ТОП 10:

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH FOR ENGINEERS



МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ВОЛГОГРАДСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Кафедра иностранных языков

А.М. Митина, Н.В. Багметова, Н.И. Кохташвили,

Е.А. Литвинова, Н.А. Пром

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH FOR ENGINEERS

Учебное пособие по развитию навыков устной речи и чтения

для магистрантов технических специальностей

Английский язык

 

РПК

«Политехник»

Волгоград 2013

УДК 811.111 (075)

ББК Ш143.21-92

 

 

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:

кафедра английской филологии ВГСПУ,

зав. кафедрой, д-р филол. наук, профессор В. И. Карасик;

кафедра немецкой филологии ВГСПУ,

д-р филол. наук, профессор Н. А. Красавский

 

 

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета

Волгоградского государственного технического университета

 

Professional English for Engineers: учебное пособие. Английский язык / А.М. Митина, Н.В. Багметова, Н.И. Кохташвили, Е.А. Литвинова, Н.А. Пром; под общей ред. А.М. Митиной. – Волгоград: ИУНЛ ВолгГТУ, 2013. – 120 с.

 

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для обучения устной речи и чтению на английском языке на этапе магистратуры в вузах технического профиля.

Целью пособия является развитие профессиональной языковой компетенции, формирование готовности к иноязычному профессиональному общению с зарубежными коллегами в рамках производственной и научной тематики, а также совершенствование навыков самостоятельного чтения оригинальной англоязычной литературы по специальности.

В пособии представлены аутентичные тексты, отобран соответствующий языковой и речевой материал, разработана система продуктивных упражнений для расширения профессионально-ориентированного вокабуляра, совершенствования грамматической компетенции и развития навыков чтения и устной речи по темам, связанным с проблемами технологического развития современного общества.

Библиография: 16 назв.

@Волгоградский государственный

технический университет, 2013

@Коллектив авторов, 2013

 

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для обучения чтению и устной речи на английском языке на этапе магистратуры в вузах технического профиля, на факультетах университетов близких специальностей и слушателей специальных курсов по английскому языку. Оно рассчитано на год обучения (72 аудиторных часа, включая самостоятельную работу студентов).

Залогом успешной карьеры как на производстве, так и в науке является возможность полезного общения с коллегами за рубежом, а также доступ к источникам информации на английском языке. Поэтому основной целью предлагаемого пособия является формирование умения вести беседу в рамках производственной и научной тематики с использованием технической терминологии и выражений речевого этикета, а также совершенствование навыков чтения оригинальной англоязычной литературы по специальности, заложив основу для самостоятельного чтения. Авторы предлагают обучение данным аспектам языка в контексте коммуникативного подхода, исходя из современных достижений методики обучения иностранным языкам.

Пособие состоит из восьми тематических разделов, последовательно формирующих и развивающих умения и навыки устной и письменной речи, и приложения, включающего аутентичные тексты для ознакомительного и просмотрового чтения, которые насыщены специальной лексикой и грамматическим структурами, способствующими формированию автоматизированного навыка узнавания и понимания содержания специального текста.

Каждый раздел открывается дискуссией, направленной на активизацию мыслительной деятельности обучаемых и мотивацию изучения обсуждаемого материала. Тексты отобраны из современной англо-американской технической литературы по темам, представляющим практический и познавательный интерес для магистрантов. Разработанные авторами упражнения способствуют обучению разным видам чтения и ведения беседы в пределах данной тематики. Основной текст посвящен введению и тренировке языковых средств, обучению ознакомительному и изучающему видам чтения, а также практике говорения. Тексты B и C (иногда D) могут быть использованы для просмотрового чтения.

Система упражнений, которой снабжены тексты, обеспечивает многократное повторение лексического материала и речевых формул. Предтекстовые упражнения снимают лексические (терминологические) трудности и способствуют накоплению словарного запаса, необходимого для работы над научно-техническим текстом по конкретной специальности. Послетекстовые задания, в силу своей коммуникативной направленности, помогают дальнейшей актуализации грамматических и лексических навыков, необходимых для воспроизведения прочитанного материала. При их составлении учитывался жанровый подход, позволяющий имитировать реальные ситуации общения, с которыми может встретиться инженер в своей научной и профессиональной деятельности. Кроме того, формированию речевого навыка способствует такой методический прием, как учебная дискуссия.

Для самостоятельной работы магистрантов в пособие включены дополнительные тексты из специальных журналов, монографий и реклам.


UNIT I. ENGINEERING

 

In groups of two or three discuss what engineering is and give your definition of engineering.

Think of at least five different fields of engineering and their application in the modern world.

Match a specialist with the function he/she is responsible for.

Aerospace engineer Maintenance of computers
Electrical engineer Designing more effective recycling systems
Computer engineer To discover and manufacture better plastics, paints, fuels, fibers
Ceramic and materials engineer To create the sounds in a video game
Environmental engineer Making useful products in many forms
Chemical engineer To keep desirable organisms alive in fermentation processes
bioengineer Developing a new generation of telescopes, commercial airliners, military jets
Audio engineer Construction and implementation of computer controlled equipment

Skim the first part of the text and compose the ABC-list of modern engineering specializations.

