Success through a foreign language



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Success through a foreign language



Success through a foreign language

A foreign language is an inseparable item of our fast-moving world; the world of high technology, of international business, fast-growing economy, international tourism, the influential “Forth Estate”, of multiculturalism. In order to keep pace with our fast-changing, competitive world we should learn foreign languages.

Today it’s not even a fashion to learn foreign language but it’s to the advantage of people to speak it. And for some people it’s a necessity. People who speak foreign language fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual, and those who are forced to use it for practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world’s entire population belongs to one of those three groups.

People of different walks of life realize the importance of foreign languages. Graduates understand that literacy and numeracy are not enough to get a post in a prosperous company. Now teenagers are guided by the thought that in order to reach smth in life, in order to feel fulfilled, in order to show your supremacy, one should renounce from different pleasures of life and study hard. Only through hard work a good job will not be just an elusive goal.

Nowadays, English is one of the major languages in the world. Due to the great growth of population and massive immigration in the 19th and 20th centuries, English became the most important and widespread language in the world.

There are at least 1.5 billion English-speakers around the world. In Europe more than 40 per cent speak English. And English is not only the national or official language of some thirty states which represent different cultures, but it is also the major international language of communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations.

English is the language of literature, education, modern music, international tourism. And, as even a casual look suggests, it is the main language of advertising, the most influential newspapers, the rapidly growing magazines and the budding national television network.

Everybody understands that English is widely and increasingly viewed as a vital key to good jobs, financial success and personal advancement. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time. We know that the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge of mankind is known to double every seven years. English is needed as the main and the most efficient means of information exchange of the people of our planet.

So, nowadays, English is the most important language in the world and if you want to become a specialist of high qualification you should learn English and all doors will be open for you.

 

 

Leaders and leadership

Well, first of all we must ask ourselves such questions: Who we can name a leader? What qualities should the real leader possess? How we can become a leader?

All these questions are very important nowadays, because almost everyone wants to become a leader. Leadership is an inseparable item of our fast-moving world; the world of high technology, of international business, fast-growing economy, international tourism, the influential “Forth Estate”, of multiculturalism. In order to keep pace with our fast-changing, competitive world we should know how to become a leader. So let’s try to find the answer!

So, the first question is “Who is a leader?” In the dictionary we can find such a definition of a leader. LEADER – is a person who guides or directs a group of people and who makes the most important decisions. In other words it’s a person who stays under the leadership of others. I suggest that everyone, to some degree, wears the hat of a leader, even if it is self-leadership (which, to my point of view, is the most important leadership of all).

Another question is “What qualities should the real leader possess?”

He must be:

1. Self Starter - Leaders are made, not found.

2. Ability to see the big picture - vision.

3. Selector of good people - People are the most important asset.

4. Trainer of people - Motivator - Build a team.

5. Good communicator - Good listener.

6. Risk taker.

7. High energy level - hard work is the only career plan.

8. Sense of Humor - Doesn't take himself/herself too seriously.

9. Strategic thinker.

Another important question is “How we can become a leader?”

First of all we should become the sculptor of our own career and life – not the sculpture. Leaders are the authors of their own lives. We must show our supremacy and the desire to become a leader. We should take responsibility for our professional development. We should print it in our minds because no one has a greater investment in our success and satisfaction than we.

So, the first and most important step for a leader is the decision to become a leader. At some point in time, leaders decide that they want to provide others with vision direct the course of future events and inspire others to success, they want toinstill (внушить) in others a hope and belief that they can create change for the better. They want to bring out in people their best talents.

In conclusion I would like to say that leadership is the ability to work hard and get real results, to set goals and obtain them. I think that leadership is a great responsibility, rather than a privilege. Because when things go wrong (and they always do) leaders are always the scapegoats. So, personally I would not like to become a leader.

 

 

Music in our life

Music is an inseparable item of our world; the world of nervous breakdowns, continuous tension, competitive atmosphere. Music helps us to relax, to release tension, to buck ourselves up. Music reaches our inmost feelings, helps to express our thoughts, our mood. Music connects people of different walks of life. It unites people all over the world.

Great Britain has made an outstanding contribution to the development of world music, no it’s included in the treasury of European music.

The most important annual classical music festival makes up The Promenade Concert. It was fist conducted in London in 1894 by Sir Henry Wood. His aim was to popularize classical music and encourage youngsters to get to know the greatest masters of the classical repertory. It was held in informal atmosphere, the seats were cheap and the crowds flocked to attend.

The last night of the Proms is a special occasion. It’s become a British institution. The atmosphere is electric, people listen rapt. The Albert Hall is filled to capacity with thousands of people. One of the pieces traditionally played at the Last Night is “Pomp and Circumstance” written by E. Elgar. Under the title “Land of hope and glory” (Benson) it revived as an immensely patriotic hymn – a kind of alternative National Anthem.

