає 2-3 розмовні теми з комплексом вправ, націлених на вдосконалення лексико-граматичних навичок та розвиток навичок говоріння, але такий розподіл тем не є фіксованим, тобто викладач має можливість керувати черговістю вивчення матеріалу в залежності від навчально-методичних цілей.

Новизна «Методичних вказівок…» полягає в тому, що з урахуванням різного рівня підготовки студентів матеріал подається за двома рівнями складності, які відповідають рівням А21 (рівень а) та В2 (рівень В) згідно Загальноєвропейських рекомендацій з мовної освіти.

Весь матеріал з вивчення будь-якої теми організовано згідно сучасних методичних принципів. Перед текстом подані слова, необхідні при вивченні певної теми, та ряд вправ, спрямованих на їх опрацювання у загальномовному контексті та контексті, визначеному темою, що вивчається. Післятекстові вправи мають на меті закріпити необхідні лексичні структури та на їх основі, на базі запропонованого тексту та відповідаючи на запитання, підготувати свою розповідь за темою. Крім того, електронний варіант «Методичних вказівок…», представлений за адресою http://s-edu.org.ua/fldknu, містить тести для перевірки набутих знань.

 

Модуль І

МОВЛЕННЄВИЙ ЕТИКЕТ

ОРГАНІЗАЦІЯ ВІЛЬНОГО ТА РОБОЧОГО ЧАСУ

Personal identification

Рівень а

 

Вивчіть наступні слова та вирази.

to introduce[ɪntrə'dju:s] представляти(ся),

знайомити(ся)

a first-year student ['fɜ:st'jɪə] студент першого курсу

economics [ˌiːkə'nɒmɪks] економіка як наука

appearance [ə'pɪ(ə)rəns] зовнішність

slim [slɪm] стрункий

to be serious by nature['sɪ(ə)rɪəs] бути серйозним за характером

cheerful ['ʧɪəf(ə)l] веселий

a typical Ukrainian ['tɪpɪk(ə)l] типовий українець

to be keen on smth [ki:n] захоплюватися чим-небудь

intelligent[ɪn'telɪdʒ(ə)nt] розумний

a book-keeper ['buk'ki:pə] бухгалтер

to deal with figures [di:lwɪð'fɪgəz] мати справу з цифрами

to dо wellуспівати (в навчанні)

responsible[rɪ'spɔnsəb(ə)l] відповідальний

hard-working [hɑ:(r)d 'wɔ:(r)kɪŋ] працелюбний

to find smth difficult['dɪfɪk(ə)lt] вважати щось складним

to master ['mɑ:stə] оволодіти, вивчити

finally['faɪnəlɪ] нарешті

fascinating['fæsɪneɪtɪŋ] чарівний

to achieve [ə'ʧi:v] досягати

to make a successful career [sək'sesf(ə)l kə'rɪə] робити успішну кар’єру

an ambition [æm'bɪʃ(ə)n] амбіція, тут бажання

 

Перекладіть наступні словосполучення.


1) представити свого друга

2) більшість студентів першого курсу

3) описувати зовнішність

4) гарне почуття гумору

5) бути зацікавленим

6) захоплюватися історією України

7) складні предмети

8) навчатися на факультеті

9) наполегливо працювати

10) отримати гарну роботу

11) мати намір вивчати англійську

12) з нетерпінням чекати

13) британський друг за перепискою

14) сильні бажання


 

Знайдіть еквіваленти для наступних виразів.

1. Most people say that I am a typical Ukrainian. 2. Now I am a first-year student at Faculty of Information Technologies. 3. All my friends say that I am a cheerful person by nature. 4. I enjoy going out with my friends. 5. My brother is quite keen on History of Ukraine. 6. My father works as an economist and he is always very busy. 7. To my mind, my brother is an expert in his field. 8. I did well at school but now I find English difficult. 9. In the near future I hope to get a good job. 10. I am looking forward to having a penfriend in Britain. a) Всі мої друзі кажуть, що я за характером весела людина. b) Я добре навчався в школі, але зараз вважаю англійську мову складним предметом. c) Більшість людей кажуть, що я є типовим українцем. d) Мій брат дуже захоплюється історією України. e) На мою думку, мій брат є спеціалістом в своїй галузі. f) Мені подобається прогулюватися з друзями. g) Наразі я студент першого курсу факультету інформаційних технологій. h) Я з нетерпінням чекаю на те, щоб знайти друга по переписці в Британії. i) Мій тато працює економістом, і він завжди дуже зайнятий. j) В найближчому майбутньому я сподіваюсь отримати гарну роботу.

 

Перекладіть наступні речення, вживаючи наведені вище слова та вирази і користуючись при потребі словником.

1. Мене звуть Олександр, але більшість людей називають мене Алекс.

2. Я – студент першого курсу університету.

3. Я високий і стрункий, маю сірі очі і довге темне волосся.

4. Я маю добре почуття гумору від природи.

5. Мій брат захоплюється баскетболом і ще неодружений.

6. Він наполегливо працює, щоб стати спеціалістом в своїй галузі.