Read the text Part 1 of Text A and compare your ideas from the warming up activity 2 with the ideas given in the text. Are there any ideas that you haven’t thought of?

Text A

Part 1

Engineering has been called the «invisible» or «stealth» profession. Everything around you and that you use every day has been engineered in some way yet you may not see the engineers behind the scenes or know much about engineering.

You have math and science classes and both are basic to engineering. But, engineers take math and science from paper and the lab to invent, design, and build things that matter. They are team players with independent minds who ask, «How can we develop a better recycling system to protect the environment, design a school that can withstand an earthquake, or create cutting-edge special effects for the movies?» By dreaming up creative and practical solutions, engineers are changing the world all the time.

Aerospace engineers design, analyze, model, simulate, and test aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, missiles, and rockets. Aerospace technology also extends to many other applications of objects moving within gases or liquids. Examples are golf balls, high-speed trains, hydrofoil ships, or tall buildings in the wind.

As an aerospace engineer, you might work on the Orion space mission, which plans on putting astronauts back on the moon by 2020. Or, you might be involved in developing a new generation of space telescopes, the source of some of our most significant cosmological discoveries. But outer space is just one of many realms to explore as an aerospace engineer. You might develop commercial airliners, military jets, or helicopters for our airways. And getting even more down-to-earth, you could design the latest ground and sea transportation, including high-speed trains, racing cars, or deep-sea vessels that explore life at the bottom of the ocean.

Most people take the sounds we hear every day for granted. But it may surprise you to learn that the creation of audio is a unique endeavor that blends both art and science. Did you ever stop to think how they created the sounds in a video game, or in a move, TV show or at a concert? There are literally thousands of different jobs available in this field that are as rewarding as they are challenging.

There are many career choices in the field of Audio Engineering. Perhaps you are a musician, interested in electronics and sound, or like the idea of working with people who produce and perform in the many fields of entertainment. You will find challenging and fulfilling work in audio engineering.

Bioengineers study living systems and apply that knowledge to solve various problems. They study the safety of food supplies, keep desirable organisms alive in fermentation processes, and design biologically based sensors. Bioengineering is widely used to destroy wastes and clean up contaminated soil and water. These engineers contribute greatly to human health and the environment.

Ceramic and Materials Engineers solve problems by relying on their creative and technical skills – making useful products in many forms from common as well as exotic materials. Every day we use a multitude of these products. Each time we talk on the phone, use a computer, or heat food in a microwave oven, we are using products made possible by the inventions and designs of engineers working with ceramics and other materials.

Everything around us is made of chemicals. Chemical changes can be used to produce all kinds of useful products. Chemical Engineers discover and manufacture better plastics, paints, fuels, fibers, medicines, fertilizers, semiconductors, paper, and all other kinds of chemicals. Chemical Engineers also play an important role in protecting the environment, inventing cleaner technologies, calculating environmental impacts, and studying the fate of chemicals in the environment.

Computer Engineering is the design, construction, implementation, and maintenance of computers and computer controlled equipment for the benefit of humankind.

Most universities offer Computer Engineering as either a degree program of its own or as a sub-discipline of Electrical Engineering. With the widespread use and integration of computers into our everyday lives, it's hard to separate what an Electrical Engineer needs to know and what a Computer Engineer needs to know. Because of this, several universities offer a dual degree in both Electrical and Computer Engineering.

Environmental Engineering is the study of ways to protect the environment.

Most of us care deeply about stopping pollution and protecting our natural resources. Imagine yourself having more than just a passion for saving our environment, but also possessing the actual know-how to do something about these alarming problems! As an environmental engineer, you’ll make a real difference in the survival of our planet by finding ways of cleaning up our oceans, rivers, and drinking water, developing air pollution equipment, designing more effective recycling systems, or discovering safe ways to dispose of toxic waste.

Answer the questions.

1) Why has engineering been called «invisible» profession?

2) How are engineers changing the world all the time?

3) What are profession prospects for an aerospace engineer?

4) What are the career choices in the field of audio engineering?

5) What do bioengineers contribute to human health and the environment?

6) What is a ceramic and materials engineer responsible for?

7) What is the role of a chemical engineer?

8) What do computer engineers do?

9) How can an environmental engineer make a real difference in the survival of our planet?

The verbs (from the text) given below describe what different engineers do. Check if you know these words and word combinations. Which verb or phrase corresponds to a particular specialist in engineering? Find them in the text and ask your partner to translate the sentences.

Build, construct, analyze, create, control, calculate, develop, coordinate, module, discover, direct, simulate, design, implement, test, explore, produce, play important role in, invent, perform, be involved in, research, contribute, be interested in.

Part 2.

Manufacturing means making things. Manufacturing engineers direct and coordinate the processes for making things – from the beginning to the end. As businesses try to make products better and at less cost, it turns to manufacturing engineers to find out how. Manufacturing engineers work with all aspects of manufacturing from production control to materials handling to automation. The assembly line is the domain of the manufacturing engineer. Machine vision and robotics are some of the more advanced technologies in the manufacturing engineer’s toolkit.