Every season is attempted to give classical music mass appeal reaches new highs. The Proms is undoubtedly the longest lasting success in promoting classical music, though it’s not clear how far the social spread has broadened over the years. The general outline is as follows: the Promenaders are younger than other concert audiences, male outnumber female (the same balance of the sexes as the population as a whole). The Proms are broadcast live on BBC Radio 3 and recorded highlights are featured on the World Service.

Alongside professional music, Britain has a long folk-music tradition. The most popular tunes were handed down from generation to generation by word of mouth.

Scotland is represented by bagpipe bands, brass band is more characteristic of England. Music is always to be found in the village church where the choir sings the old hymns. In the pub one may meet a singer of old songs or a troupe of dancing Morris men.

It’s an open secret that the best choral music is to be found in Wales. Their bards were famous in the ancient world and they still meet every year at the “Eisteddfod world’s festival”.

London is one of acknowledged centers of classical music. Everyday English and international musicians perform in the concert halls and opera houses.

The London underground is one more place where music is flourishing. One may well come across young “buskers”. They look modern enough but don’t be mistakenly taken in people like them have been playing in the streets of Britain ever since history began.

As far as the music in Belarus concerns, we have long musical traditions that spring from Belarusian villages. Unfortunately nowadays our villages fall into decay. That’s why Belarusian traditions and Belarusian music are on the decline too. Today young generation prefer foreign music to Belarusian, there is hardly any Belarusian group that can figure prominently. Unfortunately abroad nobody knows any Belarusian group. That’s why in order to revive and to popularize Belarusian music, our president decided to promulgate some laws. And one of them concerns our radio stations. Today they broadcast 60% of Belarusian music on the radio. They organize a lot of concerts, festivals, music awards. And now we can admit the fact that people’s interest to music has increased. So we can say that the policy of our government is on the right track.

 

The power of the media

Nowadays the “Forth Estate” is an inseparable item of our fast-moving world; the world of high technology, of international business, fast-growing economy, international tourism. The media helps people to keep pace with our fast-changing world and to know the latest news. Well, we must admit that people depend on the mass media a lot, they get coverage of news, current cultural, political, business affairs. Today we can get full information about everything what is happening in the world. Being at the other world's end we can be well informed about military operations in Iraq, we can follow the presidential elections in the USA, we can be in the know of the latest researches being held on the Moon, we can learn about the latest inventions in the world of technology, we can even get to know the gossips from the life of celebrities.

So, without doubts, the mass media is an enormous corporation, the existence of each is invaluable.

The only negative side of the mass media is that it not only reflects our reality and shows the real state of things but also influences our society a lot. It can influence people’s taste and even political views. It can impose on people certain ideas.

Another stumbling block is that people lose the sense of reality. They start to depend on the means of the mass media so much, that later can’t imagine their life without them. They become victims of the biased views, of the silly advertisements, of the smutty magazines or porn films. They spend hours staring at the photographs in the newspapers and reading its scrappy paragraphs or watching dirty scenes. And a very interesting fact that in public people pretend to be very knowing and cynical about stupid advertisements, sleazy films, yellow press but in private they are their willing victims. Don’t you think that it’s very common nowadays when people try to show to everyone that they are higher of all these and in public they mock at others who got under its influence but in reality these people are also victims of the powerful “Forth Estate”. People are very naive in their nature; they are ready to listen everyone and to follow the fashion without having a personal opinion.

We see how greatly people may be influenced by means of mass media. That everything in their life becomes connected with press, radio, cinema. And they get so involved into this world of “4th estate” that they become like reporters from the venue and the accomplices at the same time.

This passion that filled up people’s life to the very brims is even dangerous in some extend because it can ruin their lives. They can get stuck in the imaginary world, the world of lie, tempting luxury, illusive dreams, of emptiness and theatricality. Unfortunately people can lose the sense of reality, and in order to escape from daily problems, they can choose an easier way of life, life of fantasy. And choosing this way they unfortunately are walking on the knife blade and could ruin their life.

Well, to cover everything up, I should say that without doubts the “4th Estate” is one of the greatest creations of the 20th century. It’s a big source of getting information, it broadens our outlook and helps to know the latest news but it shouldn’t be the only background on the basis of which we form our view.

 

 

Youth culture

Youth culture is a reaction to the economic, political, and educational changes happening in the modern world. The culture tends to fluctuate with different generations.

A new generation has come of age, shaped by a revolution in technology and dramatic events both at home and abroad. They are Generation Next, the group of young adults who have grown up with personal computers, cell phones and the internet and are now taking their place in a world where the only constant is rapid change.

Young people today are self-confident, self-dependent, they are risk-takers. They are kept abreast with our fast-changing world. They follow the latest inventions, new trends, they try to keep pace with modern technology. Aside from communicating in cyberspace, the internet has become a way for people to connect face-to-face. They use technology and the internet to connect with people in new and distinctive ways. Text messaging, instant messaging and email keep them in constant contact with friends.

Young people are very self-assured, they have a very positive view of their abilities and opportunities.

An overwhelming majority of young people believe in planning ahead for life. They think that when a person reaches the mid-20s, it is important for them to have a good plan for what they are going to do with the rest of their lives.