7. В університеті багато складних предметів.

8. Я збираюсь відвідати Британію в майбутньому.

9. Я з нетерпінням чекаю на те, щоб знайти друга по переписці.

10. Я сподіваюсь реалізувати багато своїх (планів) амбіцій.

 

Прочитайте та перекладіть текст.

It’s My Life

Let me introduce myself. My name is Alexander Shevchenko. But most people call me Alex. Alex is my first name and Shevchenko is my surname. I am eighteen. I was born on the 7th of May in Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine. My nationality is Ukrainian. I have finished school this year. Now I am a first-year student at the Faculty of Information Technologies of Kryvyi Rih National University.

Now let me describe my appearance. I am tall and slim and have green eyes and short dark hair. I am serious by nature but all my friends say that I am a cheerful and interesting young man with a good sense of humor. I enjoy going out with my friends and I like sports. I have always been interested in sports but my real passion is basketball. I don’t know if I am a typical Ukrainian or not. I am quite keen on history of Ukraine.

I live with my parents and my elder brother. My father is 44. He works as an economist at the Economic Planning Department of a plant. He is always very busy. Nevertheless, he always helps me with Mathematics and other difficult subjects. My father is very clever and intelligent. My mother is 40. She is a book-keeper at a book-keeping department of the plant. To my mind, her job is hard. She deals with figures all the time but never forgets about her family. My brother is 19. He studies at the faculty of Economics. He is not married yet. He wants to be an expert in his field, that’s why he works hard.

I did well at school. My favourite subjects were Computer Science, Mathematics and History of Ukraine. I can say that now I am a responsible and hard-working student. There are a lot of interesting subjects at University. I also enjoy English. I sometimes find it difficult but I understand its importance nowadays. In the near future I hope to master English well and get a good job.

Finally, I intend to visit Great Britain sometime in the future as I find it fascinating. Moreover, I am looking forward to having a penfriend there. And the last thing I would like to tell you about is the ambitions I hope to achieve in my life: to make a very successful career, to build the house of my dreams and to find someone in my life to share all that with.

 

Level В

 

1. Learn the following words and word combinations.

to satisfy one’s curiosity['sætɪsfaɪ kju(ə)rɪ'ɔsɪtɪ] вдовольняти

цікавість

well-built[ˌwel'bɪlt] статний, добре збудований

to look athletic [æθ'letɪk] мати атлетичний вигляд

a slender figure ['fɪgə] мати струнку фігуру

to take smth from smb [teɪk] перейняти щось від когось

to tell the truth [tru:θ] щиро кажучи

to make smth colourful['kʌləfʊl] робити що-небудь яскравим, жвавим

to have a stable career['steɪb(ə)l] мати стабільну кар’єру

to provide[prə'vaɪd] забезпечувати

graduation [ˌgrædjʊ'eɪʃən] закінчення (університету), випуск

to be of medium build ['miːdɪəm 'bɪld] бути середньої статури

to be surrounded with [sə'raʊndɪd] бути оточеним

a great amount of [ə'maʊnt] велика кількість

figures and statements ['steɪtmənts] цифри та звіти

to be fond of smth/ doing smth захоплюватися чим-небудь

it was he/ she who… саме він/вона…

an open-minded person ['əʊp(ə)n 'maɪndɪd] людина широких поглядів

to be in forties['fɔːtɪz] бути сорокарічним; мати сорок років

fair hair ['fɛə 'hɛə] світле волосся

to be extrovert [ekstrə'vɜ:t] бути товариською людиною

dedicated ['dɛdɪˌkeɪtɪd] відданий

slightly ['slaɪtlɪ] трохи

to do one’s bestробити все можливе

to appreciate [ə'priːʃɪˌeɪt] цінити, поважати

intelligence[ɪn'telɪdʒəns] розум, інтелект

sense of justice ['dʒʌstɪs] почуття справедливості

when it comes to … коли мова йде про…; коли справа стосується…

easy-going ['iːzɪ'gəʊɪŋ] з легким характером

outdoor activities ['aʊt'dɔː] діяльність просто неба

to be into smth/ doing smth захоплюватися чим-небудь

to have a good ear (for music) мати добрий (музичний) слух

a freshman ['freʃmən] студент-першокурсник

to take a degree in [dɪ'griː] здобувати ступінь

to trigger ['trɪgə] викликати; дати початок

to complete a degree [kəm'pliːt]отримати ступінь

to obtain a challenging career [əb'teɪn] зробити багатообіцяючу кар’єру

to reach goals ['ri:ʧ 'gəʊlz] досягати мети

 

Personal Identification

It took eighteen years to create who I am today. Within these years, I have been given the freedom to explore the world in order to satisfy my curiosity toward all the strange and wonderful things in the world around me.

First of all, let me introduce myself. My name is Alexander Shevchenko but I am sometimes called Alex for short. I was born on the 7th of May, 1995. I am eighteen years old. I come from Kryvyi Rih, a beautiful city in the central part of Ukraine, where I live now with my parents and my elder brother Andrei. When I look at myself in the mirror I see a well-built boy with short dark hair and green eyes. I look athletic because I am rather tall and have a slender figure. I do not like experimenting with new clothes – I prefer wearing casual jeans and a T-shirt. I suppose I took it from my father.