As a mechanical engineer, you might develop a bike lock or an aircraft carrier, a child’s toy or a hybrid car engine, a wheelchair or a sailboat – in other words, just about anything you can think of that involves a mechanical process, whether it’s a cool, cutting-edge product or a life-saving medical device. Mechanical engineers are often referred to as the general practitioners of the engineering profession, since they work in nearly every area of technology, from aerospace and automotive to computers and biotechnology.

Part 3.

Nuclear engineers harness the power of the atom to benefit humankind. They search for efficient ways to capture and put to beneficial use those tiny natural bursts of energy resulting from sub-atomic particles that break apart molecules. As a nuclear engineer, you may be challenged by problems in consumer and industrial power, space exploration, water supply, food supply, environment and pollution, health, and transportation. Participation in these broad areas may carry you into many exciting and challenging careers. These may include interaction of radiation with matter, radiation measurements, radioisotope production and use, reactor engineering, and fusion reactors and materials.

Part 4.

Petroleum engineers study the earth to find oil and gas reservoirs. They design oil wells, storage tanks, and transportation systems. They supervise the construction and operation of oil and gas fields. Petroleum engineers are researching new technologies to allow more oil and gas to be extracted from each well. They help supply the world's need for energy and chemical raw materials.

Everywhere you look you’ll see examples of engineering having a positive effect on everyday life. Cars are safer, sound systems deliver better acoustics, medical tests are more accurate, and computers and cell phones are a lot more fun!

Creative

exciting

unique

challenging

effective

rewarding


Text B

My name is Goran Braska and I live in Quebec, Canada. I’m Serbian and I’ve lived in Quebec for six years. I came to Canada to study Engineering. In my fourth year I got my Masters in Bio-medical Engineering, after doing a degree in Mechanical Engineering for three years.

I love my work. Right now, I’m working for a bio-medical company called Medtronic. I’m a Research and Development Technician and I’m developing new devices for artificial arms and legs. My ambition is to become the Head of R&D.

1. name  
2. nationality  
3. employer  
4. Current position  
5. responsibilities  
6. Qualifications  
7. Skills and competences  

Text C

My name is Kevin Roddson. I’m a student and currently I ______________ (work) at a manufacturing company in Sheffield. The company ____________ (specialize) in robotics. Right now, we ___________ (develop) a new project with LED Mechanics. We _________ (start) our first series of trials in three months’ time. I normally __________ (spend) four days a week with my employer, and one day at a college. Most days I ________ (be) at work from 8.00 until 16.30, but on some days I _________ (stay) late in order to finish a job. At the moment I __________ (do) an apprenticeship in engineering. After I _____________ (complete) my apprenticeship in July, I ____________ (have) a short holiday.

Part 1

Introduction

The Industrial Revolution, widespread replacement of manual labor by machines that began in Great Britain during the last half of the 18th century and spread through regions of Europe and to the United States during the following century. In the 20th century industrialization on a wide scale extended to parts of Asia and the Pacific Rim. Today mechanized production and modern economic growth continue to spread to new areas of the world, and much of humankind has yet to experience the changes typical of the Industrial Revolution.

The Industrial Revolution was the result of many fundamental, interrelated changes that transformed agricultural economies into industrial ones. It is called a revolution because it changed society both significantly and rapidly. The most immediate changes were in the nature of production: what was produced, as well as where and how. Goods that had traditionally been made in the home or in small workshops began to be manufactured in the factory. Productivity and technical efficiency grew dramatically, in part through the systematic application of scientific and practical knowledge to the manufacturing process. Efficiency was also enhanced when large groups of business enterprises were located within a limited area. The Industrial Revolution led to the growth of cities as people moved from rural areas into urban communities in search of work.

The changes brought by the Industrial Revolution overturned not only traditional economies, but also whole societies. Economic changes caused far-reaching social changes, including the movement of people to cities, the availability of a greater variety of material goods, and new ways of doing business.

The overall amount of goods and services produced expanded dramatically, and the proportion of capital invested per worker grew. New groups of investors, businesspeople, and managers took financial risks and reaped great rewards.

Costs and Benefits

In the long run the Industrial Revolution has brought economic improvement for most people in industrialized societies. Many enjoy greater prosperity and improved health, especially those in the middle and the upper classes of society. The modern, industrial societies created by the Industrial Revolution have come at some cost, however. In some cases, the lower classes of society have suffered economically. The nature of work became worse for many people, and industrialization placed great pressures on traditional family structures as work moved outside the home. The economic and social distances between groups within industrial societies are often very wide, as is the disparity between rich industrial nations and poorer neighboring countries. The natural environment has also suffered from the effects of the Industrial Revolution. Industrialization has brought factory pollutants and greater land use, which have harmed the natural environment. In particular, the application of machinery and science to agriculture has led to greater land use and, therefore, extensive loss of habitat for animals and plants. In addition, drastic population growth following industrialization has contributed to the decline of natural habitats and resources. These factors, in turn, have caused many species to become extinct or endangered. Pollution, deforestation, and the destruction of animal and plant habitats continue to increase as industrialization spreads.

