Make up sentences from the words. 

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Make up sentences from the words.

1) from society /or incarceration /crime prevention /Isolating criminals /is the most direct method of/ through confinement /.

2) penalize wrongdoers / seeks to /and transform their behaviour,/ rather than /correct criminals /merely /Contemporary criminal punishment /.

3) harsh physical punishment,/ some societies /punishments have also /Although/ evolved along with civilization /and become less cruel /still use ancient forms of/.

4) contemporary punishments /In most industrialized societies,/ are /or /either fines /or both /terms of incarceration/.

5) refers to /requiring offenders /to financially compensate /for the damage /the offenders caused /The term restitution /the practice of /crime victims/.

6) or /are incarcerated /The most serious /repeat offenders/.

7) certain undesirable individuals,/ such as /Some societies /with banishment or exile/ criminals and political and religious dissidents,/ punish/.

8) capital punishment /Opponents of /barbaric and degrading /see it as /to the dignity of the individual/.

4. Give the English equivalents for the following word combinations:


Накладати покарання; порушувати закон; скоїти злочин; тілесне покарання; запобігіти злочину; правомірна поведінка; неправомірні дії; грошова компенсація; суворе фізичне покарання; громадські роботи; штрафування злочинців; для того щоб сплатити штраф; компенсувати шкоду жертвам злочину; отримання возміщення; відповідати певним умовам; страта злочинця, смертна кара.

7. Translate into English:

Мету покарання можна розглядати в чотирьох площинах, в яких вона проявляється:

кара засудженого;

виправлення засудженого;

спеціальне попередження;

загальне попередження.

Коли до засудженого застосовується покарання, то обов’язковою складовою є кара. Кара засудженого становить зміст покарання – позбавлення або обмеження прав і свобод особи, засудженої за вчинення злочину. Це обумовлено суспільством. При вчиненні злочину особою, вона завдає шкоди суспільству, тому це викликає справедливе обурення. Держава, захищаючи суспільство і виправдовуючи його сподівання, карає винного. Щодо самої кари, то важливо, щоб вона відповідала принципові справедливості. Тобто винний повинен зрозуміти, що він відплачує за вчинені ним протиправні дії і відплачує справедливо, відповідно до шкоди, яку він своїми діями завдав суспільству. Обмеження прав та свобод засудженого повинно бути належно обґрунтованим.


Look at the list of the connectors and match them with their synonyms.

  Connectors   Synonyms  
  for instance although rather than however moreover provided as well as   but under condition even if and also what is more for example but not

Point out sentences with these connectors in the text and explain the use.



Student A is a police officer and student B is a suspect. Make up a dialogue. The replies below will help you.

Questions from law breakers or suspected criminals

  • Why did you pull me over?
  • Have I done something wrong?
  • Is this illegal?
  • What are my rights?
  • Can I call a lawyer?
  • Where are you taking me?
  • Can I make a phone call?

Questions police may ask a suspected criminal

  • Are you carrying any illegal drugs?
  • Do you have a weapon?
  • Does this belong to you?
  • Whose car is this?
  • Where were you at eight last night?

Informing someone of laws and police procedures

  • You are under arrest.
  • Put your hands on your head.
  • I am taking you to the police station.
  • Please get in the police car.
  • You will have to pay a fine for this.
  • I will give you a warning this time.
  • I'm going to write you a ticket.
  • We'll tow your car to the station.
  • Smoking in restaurants is illegal in this country.
  • It is against the law to do drugs in public.


Unit 5 Punishment Section 2 Capital Punishment


1. Agree or disagree with the statements:

-Prisons will never be empty

-The debate about capital punishment will never finish

-Let the punishment fit the crime

2. Match the following English words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents:

1. stoning 2. burning at the stake 3. impaling 4. retribution 5. to deter 6. capital offense 7. Enlightenment  

Text 2

Read the text to understand what information is of primary importance or new for you.

Notes: crucifixion- распятие

Capital Punishment

Capital punishment is legal infliction of death as a penalty for violating criminal law. Throughout history people have been put to death for various forms of wrongdoing. Methods of execution have included such practices as crucifixion, stoning, drowning, burning at the stake, impaling, and beheading. Today capital punishment is typically accomplished by lethal gas or injection, electrocution, hanging, or shooting.

The death penalty is the most controversial penal practice in the modern world. The practice of capital punishment is as old as government itself. Since ancient times most governments have punished a wide variety of crimes by death.

The first significant movement to abolish the death penalty began during the era known as the Age of Enlightenment. Critics of capital punishment contend that it is brutal and degrading, while supporters consider it a necessary form of retribution (revenge) for terrible crimes. Executions were public involving cruel methods. Opponents of capital punishment assert that it is degrading to the humanity of the person punished. Early opponents of capital punishment also argued that inflicting death was not necessary to control crime and properly punish wrongdoers. Instead, alternative punishment—such as imprisonment—could effectively isolate criminals from the community, deter other potential offenders from committing offenses. Supporters of capital punishment countered that the ultimate penalty of death was necessary for the punishment of terrible crimes because it provided the most complete retribution and condemnation. Furthermore, they argued that the threat of execution was a unique deterrent. Supporters and opponents of capital punishment still debate its effectiveness.

Modern opposition to the death penalty is seen as a reaction to the political history of the 20th century, most notably the Holocaust—the systematic mass killing of Jews and others during World War II (1939-1945). Some of the nations involved in the war supported the abolition of capital punishment. Italy formally abolished the death penalty in 1947 and the Federal Republic of Germany did so in 1949. The British government instituted a Royal Commission to study capital punishment in 1950 and abolished the death penalty in 1965. By the early 1980s every major country in Western Europe had stopped executing criminals. Canada abolished the death penalty in 1976. New Zealand held its last execution in 1957.

By 2005, 83 countries all over the world no longer authorized the penalty of death for any crimes. Another 13 countries authorized capital punishment only for exceptional crimes, such as crimes under military law and crimes committed in exceptional circumstances, such as during wartime. Asian countries and Islamic nations tend to practice capital punishment. The majority of countries in Africa also authorize the death penalty. Only two advanced industrial democracies, the United States and Japan, retain the death penalty. A number of newly industrialized Asian nations, such as South Korea, also practice capital punishment.

Execution of criminals and political opponents has been used by nearly all societies—both to punish crime and to suppress political dissent. In most places that practice capital punishment it is reserved for murder, espionage, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, and incest carry the death penalty. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is also a capital offense. The following is a list of countries with statutory provisions for the death penalty for drug-related offenses: United States, Iran, Singapore, India (no execution carried out for such offenses), Kuwait, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Zimbabwe, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Iraq, Oman, Republic of China.




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