To tell the truth, I grew up in a healthy family and this made my childhood days more colourful. My parents both have stable careers and this provided my brother and me with more opportunities to learn what we desired to. As for my parents, they both were born in Kryvyi Rih. My brother and I grew up here. Our parents have worked at the same plant for many years. My father started his career as an economist at the Planning Economic Department of the plant just after graduation. He is a 44-year-old man of medium build with dark hair and brown eyes. Although he is surrounded with a great amount of figures and statements, he is really fond of music. It was he who taught me to play the guitar. I am sure that he is the most open-minded and intelligent person I have ever met at all.

I must say that I am absolutely proud of my mother. She is in her forties and she works as a book-keeper at a book-keeping department of the plant. She has fair hair and green eyes. My mother is very extrovert – she would rather arrange camping somewhere in the country than stay at home to watch a family movie. Besides, she is a hard-working person and a dedicated mother.

I should say that my brother and I have slightly different personalities. Andrei is a 19-year-old student of the Mining faculty at Kryvyi Rih National University. He is a very serious and dedicated student. He wants to be an expert in his field that is why he does his best. He reads a lot and appreciates people’s honesty, intelligence and sense of justice.

Back to myself, I am quite a lazy person like most teenagers but I am still responsible when it comes to my duties. Generally, I am an easy-going person and keen on such outdoor activities as basketball, skateboarding and skiing. To my mind, it is necessary to be active, healthy and open-minded. However, I am into less active activity – reading historical novels connected with warfare of Ukraine and other countries. Sometimes I can walk my dog. As it was mentioned above, I have a good ear for music – I play the guitar and the piano a little.

As I am a freshman at Kryvyi Rih National University, I try to do well in my studies. I am going to take a degree in Computer Programming. I have always been interested in how the computer functions. This curiosity triggered my ambition of taking this course. When I complete my degree, I will have the opportunity to obtain a stable and challenging career. One day I intend to go to Great Britain as I find it a fascinating country to visit and fulfill my dreams. That’s why I am looking forward to having a penfriend there. I need to move on in order to reach my goals.

And the last thing I would like to tell you about is the ambitions I hope to achieve in my life: to make a very successful career, to build the house of my dreams and to find someone in my life to share all that with.

 

Additional material

to be the only child – бути єдиною дитиною

to take after – нагадувати (частіше, за характером)

to look like – виглядати, бути схожим

to have smth in common – мати щось спільне

to be a stay-at-home – бути домосідом

to be a/ the picture of health – бути втіленням здоров я

to welcome the opportunity – скористатися нагодою

with flying colours – блискуче, успішно (напр., скласти екзамен)

to move heaven and earth – зробити все можливе, «звернути гори»

 

Слова для опису зовнішності

Зріст і статура

short – низький, невисокий

medium height – середнього зросту

plump – повний

chubby – кругловидий, повнощокий; повний

frail – слабкий, хворобливий

stocky – приосадкуватий, кремезний

skinny – худий

Вік

elderly – літній, похилого віку

middle-aged – середнього віку

teenager – підліток

in 20s, 30s, 40s – мати двадцять (тридцять, сорок) років

Обличчя

wrinkles – зморшки

freckles – веснянки, ластовиння

pale – блідий

clean-shaven – чисто виголений

a bloated face – опухле обличчя

a cherubic face – ангельське обличчя

a weather-beaten face – обвітрене обличчя

moles – бородавки

a birthmark – родимка

a dimple – ямочка (на щоці, підборідді)

a deadpan face – невиразне обличчя

a doleful face – меланхолійне обличчя

moustache – вуса

beard – борода

Очі

bright – яскраві

narrow – вузькі

hazel – горіховий; карі (очі)

cross-eyed – косоокий

a squint – погляд нишком, скоса; швидкий погляд

crow’s feet – зморшки в куточках очей

sunken eyes – запалі очі

bulging eyes – вирячені очі

shifty eyes – хитрі очі

Волосся

bald – лисий

straight – пряме

curly – кучеряве

spiky hair – коротке колюче волосся

wavy – хвилясте

auburn – золотисто-каштанове, червонясто-коричневе, рудувате

mousy hair – волосся мишачого кольору (невиразне)

red-haired – рудий

crimped hair – укладене, завите волосся

a ponytail – жіноча зачіска "кінський хвіст"

a pageboy – жіноча стрижка "під пажа"

a hairdo – зачіска

a crew cut – чоловіча коротка стрижка "їжачок"

dyed – фарбований

Ніс

a bulbous nose – ніс картоплею

a hooked nose – ніс гачком

a turned-up/snub nose – кирпатий ніс

a pointed nose – загострений ніс

a flat nose/a pug nose – товстий приплюснутий ніс

a lopsided nose – скривлений ніс

Одяг

casual – повсякденний, непарадний

scruffy – неохайний

smart – витончений, елегантний; модний

Загальні терміни для опису характеру

careful – турботливий, дбайливий, уважний

cheerful – веселий, радісний

broadminded – з широким кругозором, широких поглядів, strong-minded – передовий, емансипований