Perhaps the greatest benefits of industrialization are increased material well-being and improved healthcare for many people in industrial societies. Modern industrial life also provides a constantly changing flood of new goods and services, giving consumers more choices. With both its negative aspects and its benefits, the Industrial Revolution has been one of the most influential and far-reaching movements in human history.

Great Britain Leads the Way

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain because social, political, and legal conditions there were particularly favorable to change. Property rights, such as those for patents on mechanical improvements, were well established. More importantly, the predictable, stable rule of law in Britain meant that monarchs and aristocrats were less likely to arbitrarily seize earnings or impose taxes than they were in many other countries. As a result, earnings were safer, and ambitious businesspeople could gain wealth, social prestige, and power more easily than could people on the European continent. These factors encouraged risk taking and investment in new business ventures, both crucial to economic growth. In addition, Great Britain’s government pursued a relatively hands-off economic policy. The hands-off policy permitted fresh methods and ideas to flourish with little interference or regulation.

The economic successes of the British soon led other nations to try to follow the same path. In northern Europe, mechanics and investors in France, Belgium, Holland, and some of the German states set out to imitate Britain’s successful example.

Look at the highlighted verbs in Text A. What do you think they mean in this context? Check with your dictionary and match the verbs (1-13) from the text in Activity 2 to the definitions (a-m). There are some synonyms, find them.

А1) To spread; 2) to enhance; 3) to overturn; 4) to expand; 5) to reap; 6) to suffer; 7) to contribute; 8) to increase; 9) to seize; 10) to impose; 11) to pursue; 12) to permit; 13) to flourish.

В a) To get something as a result of what they have done; b) establish or apply by authority; c) to become progressively greater ( in size, amount, number, or intensity); d) to help to make something happen; e) to develop well and to be successful; f) to cover or exist across a large area; g) to allow something to happen, especially by an official decision, rule, or law; h) to sustain loss or to damage; i) to increase or to improve something and to make it more successful; j) to turn upside down or fall over on its side; k) to become larger in size, number, or amount; l) to continue doing an activity or trying to achieve something over a long period of time; m) to take hold of something suddenly and violently.

Part 2

UNIT III. MANUFACTURING

Text A

Manufacturing is producing goods that are necessary for modern life. The word manufacture comes from the Latin manus (hand) and facere(to make). Originally manufacturing was accomplished by hand, but most of today's modern manufacturing operations are highly mechanized and automated.

There are three main processes involved in manufacturing: assembly, extraction, and alteration. Assembly is the combination of parts to make a product. For example, an airplane is assembled when a manufacturer puts together the engines, wings, and fuselage. Extraction is the process of removing one or more components from raw materials, such as obtaining gasoline from crude oil. Alteration is modifying or molding raw materials into a final product – for example, sawing trees into lumber.

Science and engineering are required to develop new products and to create new manufacturing methods, but there are other factors involved in the manufacturing process. Legal matters, such as obtaining operating permits and meeting industrial safety standards, must be adhered to. Economic considerations, such as competition, worldwide markets, and tariffs, control to some degree what prices are set for manufactured goods and what inventories are needed.

The automobile was the first major manufactured item built by a mass production system using cost-effective assembly line techniques. Today, before an automobile reaches its final assembly point, subsystems, such as the engine, transmission, electrical components, and chassis, are fabricated from raw materials in other specialized facilities. The metallic automobile body parts are stamped and welded together by robots into a unibody, or one-piece, construction. During the final assembly, conveyor systems direct all of the components to stations along the production route.

Petrochemicals are manufactured from naturally occurring crude oils and gases. Once removed from the earth, the crude oil is refined into gasoline, heating oil, kerosene, plastics, textile fibers, coatings, adhesives, drugs, pesticides, and fertilizers. Crude oil contains thousands of natural organic chemicals. These are separated by distilling, or boiling off, the compounds at different temperatures. Simple plastic materials, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, are manufactured by first heating ethane and propane gases and then rapidly cooling them to alter their chemical structure.

Iron manufacturing originated about 3500 years ago when iron ore was accidentally heated in the presence of charcoal. The oxygen-laden ore was reduced to a product similar to modern wrought iron.

Today, iron is made from ore in blast furnaces. Oxygen and other elements are removed when the ore is mixed with coke (a material that contains mostly carbon) and limestone and is then blasted by hot air. The gases formed by the burning materials combine with the oxygen in the ore and reduce the ore to iron. This molten iron still contains many impurities, however. Steel is manufactured by first removing these impurities and then adding elements, predominantly carbon, in a controlled manner. Strong steels contain up to 2 percent carbon. The steel is then shaped into bars, plates, sheets, and such structural components as girders .

Manufacturing processes can produce either durable or nondurable goods. Durable goods are products that exist for long periods of time without significant deterioration, such as automobiles, airplanes, and refrigerators. Nondurable goods are items that have a comparatively limited life span, such as clothing, food, and paper.

 

Choose the correct word.

