ТОП 10:



1. The language you use in your plan can give the impression you are thoughtful, knowledgeable, and prudent, or, conversely, it can make you seem naïve and inexperienced. *Your fundamental goal is to convey realistic optimism and businesslike enthusiasm about your prospects1. Use a straightforward, even understated, tone. Let the information you convey, rather than your language, inescapably lead to the conclusion that your business will succeed. Avoid formal, stilted language. Instead be natural, *as if you were speaking to the reader in person2; however, avoid slang and don’t be “chatty”, always be professional. Listed below are some other pointers to keep in mind when writing your business plan.


2. Mind the use of superlatives. Readers are naturally skeptical of overreaching self-promotion. Avoid using words such as “best”, “terrific”, “wonderful”, or even “unmatched.” They reduce credibility. Rather, use factual descriptions and specific information to make positive impressions

3. Instead of saying “Our widget will be the best on the market, really superior to all others”, say “Our widget will not only handle all the functions of existing widgets, but will also add features x, y, and z, and sell for $(or Є)3 less than our closest competitor’s widget. No competitor of ours offers these features at any price.”

4. When trying to get additional financing for your restaurant, don’t tell the reader that the food and atmosphere are “terrific”. Instead provide specific information that proves you are doing something right: “Due to the restaurant’s popularity, there is an average 45-minute wait for a table on Friday and Saturday nights, and a wait of15 to30 minutes on other evenings.”

5. The only exception to this rule is when you use superlatives as part of your goal in *a statement of Mission3. Then it is appropriate to state, “We intend to make a dog food unmatched in quality by any national brand.” Even then, however, it is important to include the specifics of what you mean by such a goal.

6. Avoid purely subjective comments. Everyone expects you to think your product or service is outstanding. Thus, your own comments are meaningless. Instead, use outside sources to give the reader confidence in your competitiveness. Eliminate comments such as “We believe this will be the best dog food on the market,” or “Adeena’s fashions are equal to those made by top designers.” Such statements use upvaluable space in your business plan, and a reader is likely to tune out when encountering such hyperbole.

7. However, the same comment, when made by an authority, becomes quite powerful: “Women’s Wear Daily states that Adeena’s fashions equal those of the top designers,” or “The newspaper’s annual survey rated our restaurant among the top 10 in its price category.”

8. You don’t even have to quote a well-known authority. Anyone with credible related experience will do, as this example shows: “The breeder of the winner of last year’s Tricountry Dog Show tested our dog food and concluded, “This will be the best dog food on the market, superior to any national brand.”

9. Business terms. Although it is certainly not necessary to be a business school graduate to develop a business plan, you should know and use appropriate basic business terms. You don’t want to be discredited or misunderstood by using words improperly. If business is new to you, familiarize yourself with the PR and Business Terms Glossary at the back of this book.

10. Also, become familiar with the basic terms of your industry and use those words when appropriate in your plan. If you don’t know these already, you should be able to pick many of them up while doing background work for the Industry Analysis section of your plan. However, do not fill your plan with a lot of technical jargon in the hope of sounding impressive. There is a good chance that someone totally unfamiliar with your industry will be reading it, especially if you are seeking outside funding.


Explanations to the text

1. Your fundamental goal is to convey realistic optimism and businesslike enthusiasm about your prospects. – Baшa ocнoвнaя цeль - выpaжaть нacтoящий oоптимизм и дeлoвoй энтyзиaзм oтнocитeльнo cвoиx плaнoв нa бyдyщee.

2 ...as if you were speaking to the reader in person... – ... кaк ecли бы вы paзгoвapивaли личнo c читaтeлeм.

3 ...a statement of Mission. – ... излoжeниe цeли (миссии).