imaginative – наділений багатою уявою; який володіє творчою уявою

ambitious – честолюбний, амбітний; активний; ініціативний

crafty – спритний, майстерний

sensitive – вразливий, чуйний; уразливий

generous–великодушний, шляхетний

loyal – вірний, відданий

modest – скромний; стриманий

reliable – надійний

Факультети

civil engineering faculty – будівельний факультет

electric engineering faculty – електротехнічний факультет

faculty of economics – економічний факультет

geological and ecological faculty – геолого-екологічний факультет

faculty of information technologies– факультет інформаційних технологій

mining faculty – гірничий факультет

metallurgical faculty – металургійний факультет

machine building faculty – машинобудівний факультет

transport faculty – транспортний факультет

My working day

Рівень а

 

My Working Day

On weekdays my working day begins early in the morning. I usually get up at 7 o’clock. I open the window to let some fresh air in and do some exercises. Then I go to the bathroom to shave and have a shower. After that I dress and go to the kitchen to have breakfast. I usually have fried eggs or ham and a cup of tea or coffee for breakfast. Then I say “goodbye” to my folks and leave for work. It takes me about 40 minutes to get there by shuttle bus.

My working hours begin at 9 sharp. I am never late. I even come 10 or 15 minutes earlier to get everything ready for work. At 1 o’clock we have a lunch break. We normally have lunch at a nice café just round the corner. I usually have some soup, potatoes with meat and vegetables and a glass of orange or pine-apple juice. After lunch we have some time to rest before going back to work.

Our working hours are over at 5 p.m. But I am an extramural student of the university, so I don’t go home. I often head for a library or a university laboratory to get ready with my assignments.

I come home at about 8 or even 9 o’clock. I am very tired as it is really very difficult to combine work with study. I have dinner and then I watch TV or listen to some music. I go to bed at 11. Tomorrow there’s another hard working day to come.

 

Level В

 

My Daily Routine

I want to describe my daily actions which I have been doing more or less regularly on my weekdays. I must say that all days except weekends look very much the same.

So, on weekdays the alarm-clock wakes me up at about 6.30. As a matter of fact, I am not an early riser. I bury my head under the pillow pretending not to hear it. Just a few more minutes to sleep! But all the same it’s time to get up and start to get ready for another day’s work. So, I force myself and leave my bed. It doesn’t take me long to make my bed and get washed. I am through with my shower at about 7 a.m. It sets me into a cheerful working mood; I get dressed and go to the kitchen. Breakfast, as doctors say, must be the most substantial meal of the day, though I have neither time nor inclination to cook it. But for my mother, I would just gulp a cup of coffee or a glass of orange juice and some sandwiches. She starts the day and cooks breakfast for the whole family. So, she makes me have fried or boiled eggs or a plate of porridge with meat and vegetables besides coffee and juice.

I leave home at about 8 a.m. Kryvyi Rih is quite a long city – nearly 120 km – and it takes me 35-40 minutes to get to the university by shuttle bus called marshrutka. My classes begin at 9 a.m. and I usually come in time. I have 2 to 4 lectures or seminars every day. We have a long break of 40 minutes at 11.50 and I usually go to the students’ canteen to have lunch. When classes are over I do not go home. I have a lot of work to do. I usually go to a laboratory or to the library to get ready for my colloquiums and seminars. I understand that under the present economical conditions and considering Ukraine’s intention to become an equal member of the international community I must do my best to become a competitive specialist in my field. So, I am often back home at about 5 or 6 in the evening.

To tell you the truth, I am awfully hungry after classes. Fortunately, my mom has cooked substantial dinner. I wonder how she finds time for it! I normally have a three-course meal consisting of a plate of soup, some meat course with potatoes and a cup of tea. If my day was especially tiring I allow myself a short rest reading, watching TV or listening to some relaxing music. My parents understand that studying is hard work and don’t charge me with household chores. But this does not mean I do nothing about the house. Sometimes cleaning or washing up is а good change from intellectual tension.

After some rest – back to studies! I work hard till 10 or 11 o’clock and then, feeling almost exhausted, I go to bed. Tomorrow another day will come.

 

Additional material

grapefruit juice – грейпфрутовий сік

bacon and eggs –яєчня з беконом

ham and eggs –яєчня з шинкою

boiled eggs – варені яйця

a toast – тост

salad –салат

the main course – головна страва

a roast beef – ростбіф

a pork chop – відбивна зі свинини

a beef steak – біфштекс

fried potatoes –смажена картопля

mashed potatoes – картопляне пюре

beans – горошок

lettuce – зелений салат

a cucumber – огірок

a tomato –помідор

a dessert –десерт

an apple pie –яблучний пиріг

fruit salad –фруктовий салат

ice-cream –морозиво

strawberry jam –полуничний джем

beer –пиво

English tea –чай з молоком

Russian tea –чай з лимоном

bread and butter –хліб з маслом

a cake –тістечко, торт

a snack-bar –закусочна, буфет

 

a first-year student – студент-першокурсник

a second-year student – студент другого курсу

a student of mining– студент гірник

 

to go by bus – їхати автобусом

to get by tram – діставатися трамваєм

to take a taxi – взяти таксі

to go on foot – йти пішки

 

 

My days off

Рівень а

 

My Days Off

Now many people in our country work five days a week from Monday till Friday. Saturday and Sunday are our days off. On these days we do not have to hurry anywhere. We prefer resting and relaxing.