1) Three main processes are involved / developed in manufacturing. 2) Extraction is the process of releasing / removing one or more components from raw materials. 3) Factories were built to produce / to accomplish gunpowder, clothing, cast iron, and paper. 4) Robots assemble and remove / stamp and weld the metallic automobile body parts together into a unibody. 5) This molten iron contains / obtains many impurities. 6) Durable goods are products that exist for long periods of time without additional processing / significant deterioration. 7) Henry Ford and his colleagues were the first to involve / introduce a conveyer belt to an assembly line for flywheel magnetos. 8) The cotton gin increased / decreased production. 9) The assembly line enabled a product to be manufactured / processed in discrete stages.

Read Text B, entitle it.

Text B

Manufacturing has existed as long as civilizations have required goods: bricks to build the Mesopotamian city of Erech (Uruk), clay pots to store grain in ancient Greece, or bronze weapons for the Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages, silk factories operated in Syria, and textile mills were established in Italy, Belgium, France, and England. New routes discovered from Europe to the Far East and to the New World during the Renaissance (14th century to 17th century) stimulated demand for manufactured goods to trade. Factories were built to produce gunpowder, clothing, cast iron, and paper. The manufacturing of these goods was primarily done by hand labor, simple tools, and, rarely, by machines powered by water.

The Industrial Revolution began in England in the middle of the 18th century when the first modern factories appeared, primarily for the production of textiles. Machines, to varying degrees, began to replace the workforce in these modern factories. The cotton gin, created by the American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793, mechanically removed cotton fibers from the seed and increased production.

In addition to inventing the cotton gin, Eli Whitney made another contribution to the factory system in 1798 by proposing the idea of interchangeable parts. Interchangeable parts make it possible to produce goods quickly because repairs and assembly can be done with previously manufactured, standard parts rather than with costly custom-made ones. This idea led to the development of the assembly line, where a product is manufactured in discrete stages. When one stage is complete, the product is passed to another station where the next stage of production is accomplished. In 1913 the American industrialist Henry Ford and his colleagues first introduced a conveyer belt to an assembly line for flywheel magnetos, a type of simple electric generator, more than tripling production. The assembly line driven by a conveyor belt was then implemented to manufacture the automobile body and motors.

Every year The Manufacturing Institute in partnership with National Institute of Standards and Technology edits a review of Modern Manufacturing in the USA. Here is the extract from their report about its level in 2009. Read Text C and check your answers to the questions in Activity 20.

Text C

Manufacturing plays a vital role in the U.S. economy. The United States still has the largest manufacturing sector in the world, and its market share (around 20 percent) has held steady for 30 years. One in six private sector jobs is still in or directly tied to manufacturing. Moreover, productivity growth is higher in manufacturing than in other sectors of the economy. Due largely to outstanding productivity growth, the prices of manufactured goods have declined since 1995 in contrast to inflation in most other sectors, with the result that manufacturers are contributing to a higher standard of living for U.S. consumers. Manufacturing still pays premium wages and benefits, and supports much more economic activity per dollar of production than other sectors.

Another major indicator of the importance of manufacturing to the strength of the economy is its key role in driving innovation and technology. These are crucial components of a productivity-driven, global competitiveness agenda, and also help explain the steady rise in our standard of living. U.S. manufacturing accounts for 35 percent of value added in all of the world’s high technology production, and enjoys a trade surplus in revenues from royalties from production processes and technology.

U.S. inventors still account for more than one half of all patents granted in the United States, and the nation outpaces its rivals in terms of industrial research and development. Technology has aided U.S. manufacturers to use less energy per or dollar of production and to lead all other sectors in reducing CO2 emissions in the last two decades. Finally, the technology and advanced processes developed in manufacturing consistently spill over into productivity growth in the service and agriculture sectors. For this reason, it is important to consider innovation in terms of processes as well as technologies. U.S. manufacturing is much more engaged than other sectors in global trade. Fifty-seven percent of all U.S. exports are in manufactured goods. Many foreign U.S. Manufacturing: An Industry in Transition firms also use the United States as an export platform as well as an entry point to its domestic economy. Over $350 billion in goods exports in 2007 were sourced from American affiliates of foreign firms.

The application of modern management practices and cutting-edge technology has steadily improved safety in the workplace. The Facts clearly illustrate that U.S. manufacturing plays a critical role in our economic future. Still, that future is not without its challenges. Rising external costs faced by U.S. manufacturers represent a fundamental challenge in a global, interconnected and competitive marketplace. Corporate tax rates continue to be a critical concern for manufacturing cost competitiveness. The U.S. corporate tax rate has been essentially unchanged for the past two decades, while all of our major competitors have been lowering theirs. Rising health care costs remain one of the most challenging pressures for manufacturers. U.S. industry is faced with the highest pollution abatement costs compared to its major trading partners – even higher than the so-called «green economies» of Western Europe.

Many analysts have noted that the United States is not producing enough numerate workers, much less the more highly skilled engineers and scientific researchers required to be the foundation of advanced, technology – intensive manufacturing. The realities of this assertion are at least partly borne out by international comparisons of skill levels in K-12 education and at the higher levels of university level training. There has been some growth in the number of PhDs granted in computer and physical sciences, but international comparisons still do not favor the United States in relative terms. Additionally, over 52 percent of these computer science and over 58 percent of engineering degrees were granted to foreign students in 2005, and studies show that more and more of these foreign students are returning home – to China, India, Korea – to build their careers.

