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Entitle the parts of Text A. You can use some items in Activity 3.
6. Read the first three paragraphs of the text and decide if these statements are True or False.
1) The word «manufacture» is of Greek origin.
2) Most of modern manufacturing operations are highly mechanized and automated.
3) Extraction is the process of removing one or more components from raw materials.
4) Assembly is modifying or molding raw materials into a final product.
5) Alteration is the combination of parts to make a product.
6) Economic considerations such as competition, worldwide markets and tariffs are not needed for effective manufacturing.
Answer the following questions on Text A.
1) How is manufacturing often defined?
2) How many processes are involved in manufacturing? What are they?
3) Name the factors involved in the manufacturing process.
4) What is necessary for developing new products and manufacturing methods?
5) Where and when did the Industrial Revolution begin? What did it bring about?
6) What contribution did Eli Whitney make to factory system?
7) Why are interchangeable parts so important for production goods?
8) When was a conveyer belt first introduced to an assembly line? Who was it introduced by?
9) When did iron manufacturing originate? How is iron made nowadays?
10) What kind of goods can be produced by manufacturing processes?
Find these words and word combinations in Text A. Can you guess their meaning through the context? Translate the sentences into Russian.
To manufacture (to produce), to accomplish, to involve, to assemble, assembly, to convey, extraction, alteration, to remove, to require, to release, to reduce, to obtain, to develop, to adhere to, competition, to occur, durable goods, non-durable goods, discrete.
Find the derivates from the verbs in Text A. Translate them into Russian.
To produce, to operate, to mechanize, to assemble, to alter, to combine, to develop, to create, to consider, to compete, to modify, to invent, to contribute, to construct, to transmit, to provide, to treat, to reduce, to require, to extract.
Match each word on the left with the appropriate definition on the right.
Choose the correct word.
1) Three main processes are involved / developed in manufacturing. 2) Extraction is the process of releasing / removing one or more components from raw materials. 3) Factories were built to produce / to accomplish gunpowder, clothing, cast iron, and paper. 4) Robots assemble and remove / stamp and weld the metallic automobile body parts together into a unibody. 5) This molten iron contains / obtains many impurities. 6) Durable goods are products that exist for long periods of time without additional processing / significant deterioration. 7) Henry Ford and his colleagues were the first to involve / introduce a conveyer belt to an assembly line for flywheel magnetos. 8) The cotton gin increased / decreased production. 9) The assembly line enabled a product to be manufactured / processed in discrete stages.
Arrange the words from A to the words from B in pairs of synonyms.
A. To assemble, to manage, modern, to arrange, production, to require, to produce, to change, product, to replace, to propose, to extract, to accomplish, mill.
B. Manufacturing, up-to-date, to put together, to demand, goods, to control, to put in order, to fabricate, to alter, to substitute, factory, to suggest, to remove, to complete.
Make 5 sentences using the vocabulary in Activities 10 and 12. Ask your partner to translate them into Russian.
14. Complete the sentences with prepositions:at, by, from, of, to, with.
1) Originally manufacturing was accomplished … hand. 2) Extraction is the process removing one or more components … raw materials. 3) Eli Whitney made another contribution … the factory system in 1798 … proposing the idea … interchangeable parts. 4) The automobile was the first major manufactured item built … a mass production system using cost-effective assembly line techniques. 5) Petrochemicals are manufactured … naturally occurring crude oils and gases. 6) Oxygen and other elements are removed when the ore is mixed … coke and limestone and then blasted … hot air. 7) The first airplanes were constructed … wood and fabrics, modern airplanes are built … aluminium alloys, titanium, plastics and advanced composite materials. 8) Rigid quality- control standards … every step ensure that the completed vehicle is safe and built … specifications.
15. Write a brief summary of the text using the active vocabulary of the lesson and the speech patterns:
1) The text under the headline…deals with…
2) As the title implies the text describes…
3) It is noted that…
4) According to the text it becomes clear that…
5) This text gives a detailed information on…
Read Text B, entitle it.
Manufacturing has existed as long as civilizations have required goods: bricks to build the Mesopotamian city of Erech (Uruk), clay pots to store grain in ancient Greece, or bronze weapons for the Roman Empire. In the Middle Ages, silk factories operated in Syria, and textile mills were established in Italy, Belgium, France, and England. New routes discovered from Europe to the Far East and to the New World during the Renaissance (14th century to 17th century) stimulated demand for manufactured goods to trade. Factories were built to produce gunpowder, clothing, cast iron, and paper. The manufacturing of these goods was primarily done by hand labor, simple tools, and, rarely, by machines powered by water.
The Industrial Revolution began in England in the middle of the 18th century when the first modern factories appeared, primarily for the production of textiles. Machines, to varying degrees, began to replace the workforce in these modern factories. The cotton gin, created by the American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793, mechanically removed cotton fibers from the seed and increased production.
In addition to inventing the cotton gin, Eli Whitney made another contribution to the factory system in 1798 by proposing the idea of interchangeable parts. Interchangeable parts make it possible to produce goods quickly because repairs and assembly can be done with previously manufactured, standard parts rather than with costly custom-made ones. This idea led to the development of the assembly line, where a product is manufactured in discrete stages. When one stage is complete, the product is passed to another station where the next stage of production is accomplished. In 1913 the American industrialist Henry Ford and his colleagues first introduced a conveyer belt to an assembly line for flywheel magnetos, a type of simple electric generator, more than tripling production. The assembly line driven by a conveyor belt was then implemented to manufacture the automobile body and motors.
Answer the questions on Text B.
1) Where and when did the Industrial Revolution begin?
2) What did it bring about?
3) What contribution did Eli Whitney make to factory system?
Make 5 more questions on Text B and ask your partner.
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