On weekends we usually get up later thаn usual and have a nice time visiting friends, clubbing, watching TV and so on.

My days off are usually like this.

On Saturday I often stay in bed till 8 or even 9 o’clock in the morning. I make my toilet and have breakfast. Saturday morning is the time for cleaning the house and doing the laundry. Then it’s time to go shopping. After all that I watch an interesting program on TV, listen to music or read a book – after hard weekdays I enjoy doing nothing.

At about 2 o’clock I phone my friends and we make plans for the weekend. We usually arrange to meet in a café or, if the weather is fine, in a park. We have a lot of things to discuss – from classes and home assignments to latest fashion trends and politics. Sometimes we go to the cinema. I am fond of watching films on the silver screen.

When the weather is bad, I stay at home. A cup of tea or coffee, a sandwich, a comfortable arm-chair and an interesting book help me settle this problem. Besides, I am fond of surfing the net and I usually spend a lot of time on it.

On Sunday morning after late breakfast I start getting ready for the next week. It takes me long to do it as I want to become a good specialist in my field.

After my homework is ready I have some time to spend with my family and relax.

Unfortunately, time passes very quickly and I have to go to bed early. On Monday another working week starts.

 

Level B

 

My Weekend

Nowadays most of people work or study five days a week and they do work hard. So, you can imagine how eagerly they look forward to their weekend! And I am not an exception to the rule.

Any dictionary defines the weekend as the period from Friday evening through Sunday evening, especially regarded as a time for leisure. To tell you the truth, my weekend starts at the moment I open my eyes on Friday morning, and the first thought that comes to my mind is “This is the last time the alarm-clock wakes me up! At least, this week …”

I must confess that up to the moment my working hours are over I make efforts to concentrate on what I am doing – from time to time my thoughts slide to planning my leisure.

Then, at last the long hard weekdays are over and I can enjoy the wonderful Friday evening. The fact that there are two days off to follow adds excitement. I myself find Friday evenings the most attractive because of two free days ahead.

There are different scenarios of spending days off. Mine is usually like this. On Friday evening after work I usually go to a café to have a cup of coffee or even a glass of beer or wine and chat with my friends. But we are rather tired to stay there long. A relaxing TV program or an interesting book is a good completion of the day.

If I have no urgent work to do (unfortunately, it happens from time to time) no alarm-clock wakes me up on Saturday and I get up much later than usual. After breakfast I have to do some work about the house. After that I choose what to do next. But I often feel so tired after a week’s work that I prefer doing nothing but sleeping, eating, reading, watching TV, playing computer games or surfing the net. At about 4 or 5 I am usually sick and tired of doing nothing, so I call friends and we go to the cinema, a concert hall, a bowling center or a café. If the weather allows we can go to the country for any kind of activities depending on the season. As I have another day off ahead I go to bed rather late.

On Sunday morning I can still afford to get up later. After breakfast (or is it lunch?) I do my shopping. I have a supermarket in the neighbourhood, so it is much more convenient for me to do in on Sunday. Then I start doing my home assignment – I am a university student and want to become a competitive specialist in my field. When I am through with my homework I have some time to enjoy a quiet Sunday evening.

Of course, how to spend a weekend depends on many factors – the weather, a season, and personal preferences and so on – but in any case we do our best to have a really good time because on Monday another workweek comes.

 

Additional material

to go in for sports – займатися спортом

to spend time outdoors – проводити час на свіжому повітрі

in the open air – на свіжому повітрі

to make a fire – розпалити багаття

to depend on smb’s plans – залежати від чиїхось планів

to pick berries and mushrooms – збирати ягоди та гриби

to pick flowers – збирати квіти

to fish – рибалити

to boat – кататись на човні

to lie in the sun – лежати на сонці

on the beach – на пляжі

to have a pleasant rest – приємно відпочивати

a picnic – пікнік

to have a bite – перекусити

without observing table manners – не дотримуючись правил поведінки за столом

to admire – насолоджуватись

time flies quickly – час спливає швидко

 

***

Nowadays everybody knows that people are very busy and don’t have much time to spare. Sometimes it’s only the weekend and I think that every day-off needs some special planning. The English say: "Who knows how to work, knows how to rest". I think it’s true. In my view rest is as important as work. So I try to treasure every hour and think of the ways of having a good time in the best way possible for me.