The Facts thus present a picture of the current state of U.S. manufacturing, but also suggests we need to pay attention to key areas that support manufacturing competitiveness.

 

UNIT IV. SAFETY

Part 1

Your employer has the main responsibility for health and safety at your workplace. Your employer must make sure that your factory is safe and will not damage your health or that of your co-workers. This means:

• providing a safe workplace. This includes your physical work environment and the equipment and any chemicals you use, as well as the work methods and processes you use to do your job;

• checking your workplace regularly for anything that may cause illness or injury, and fixing any problems as soon as possible;

• providing you with the information, instruction, supervision and training you need to do your job safely;

• talking with you, or talking to your elected employees’ safety representatives about health and safety issues.

9. The duties of a factory worker are in Part 2.But the things that are important to do and forbidden are mixed in the text. Correct the safety instructions.

Part 2

There are things you, the factory worker need to do, too. To ensure your health and that of your co-workers, you must:

• follow any safety directions and work instructions your employer or supervisor gives you;

• deliberately misuse or interfere with equipment;

• be adversely affected by alcohol or recreational drugs (tell your employer if you are taking any prescription medication that could affect your ability to work safely);

• use any personal protective equipment and clothing (such as gloves, earmuffs and safety boots) in the correct way.

There are also things you must not do. For example, you must not:

• work with your employer and anyone else – such as your co-workers, your health and safety representative or a Workplace Standards inspector – who can make your workplace safer;

• remove guarding from machinery unless you and others have followed the necessary specific safe operating procedures;

• report any hazards, accidents or near misses immediately for your employer or supervisor to investigate.

If you don’t follow these basic requirements, you could put your health and safety and that of your co-workers at risk. Like your employer, you have duties under the Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995 and can be prosecuted.

 

Accident 1: A Cut Hand

A: Your hand is bleeding. What have you done to it?

B: I cut it on that blade.

A: I'll get the first aid box. There's some antiseptic cream and a bandage in there.

Accident 2: An Ankle Injury

A: Ow! I've twisted my ankle. I slipped on that greasy patch over there. I don't think it's broken but it really hurts.

B: Sit down here – don't put any pressure on it. I'd better call the company doctor.

Accident 3: A Fall

A: Marco has fallen off a ladder. I think he's hurt his back. What shall we do?

B: We'd better not move him. I'll get the first-aider.

UNIT V. INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY

Text A

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. The Blacksmith Institute issues an annual list of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine and Zambia.

It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal and other fossil fuels gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste.

Pollution became a popular issue after World War II, due to radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement, which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment.

Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures. It also comes from both natural and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. However, globally human-made pollutants from combustion, construction, mining, agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation.

Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. China, United States, Russia, Mexico, and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activity, incinerators, large livestock farms (dairy cows, pigs, poultry), metals production factories, plastics factories, and other heavy industry. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides.

About 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year. Some of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals (such as chromium, cadmium-found in rechargeable batteries, and lead-found in lead paint, aviation fuel and still in some countries, gasoline), zinc, arsenic and benzene.

In the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle, producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide.

Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. For example, hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage, and petrochemical spills from ruptured boats or automobiles. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. Some sources of pollution, such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers, can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur.

Choose the best answers.

1. «The solution to pollution is dilution», is a dictum which

a) is considered in some industrial enterprises.

b) is usually thought about the environmental problem.

c) is barely to fulfill.

2. To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution,

a) many countries made laws to regulate various types of pollution.

b) the government forbade industrial emissions.

c) most countries did nothing.

3. Pollution control means

a) the monitoring the industrial enterprises.

b) the total prohibition for harmful emissions into the environment.

c) the control of emissions and effluents into air, water or soil.

13. Project.Work in pairs. Do you know any more efficient ways to solve the problem of environmental pollution? Work out a list of the ways. Be ready to present the list and explain your ideas.

14. Write a brief summary of Text A and Text B using the active vocabulary of the lesson and the speech patterns:

1) The texts …deal with… 2) The texts describe… 3) It is noted that… 4) According to the texts it becomes clear that… 5) This texts give a detailed information on… 6) In the end we come to the conclusion that …

Text C

Industrial ecology is rooted in systems analysis and is a higher level systems approach to framing the interaction between industrial systems and natural systems.

The word ecology is derived from the Greek oikos, meaning «household», combined with the root logy, meaning «the study of».

Thus, ecology is, literally the study of households including the plants, animals, microbes, and people that live together as interdependent beings on Spaceship Earth, as already the environmental house within which we place our human-made structures and operate our machines provides most of our vital biological necessities; hence we can think of ecology as the study of the earth’s life-support systems.

In industrial ecology, one focus (or object) of study is the interrelationships among firms, as well as among their products and processes, at the local, regional, national, and global system levels.

Industrial ecology perhaps has the closest relationship with applied ecology and social ecology. According to the Journal of Applied Ecology, applied ecology is: application of ecological ideas, theories and methods to the use of biological resources in the widest sense. It is concerned with the ecological principles underlying the management, control, and development of biological resources for agriculture, forestry, aquaculture, nature conservation, wildlife and game management, leisure activities, and the ecological effects of biotechnology.

