What punishment do you consider to be the least/most severe?



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

What punishment do you consider to be the least/most severe?



2. Match the following English words and expressions with their Ukrainian equivalents:

  1. fine 2. corporal punishment 3. confinement in jail 4. substitute 5. as well as 6. revenge-based 7. misdemeanour 8. execution   A правопорушення, проступок B штраф C а також D заміщувати E страта F тілесне покарання G засований на помсті H заключення до в’язниці, ув’язнення  

 

3. Match the words and their transcription, read and translate the words:

  violate incarcerated behaviour throughout ancient release trial felony  

Read the text to understand what information on crime investigation is of primary importance or new for you.

TEXT 1

Types of Punishment

Criminal Punishment is a penalty imposed by the government on individuals who violate criminal law. People who commit crimes may be punished in a variety of ways. Offenders may be subject to fines or other monetary assessments, the infliction of physical pain (corporal punishment), or confinement in jail or prison for a period of time (incarceration). In general, societies punish individuals to achieve revenge against wrongdoers and to prevent further crime—both by the person punished and by others contemplating criminal behaviour. Some modern forms of criminal punishment reflect a philosophy of correction, rather than (or in addition to) one of penalty. Correctional programs attempt to teach offenders how to substitute lawful types of behaviour for unlawful actions.

Throughout history and in many different parts of the world, societies have devised a wide assortment of punishment methods. In ancient times, societies widely accepted the law of equal retaliation (known as lex talionis), a form of corporal punishment that demanded “an eye for an eye.” If one person’s criminal actions injured another person, authorities would similarly maim the criminal. Certain countries throughout the world still practice corporal punishment. For instance, in some Islamic nations officials exact revenge-based corporal punishments against criminals such as amputation of a thief’s hand. Monetary compensation is another historic punishment method. In England during the early Middle Ages payments of “blood money” were required as compensation for death, personal injury, and theft.

Although some societies still use ancient forms of harsh physical punishment, punishments have also evolved along with civilization and become less cruel. Contemporary criminal punishment also seeks to correct unlawful behaviour, rather than simply punish wrongdoers.

Certain punishments require offenders to provide compensation for the damage caused by their crimes. There are three chief types of compensation: fines, restitution, and community service.

A fine is a monetary penalty imposed on an offender and paid to the court. However, fines have not been widely used as criminal punishment because most criminals do not have the money to pay them. Moreover, fining criminals may actually encourage them to commit more crimes in order to pay the fines.

The term restitution refers to the practice of requiring offenders to financially compensate crime victims for the damage the offenders caused. This damage may include psychological, physical, or financial harm to the victim. In most cases, crime victims must initiate the process of obtaining restitution from the offender. Judges may impose restitution in conjunction with other forms of punishment, such as probation (supervised release to the community) or incarceration.

Alternatively, restitution may be included as a condition of an offender’s parole program. Prisoners who receive parole obtain an early release from incarceration and remain free, provided they meet certain conditions.

Offenders sentenced to community service perform services for the state or community rather than directly compensating the crime victim or victims. Some of the money saved by the government as a result of community service work may be diverted to a fund to compensate crime victims.

The most serious or repeat offenders are incarcerated. Criminals may be incarcerated in jails or in prisons. Jails typically house persons convicted of misdemeanours (less serious crimes), as well as individuals awaiting trial. Prisons are state or federally operated facilities that house individuals convicted of more serious crimes, known as felonies.

The most extreme form of punishment is death. Execution of an offender is known as capital punishment. Like corporal punishment, capital punishment has been abolished in Ukraine.

 

II. COMPREHENSION

Read the statements. Are they true or false?

1. Criminal Punishment is imposed by the individuals who violate criminal law.

2. A fine is a kind of a monetary assessment.

3. Confinement in jail or prison for a period of time is called incarceration.

4. The only reason to punish offenders is to achieve revenge against wrongdoers.

5. At present societies widely accept the law of equal retaliation.

6. No societies use the forms of harsh physical punishment nowadays.

7. Community service is one of the three types of compensation for the damage caused by their crimes.

8. Fines are often used as criminal punishment.

9. Restitution may be included as a condition of an offender’s parole program.

10. The most serious or repeat offenders are incarcerated.

11. Criminals may be incarcerated in courts or police office.

12. Both corporal and capital punishments have been abolished in Ukraine.

 

 

Match the parts of the sentences.

 

Corporal punishment Incarceration Lex talionis Fine Restitution Probation Parole Community service Capital punishment Felonies Misdemeanours   1) supervised release to the community 2) less serious crimes 3) a monetary penalty imposed on an offender and paid to the court 4) the practice of requiring offenders to financially compensate crime victims for the damage the offenders caused 5) the infliction of physical pain 6) performing services for the state or community 7) execution of an offender 8) confinement in jail or prison for a period of time 9) obtaining an early release from incarceration while remaining free, provided an offender meets certain conditions 10) more serious crimes 11) the law of equal retaliation, a form of corporal punishment that demanded “an eye for an eye”  

 

 

III. VOCABULARY STUDY

 

 

Match the words with their definitions and with the crimes committed.

traffic ticket remain in one's home for a certain period of time assault
license suspension spend the rest of one's life in prison with no chance of going back into society a young offender who is waiting to go to court
fine driving rights are removed for a certain period of time speeding, parking
house arrest leaves marks on driving record/involves paying a fine hunting out of season
community service pay money as punishment for minor/petty crime a youth that steals a car for the first time
jail time do volunteer work such as teaching children about crime or cleaning up garbage homicide
life in prison spend a certain amount of months or years locked away from society drunk driving

 

Complete the text with the words from the box.

criminal punished rehabilitate revenge wrongdoing impose crime

Goals of Criminal Punishment

The major driving force underlying all punishment is____________________, also referred to as retribution. The word retribution derives from a Latin word meaning “to pay back.” In retaliation for ____________________, societies seek to punish individuals who violate the rules. Criminal punishment is also intended as a deterrent to future criminality. Offenders who are ____________________ may be deterred from future wrongdoing because they fear additional punishment. Others who contemplate ___________________________may also be deterred from ____________________ behaviour. Societies also ___________________ punishments in order to incapacitate dangerous or unlawful individuals by restricting their liberty and to ____________________ these wrongdoers and correct their behaviour.

 



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