I prefer to spend my free time with the people whose company I always enjoy. I also like to spend my spare time alone, when I’m tired and haven’t got any desire to talk to anybody; very often I want to get away from noisy streets and go to the countryside and change the scenery. On the other hand I may go to different entertainment centers such as disco clubs, art centers including cinema, theatre, concerts halls, etc.

There are people who want to broaden and enrich their knowledge during their free time. I’m among them; I go to the library or reading-hall where I can find a lot of books written by my favourite writers and poets. I must add that I never have enough time to enjoy reading and more often read a book or a magazine late in the evening. Or I can go to the museums and picture galleries where I can see the works of well-known painters and sculptors of all times. I don’t forget the computer – my greatest helper in searching for knowledge.

If you want to be strong and healthy, go in for sports. There are many sports clubs, swimming-pools, gymnasiums and sport grounds for everybody who loves sports. Sport will make you not only healthier and stronger, but kinder, more sociable, cheerful and even wiser. Sport will give you its strength and energy and you’ll become a greater admirer of life with all its problems and wonders. Moreover, there are a lot of people, who prefer less energetic activities, such as chess, cards, and crosswords.

And don’t forget about hobbies. You should have at least one, it’ll help you to relax, dream and enjoy life. There are so many hobbies to choose: painting, computer programming, photography, fishing, gardening, cooking, walking, learning languages, collecting something and what not. It’s a pleasure to see lots of things made with your own hands, to look through a large collection of old and rare coins, books or stamps, to present your friends with the pictures and drawings created by yourself, to amuse everyone with your green winter garden at home. So, look around more carefully and you’ll find your own and the only one (or even more). Hobbies give people moments of pride and excitement but take a lot of time, energy and even money.

Tastes differ and if you have chosen a hobby according to your character and taste you are lucky. (So my hobby is ...)

Travelling is also a good way to spend my spare time. Visiting new places, seeing sights and meeting new people is a very exciting and useful relaxation. I can go hiking. In summer I like to be outdoors from morning till night, sunbathing, walking barefoot on the grass. My family or my friends are the very people to go with to the riverbank, to the forest or to the seashore. It's really wonderful to put up a tent, make a fire and spend time in a picturesque place.

People are dreamers, our dreams are different but each person chooses his own way of spending free time, either passive or active. In any case leisure should be refreshment and a source of inspiration.

 

Модуль ІІ

Рівень а

 

1. Вивчіть наступні слова та вирази.

leading ['liːdɪŋ] провідний; керівний; передовий

to found [faund] засновувати, утворювати

to provide [prə'vaɪd] постачати; забезпечувати

mining ['maɪnɪŋ] гірничий

educational [ˌedjʊ'keɪʃ(ə)nəl] освітній; навчальний

an institution [ɪ'stæblɪʃmənt] установа, заклад

to grant [grɑːnt] надавати

an undergraduate [ˌʌndə'græʤuət] студент бакалаврату

general ['ʤen(ə)rəl] загальний

the major ['meɪʤə] спеціалізація

to excel [ɪk'sel] відзначатися

to award [ə'wɔːd] присуджувати

a postgraduate [ˌpəust'græʤuət] аспірант

up-to-date [ˌʌptə'deɪt] сучасний, найновіший

facilities [fə'sɪlɪtɪz] обладнання; засоби; умови для…

to recognize ['rekəgnaɪz] визнавати

to rank [ræŋk] займати певне місце

research [rɪ'sɜːʧ] наукове дослідження

 

2. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення.


1) відзначатися як студенти бакалаврату

2) надавати статус національного університету

3) висококваліфіковані спеціалісти

4) займати місце одного з найкращих університетів

5) присуджувати ступінь магістра наук

6) загальна освіта

7) наукове обладнання

8) студенти бакалаврату

9) освітні установи

10) всесвітньо визнаний

11) забезпечувати умови для…

12) провідний заклад

13) гірничий університет

14) мати сучасну спеціалізацію


 

LEVEL B

 

РІВЕНЬ а

 

Kryvyi Rih

Kryvyi Rih, one of the world’s mining centers, is a city in central Ukraine. Zaporozhian Cossacks founded it in the 17th century. The city’s population is about 700 thousand people. The city extends for 100 km, paralleling the ore deposits. Iron ore is the main economic mineral in the Basin. Besides iron ore the region is rich in other minerals.

Kryvyi Rih is the centre of Kryvyi Rih Iron Ore Basin, the major raw-material base of Ukraine’s metallurgy. It ensures the country’s economic independence and safety. The prospected resources of iron ores make up over 32 billion tons. Kryvyi Rih takes the third place in the world as for iron ore extraction.

At the same time it is a large globally-important metallurgical centre of Europe. The ore reserves make it possible to supply ferrous metallurgy with raw materials. Now it is a powerful industrial complex, which includes mining and metallurgical mills, five concentration plants, twenty large mines and many open pits. The mining complex of Kryvyi Rih provides about 90% of iron ore necessary for manufacturing concentrate and pellets in Ukraine.