The Institute of Social Ecology’s definition of social ecology states that: Social ecology integrates the study of human and natural ecosystems through understanding the interrelationships of culture and nature.

Ecologycan be broadly defined as the study of the interactions between the abiotic and the biotic components of a system. Industrialecology is the study of the interactions between industrial and ecological systems; consequently, it addresses the environmental effects on both the abiotic and biotic components of the ecosphere.

The primary goal of industrial ecology is to promote sustainable development at the global, regional, and local levels.

Key principles inherent to sustainable development include: the sustainable use of resources, preserving ecological and human health (e.g. the maintenance of the structure and function of ecosystems), and the promotion of environmental equity.

Industrial ecology should promote the sustainable use of renewable resources and minimal use of nonrenewable ones. Industrial activity is dependent on a steady supply of resources and thus should operate as efficiently as possible.

Human beings are only one component in a complex web of ecological interactions: their activities cannot be separated from the functioning of the entire system. Because human health is dependent on the health of the other components of the ecosystem, ecosystem structure and function should be a focus of industrial ecology. It is important that industrial activities do not cause catastrophic disruptions to ecosystems or slowly degrade their structure and function, jeopardizing the planet’s life support system.

A primary concept of industrial ecology is the study of material and energy flows and their transformation into products, byproducts, and wastes throughout industrial systems.

Efforts to utilize waste as a material input or energy source for some other entity within the industrial system can potentially improve the overall efficiency of the industrial system and reduce negative environmental impacts.

The challenge of industrial ecology is to reduce the overall environmental burden of an industrial system that provides some service to society.

 

Text D

In 1989 Robert Frosch and Nicholas Gallopoulos developed the concept of industrial ecosystems, which led to the term industrial ecology. Their ideal industrial ecosystem would function as «an analogue» of its biological counterparts. This metaphor between industrial and natural ecosystems is fundamental to industrial ecology. In an industrial ecosystem, the waste produced by one company would be used as resources by another. No waste would leave the industrial system or negatively impact natural systems.

The term «Industrial Ecology» implies a relationship to the field of ecology. A basic understanding of ecology is useful in understanding and promoting industrial ecology, which draws on many ecological concepts.

Ecology has been defined by the Ecological Society of America (1993) as the scientific discipline that is concerned with the relationships between organisms and their past, present, and future environments. These relationships include physiological responses of individuals, structure and dynamics of populations, interactions among species, organization of biological communities, and processing of energy and matter in ecosystems.

There is still no single definition of industrial ecology that is generally accepted. However, most definitions comprise similar attributes with different emphases. These attributes include the following:

• a systems view of the interactions between industrial and ecological systems

• the study of material and energy flows and transformations

• a multidisciplinary approach

• an orientation toward the future

• a change from linear (open) processes to cyclical (closed) processes, so the waste from one industry is used as an input for another

• an effort to reduce the industrial systems’ environmental impacts on ecological systems

• an emphasis on harmoniously integrating industrial activity into ecological systems

• the idea of making industrial systems emulate more efficient and sustainable natural systems.

UNIT VI. RECYCLING

Dialogue 1. RECYCLING

A: (1)… is big business these days, isn't it?

B: Yes, it's definitely a growing business.

A: What do you recycle in your plant?

B: Mainly plastics. Plastics aren't bio-degradable – they don't break down easily in the (2)… – so they shouldn't be thrown away.

A: How is plastic recycled, then?

B: Well, there are basically two methods. One is to break down the chemicals in the plastic into smaller chemical (3)… These can be used in the production of new chemicals.

A: Is that the method you use here?

B: No, we don't do that here. We recycle polyethylene and we make it into other products.

A: How do you do that?

B: By melting it down and then reforming it. Our main (4)… are bin liners for kitchen bins and carrier bags for supermarkets.

In pairs, summarize the advantages and the disadvantages of recycling. Report to the rest of the class about the results of your work. Do your groupmates agree with you? Be ready to ask questions to them, too.

19. In small groups, work out a leaflet (150-200 words) which appeals to people and invites them to collect waste paper for recycling.Attract people’s attention to the points: the problem of deforesting, necessity of paper recycling and making our environment clean, importance of common activity, etc.

UNIT VII. TRANSPORTATION

Part 1

Cities are locations having a high level of accumulation and concentration of economic activities and are complex spatial structures that are supported by transport systems. The most important transport problems are often related to urban areas and take place when transport systems, for a variety of reasons, cannot satisfy the numerous requirements of urban mobility. Urban productivity is highly dependent on the efficiency of its transport system to move labor, consumers and freight between multiple origins and destinations. Additionally, important transport terminals such as ports, airports, and railyards are located within urban areas, contributing to a specific array of problems. Some problems are ancient, like congestion (which plagued cities such as Rome), while others are new like urban freight distribution or environmental impacts. Among the most notable urban transport problems are the following.