3. Key vocabulary / expressions

be chatty ['t∫æti] – быть бoлтливым

convey success [ sәk'ses] – дeмoнcтpиpoвaть ycпex

eliminate [i'limineit] – v устpaнять

handle [hændl] – v выполнять, обрабатывать

prudent ['pru:dәnt] – adj. блaгopaзyмный, пpeдycмoтpитeльный

quote [kwout] – v ссылaтьcя (нa кoгo-л.), цитиpoвaть

self-promotion [ֽself prә'mouòn] – n самореклама

terrific [tә'rifik] – adj потрясающий

vicinity [vi'siniti] – n округа, район, соседство

widget ['wiʤәt] – n устройство, прибор


_________________________________________________Lesson 13. WHAT LANGUAGE TO USE FOR CONVEYIMG SUCCESS

Phonetic Test.

Read the words correctly according to the rules of reading

kind, moisture, walrus, comfort, speciality, introduction, velocity, circulation, wastage, desire, improperly, summer, encounter, specify, installation, intensively, whether, substantial, measure, wild, prohibitively, hyperbole, malleable.

5. Ask questions so that the sentences below could be answers

1. Demographic information is particularly useful when devising your marketing


2. You need to determine whether the neighborhood has enough consumers who

fit this profile to support your business.

3. To be a useful planning tool, the definition of your target market must meet

some criteria.

4. This worksheet helps you chart a demographic profile of your target market.

Prepositional phrasal verbs

Translate the sentences keeping in mind that the prepositions after the verbs change their familiar meaning


1. One of the new entrepreneurs won $100,000 in lottery and gave it all away.

2. The author refused to give away any secrets about the ending of his book.

3. Please make sure you give me my pen back.

4. This is the end of the test. Please give in your papers now.

5. The government refuses to give in to terrorism.

6. Children helped to give out presents to the old people.

7. My doctor has told me to give up eating cakes and sweets.

8. I had to give up smoking when I got married.

7. Write out from the text all the international words. Give Russian equivalents to them without using a dictionary

Word construction.

8.1 Translate the following words keeping in mind the meaning of prefix self- means само-

self-promotion, self-conceit, self-defence, self-criticism, self-government,

self-educated, self-possession, self-respect, self-support, self-made

Translate the following words keeping in mind their suffixes and prefixes

sustain – sustained – sustainable – sustaining – sustenance – sustensive

family – familiar – familiarity – familiarize – unfamiliar


species – specific – specification – specify – specimen

9. Some additional information from the practitioners.

Read and translate the extract in a written form. Where and why is the Past Perfect Tense used here?

“The Business plan had 15 pages of text. We also included an opening budget, cashflow projections, a summary of return on investment, a furnishing’s and equipment list, a map of the area, and a site analysis based on Planning Department information, on new and renovated housing in the vicinity. In the business plan for our next restaurant, we also included publicity the current restaurant had received.”

Martha Johnson, Owner, Trio Café and Suppers Restaurant

What do the italicized words mean? Explain them in the most detailed manner

9.3 Discuss the information from the extract with your partner.

Essential grammar (See Essential Grammar Appendix)


11. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the forms and functions of the gerund

1. We know of his having spent more than 10 years of scientific thinking before

finally formulating the ideas on paper.

2. We have heard of his having been suggested to put down his ideas on paper,

which he did.

3. The aim of his experimenting is increasing the speed of calculations.

4. We know of this electrical engineer’s having designed a new type of a digital


5. Having proved the validity of his theory, he went on working at it.

6. Original scientific thinking is very important for every researcher.

7. Without proper understanding the major laws of economics it is difficult for

the students to take part in the research.

8. On receiving wrong results one must repeat the experiment.

9. By repeating experiments one gets more data that helps arriving at right


12. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the gerund phrases

1. Before launching a new product you should find the market for it.

2. When starting or expanding a business we must keep in mind our funding


3. By evaluating and establishing the procedures necessary to run your business

from day to day, you can run a successful business.

4. The position of the company depends on setting the goals and objectives.

5. While developing your business plan you’ll increase your understanding of

the forces that have an impact on your business.


_________________________________________________Lesson 13. WHAT LANGUAGE TO USE FOR CONVEYIMG SUCCESS


6. We knew nothing of his having undertaken market research in new field.


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