The metallurgical works, Kryvorizhstal (now Arcelor Mittal), and now remains one of the largest in the world. More than 95% of high grade ores are produced by open pit mining. The mining of ore is highly mechanized. Up-to-date technique is used here, for example, huge shovels, dump-cars and trucks. A wide range of products includes iron ore concentrate, agglomerate, pellets, pig-iron, steel and ready rolled products.

 

LEVEL B

 

Learn the following words.

mining ['maɪnɪŋ] гірнича справа, гірнича промисловість, гірничі роботи, розробка покладів; гірничий

to extend [ɪk'stend] тягтися, простягатися

a deposit [dɪ'pɔzɪt] поклади, родовище

to found [faund] заснувати

iron ore ['aɪən 'ɔː] залізна руда

to rumour ['ruːmə] пускати чутки

commercial [kə'mɜːʃl] промисловий

content ['kɒntent] вміст

to support [sə'pɔːt] підтримувати

to examine [ɪg'zæmɪn] досліджувати; оглядати

an official [ə'fɪʃ(ə)l] службовець

major ['meɪʤə] головний, основний

raw material ['rɔː mə'tɪərɪəl] сировина

to ensure [ɪn'ʃuə] забезпечувати, гарантувати

extraction [ɪk'strækʃ(ə)n] добування

to provide [prə'vaɪd] забезпечувати, постачати

necessary ['nesəs(ə)rɪ] необхідний, потрібний

to manufacture [ˌmænjə'fækʧə] виробляти

numerous ['njuːm(ə)rəs] численний

ferrous ['ferəs] чорний (про металургію)

to include [ɪn'kluːd] включати в себе

a mill [mɪl] завод

a concentration plant [ˌkɔn(t)s(ə)n'treɪʃ(ə)n] збагачувальна фабрика

a mine [maɪn] шахта, копальня

an open pit (open cast, strip mine)відкрита розробка, кар’єр

to expand [ɪk'spænd] розширятися; розвиватися

high grade [greɪd] висока якість; високоякісний

to use[ju:z] використовувати; споживати

A glimpse OF UKRAINE

Рівень а

 

Ukraine

Ukraine is a land shaped by its past and people. It is situated in South Eastern Europe on the crossroads of the ways from Asia to Europe. This position is very favourable for establishing contacts with other countries. It covers an area of 603,700 square km. It borders on the Russian Federation, Moldova and Romania. Its neighbours are also Poland, Slovakia and Hungary. Ukraine is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov in the South.

The major part of Ukraine (95%) is flat and the rest is mountainous. There are the Crimean Mountains in the Crimean peninsula and the Carpathians in the west, but they are not very high. The main Ukrainian rivers are the Dnipro, the Dnister, the Buh, the Donets and others. Ukraine has a continental climate. Winter is rather mild, with no severe frosts but with regular snowfalls everywhere except the south. Summer is quite hot and dry, with occasional showers and thunderstorms.

Due to favourable climatic conditions, Ukraine is traditionally an agricultural area with good arable lands. It grows wheat, maize, buckwheat and other corn, red and green vegetables, all kinds of fruit, melons, water melons and berries. Ukraine is one of the world's main centers of sugar production. It produces sugar both for its own needs and for export. Ukraine imports oil, natural gas, wood products, and consumer goods.

Ukraine is rich in natural resources. It has rich deposits of iron ore, coal, color metal, oil, gas, mineral salts, clay and other industrial raw materials. The country has metallurgical and heavy industries, concentrated mostly in and around big cities, such as Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk, Zaporizhzhya, Kharkiv, Kyiv, Kryvyi Rih, Lviv, Odessa and others. Coal, natural gas and petroleum have long been important sources of electric power in Ukraine. Moreover, it produces planes and ships, trucks and buses, motorcars and locomotives, computer and electronic equipment, precision instruments and agricultural machines, TV and radio sets, chemicals and textiles and various consumer goods. The country also has hydroelectric plants located mainly on the Dnipro.

Scientists of Ukraine enriched the world science with important discoveries and inventions. They contributed much to solving the main problems of automation of production processes and electric welding.

Nowadays Ukraine is the country with great heritage and a strong character, open to the world and full of opportunities.

 

Level В

 

Learn the following words.

in terms of [tɜːmz] з точки зору

to satisfy ['sætɪsfaɪ] задовольняти

deposits [dɪ'pɔzɪts] поклади

annual ['ænjuəl] щорічний, річний

to supply [sə'plaɪ] постачати (with)

bituminous ores [bɪ'tju:mɪnəs ɔ:z] бітумна руда

anthracite ['æntrəsaɪt] антрацит

nearby ['nɪəbaɪ] близький, сусідній

extraction [ɪk'strækʃ(ə)n] вилучення

shelves [ʃelvz]шельфи

the forefront ['fɔ:frənt]перший план; найважливіше місце

current ['kʌr(ə)nt] поточний

considerable[kən'sɪd(ə)rəbl] значний; чималий

outdated [aut'deɪtɪd] застарілий

worn-out [,wɔ:n'aʊt] зношений; що спрацювався

to process ['prəuses] піддавати технічному процесу; обробляти

equipment [ɪ'kwɪpmənt] устаткування, обладнання, оснащення

main [meɪn] головний

a branch [brɑːnʧ] гілка, галузь

production [prə'dʌkʃ(ə)n] виробництво; видобуток

granary ['græn(ə)rɪ] житниця, хлібородний район

husbandry ['hʌzbəndrɪ] господарство, сільське господарство

rye [raɪ] жито

barley ['bɔ:lɪ] ячмінь

oats [əʊts] овес

a crop [krɒp] сільськогосподарська культура

widespread ['waɪdspred] дуже поширений

assertion [ə'sɜːʃ(ə)n] заявлення прав

to achieve [ə'ʧiːv] досягати (мети і т.п.)