Traffic congestion and parking difficulties. Congestion is one of the most prevalent transport problems in large urban agglomerations, usually above a threshold of about 1 million inhabitants. It is particularly linked with motorization and the diffusion of the automobile, which has increased the demand for transport infrastructures. However, the supply of infrastructures has often not been able to keep up with the growth of mobility. Since vehicles spend the majority of the time parked, motorization has expanded the demand for parking space, which has created space consumption problems particularly in central areas; the spatial imprint of parked vehicles is significant. Congestion and parking are also interrelated since looking for a parking space creates additional delays and impairs local circulation. Many delivery vehicles will simply double-park at the closest possible spot to unload their cargo.

Longer commuting. On par with congestion people are spending an increasing amount of time commuting between their residence and workplace. An important factor behind this trend is related to residential affordability as housing located further away from central areas (where most of the employment remains) is more affordable. Therefore, commuters are trading time for housing affordability. However, long commuting is linked with several social problems, such as isolation, as well as poorer health (obesity).

Public transport inadequacy. Many public transit systems, or parts of them, are either over or under used. During peak hours, crowdedness creates discomfort for users as the system copes with a temporary surge in demand. Low ridership makes many services financially unsustainable, particularly in suburban areas. In spite of significant subsidies and cross-financing (e.g. tolls) almost every public transit systems cannot generate sufficient income to cover its operating and capital costs. While in the past deficits were deemed acceptable because of the essential service public transit was providing for urban mobility, its financial burden is increasingly controversial.

Part 2

Urban transport difficulties are either the outcome of intense traffic, where the mobility of pedestrians, bicycles and vehicles is impaired, but also because of a blatant lack of consideration for pedestrians and bicycles in the physical design of infrastructures and facilities.

The majority of roads are publicly owned and free of access. Increased traffic has adverse impacts on public activities which once crowded the streets such as markets, agoras, parades and processions, games, and community interactions. These have gradually disappeared to be replaced by automobiles. In many cases, these activities have shifted to shopping malls while in other cases, they have been abandoned altogether. Traffic flows influence the life and interactions of residents and their usage of street space. More traffic impedes social interactions and street activities. People tend to walk and cycle less when traffic is high.

Pollution, including noise, generated by circulation has become a serious impediment to the quality of life and even the health of urban populations. Further, energy consumption by urban transportation has dramatically increased and so the dependency on petroleum. Yet, peak oil considerations are increasingly linked with peak mobility expectations where high energy prices incite a shift towards more efficient and sustainable forms of urban transportation, namely public transit.

Growing traffic in urban areas is linked with a growing number of accidents and fatalities, especially in developing countries. Accidents account for a significant share of recurring delays. As traffic increases, people feel less safe to use the streets.

The territorial imprint of transportation is significant, particularly for the automobile. Between 30 and 60% of a metropolitan area may be devoted to transportation, an outcome of the over-reliance on some forms of urban transportation. Yet, this land consumption also underlines the strategic importance of transportation in the economic and social welfare of cities.

Globalization and the materialization of the economy have resulted in growing quantities of freight moving within cities. As freight traffic commonly shares infrastructures with the circulation of passengers, the mobility of freight in urban areas has become, increasingly problematic. City logistics strategies can be established to mitigate the variety of challenges faced by urban freight distribution.

Text B.

A Amsterdam: everyone has a bicycle. The narrow streets and cannel paths are easier for bikes than for cars. Thirty years ago, a Dutch anarchist, Lut Schimmelpennick, organized a system of free bicycles, with the agreement of the city authority. The bicycles were white. The idea of a ‘car-free’ city was simple: take a bike when you need it, and leave it at your destination. Then someone else can use it. For a few weeks, the idea was a great success, but then thieves stole nearly all the bicycles. One of them is actually in the Museum of Modern Art in Moscow. Later Schimmelpennick persuaded the Amsterdam city authority to try the idea again. The new system is different and hi-tech. it depends on ‘smart card’ technology. Bicycle users carry a smart card with their personal details. The user swipes the card and types in his or her destination. This opens the lock on the bicycle and the user can ride it away.

B Washington DC (and other American cities): after 4 pm in the afternoon, you can drive out of the city along faster lanes with less traffic if there are more than two people in your car.

C Athens, Greece: on certain days of the week, only cars with certain numbers can enter the city. For example, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, the car number must end in an even number (2, 4 etc.). The following week, these cars can only enter the city on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. On Sunday, there are some areas of the city where no one can drive.

D Singapore: driving a car is very expensive in Singapore and public transport is cheap and efficient. There is a charge to drive along most roads. All cars contain a computer chip. Drivers pay automatically when they pass computers in the street. The computers deduct money from their bank accounts.

Text D

The offshore base station would be supported by a floating structure, which could be attached to the seabed by anchors. Payloads could be carried from the shore to the station by ship before being lifted into orbit. The main advantage of a floating mobile station, rather than a fixed base on land, would be to help reduce the risk of a collision between the cable and one of the many lumps of space debris, such as redundant satellites, that litter orbital space. Based on careful monitoring of debris movements, in the case of an alert the station's anchors could be raised and the station could be moved, driven by propellers, to a new location out of harm's way.

28. Role play. AMake a speech aboutspace elevators using the notes in Activity 20. To make full sentences you can use the vocabula







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