policy ['pɒlɪsɪ] політика

an enterprise ['entəpraɪz] підприємство

assumption [ə'sʌmpʃ(ə)n] припущення

property ['prɒpətɪ] власність, майно

to be aimed at [eɪmd] бути спрямованим на

to eliminate [ɪ'lɪmɪneɪt] усувати, ліквідувати

 

Additional material

Economy of Ukraine

Ukraine has a developed economy with strong industry and agriculture. In the 1990s Ukraine began changing its economy from the one owned and controlled by the government to an economy based on free enterprise. In this kind of economy, individual owners and managers run their own businesses.

Ukraine's heavy industries produce iron and steel and such machines as tractors, machine tools and mining equipment. Ukraine also produces cars, buses, railway carriages, airplanes. It manufactures chemical fertilizers, sugar, canned foods. Ukraine is a producer of consumer goods, including TV-sets, washing-machines, refrigerators, clothes and footwear.

Ukraine is famous for its agricultural production and is known as the breadbasket of Europe. Its moderate climate and rich black soils have made the country one of the world's most productive farming regions.

The major crops grown here are wheat, sugar beets, corn, potatoes and sunflowers. Ukrainian farmers also raise beef, and dairy cattle. Near cities farmers often grow fruits and vegetables to sell at markets.

Ukraine is a leading producer of nickel, manganese which is used in making steel. Huge coal deposits lie in the Donbas, the centre of Ukraine's heavy industry. Ukraine also mines iron ore, natural gas and other resources. Coal, natural gas and petroleum have long been important sources of electric power in Ukraine. During the 1980s nuclear power plants began providing an important new source of energy. Today these plants produce about a fourth of Ukraine's electricity.

Ukraine has a well developed transportation system. A huge railroad network connects major cities and industrial centers. Ukraine's highways include about 147,000 km of paved roads. Kyiv, Kharkiv and some other cities have underground systems.

Service industries employ more than a fourth of Ukraine's workers. The country's chief service industries include education, scientific research and engineering, health care, transportation and trade.

Ukraine's major trading partners are the Russian Federation, Poland, Hungary, Canada and Germany. Ukraine imports oil, natural gas, wood products and consumer goods. The USA chief exports are wheat, sugar beets, coal, construction equipment and manufactured goods.

The economic reforms, started in the national economy after the proclamation of independence, were aimed at the establishment of an open market-type structure. Ukraine had to be transformed from planned-centralized to market-controlled economy. The reforms in the spheres of economics and property still continue. It is especially actual nowadays because today's industries are unable to satisfy consumers' needs. The possible reasons are the unwillingness to accept progressive techniques, outdated and worn-out production equipment and so on. These and other problems are to be solved in the course of new economic reforms, aimed at creating an open effective market-type economy.

 

Модуль ІІІ

Great britain

Рівень а

 

Discovering Great Britain

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the official name of the state situated on the British Islands.

In Great Britain there are a lot of immigrants from former British Asian and African colonies. They live mostly in towns and cities and their suburbs.

The climate of Great Britain is mild and wet. That’s why there are a lot of evergreen plants in the UK. The worst thing about the English climate is smog (a mixture of smoke and fog).

Great Britain is not very rich in mineral resources; it has some deposits of coal and iron ore and vast deposits of oil and gas. The North Sea oil and gas deposit have made Britain self-sufficient in energy. To the most perspective energy technologies belongs wind, tidal and solar power.

Britain’s economy is based on private enterprise, which accounts for 75% of output and nearly 70% of employment. British industries can be divided into three main groups:

1. Primary industries providing raw materials and food from the land and the sea (energy resources, agriculture).

2. Manufacturing industries making finished goods from raw materials (electronics, aerospace, chemical, textile).

3. Service industries (banking, business, computing, tourism).

British agriculture is known for its high efficiency and productivity. Britain is one of Europe’s most important fishing nations.

The electronic industry produces an extensive range of computer hardware systems, associated equipment and software.

The aerospace industry, the third largest in the world, exports over 70% of its production. It produces both civil and military aircraft, satellites, space systems, guided weapons and components.

The most rapid growth in the chemical industry has been in pharmaceuticals, pesticides and cosmetics.

The service industries account for 66% of Britain’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 71% of employment. The banking services are responsible for about 20% of international bank lending and insurance.

The computing services include such areas of software development as data and word processing, telecommunication, defence and consumer electronics.

Trade has



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