One of the biggest concerns for young people is education. Young people worry about their jobs and careers: finding a job, career advancement, job security and job satisfaction as their most important problem. This is less of a worry for older generation.

But unfortunately this reoccupation about job is connected with their life goals. A majority of young people says that “getting rich” is the main goal of most people in their age group; that nowadays one of the generation’s top goals is fortune and fame. Roughly eight-in-ten people say that for their generation getting rich is either the most important, or second most important, goal in their lives.

Nowadays young people are somewhat more focused on personal or internal issues than are older generations. The issue in their own life is the most important problem for the new generation; only a few bother about things related to the outside world.

We were talking about inner culture of young people. As far as the state of the outside part concerns, for young people nowadays fashion, music, films and literature drive the tastes of young people. Now they are more obsessed with clothing styles, hairstyles and footwear. Common interests, dialects and slang, music genres and gathering places are very important factors in defying youth culture.

In youth culture we can distinguish some subcultures which are mostly defined by their activities, such as bikers, skaters, and surfers.

Style and fashion play a role in all subculture groups to varying degrees. Working class youths often place greater emphasis on fashion, because it is one way they can show off what they own - whereas middle class and wealthy youths have other things to show off, such as homes, cars, and expensive stereos or technical equipment.

Most youth subculture groups can be associated with a specific music genre, and in some instances music has been the defining characteristic of the group, such as: ravers, metalheads, hip hoppers, goths and punk rockers.

 

Length of Time

Perhaps the most important difference between the education system in the US and the UK is the amount of time it takes to finish your degree (except in Scotland, where a bachelor’s degree also lasts four years). In general, degree programs in the US take about one year longer than programs in the UK, although this varies depending upon whether you receive a Master’s degree prior to a PhD. In both systems, you can go directly to a PhD program out of your undergraduate program, but in the UK it is more common to complete a Master’s degree program before moving on to a PhD. Courses of study are shorter in the UK because the course programs are generally much more focused than in the US.

Academic Term

Most universities in the US begin their terms in mid to late August, although smaller liberal arts colleges may start later. Most take a rather lengthy break beginning in mid-December and begin the second semester in early to mid-January. However, universities that are on different calendars, such as a trimester or quarter-based system, may begin their winter break at the Thanksgiving holiday, which falls at the end of November. The academic term in the UK is a bit more varied. While most also use the semester system, the trimester and quarter systems are used in some universities. Many schools start in September or October and end in May or June, making for a slightly longer academic year. However, the academic term is less standardized throughout the United Kingdom; if you choose to study there, your university might use a much different calendar.

University Organization

Many universities in the UK are made up of “colleges” which are dedicated to a specific subject matter. While the colleges are still governed by the university, each college has quite a lot of autonomy from each other as well as the university itself. You live with others in your college, eat with others from your college, and generally stay within your college for the duration of your studies. Rather than applying to the central university admissions department, like you do in the US, you either apply directly to the college of the subject you want to study, or in the case of undergraduate programs, you apply through a centralized system which allows you to apply to several colleges at once. This system is called the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service, or UCAS. This means that you have to know what you want to study before you even apply.

By contrast, in the US, you apply to the larger university and for the first year or more, you take courses from a variety of fields and only declare a major at the end of the first year or perhaps even during the second year. American universities have different “schools,” or departments, such as the School of Arts and Sciences, which houses a number of related majors. However, even after you declare a major at an American university, you are still expected to take classes outside of that field, known as “electives.” For this reason, we can say that the general emphasis of higher education in the US is breadth, or getting a range of knowledge from a variety of different subjects. In the UK, the emphasis is more on depth; getting a very thorough understanding of your chosen subject.

Homework and Grades

Because the US system emphasizes breadth, courses require weekly or even biweekly readings as well as other assignments such as small writing projects, major research papers, and oral presentations throughout the course. In the UK, most schools are much more lecture-based, with only occasional assignments throughout the semester. In some cases, there may be no actual required assignments and instead your entire grade may be based on one final exam. In the US, your grade will be based on your performance on the variety of assignments, with a final exam making up only a percentage of your total grade.

Cost

The cost of education in both countries is far from cheap, but the cost of an education in the United States is generally higher. According to a law passed in 2012, universities in England may charge up to £9000 (approximately $14,300) per year. Of course, this applies only to citizens of the UK and the EU, not international students. Fees for international students can be significantly higher. The government sets the limits for tuition fees, and each individual school sets its own fee up to that limit.

By contrast, the government has very little control over what universities charge in the United States. The US differentiates between in-state tuition fees and out-of-state tuition fees, as well as between private and public universities. These distinctions determine the tuition fee. The average tuition fee for public two-year institutions is around $3000 per year, while the average fee for private four-year institutions is around $29,000 per year. Finally, some private four-year institutions can cost up to $50,000 per year. In order to help students cover the cost of tuition in both countries, loans are available through the government with favorable terms and interest rates. Visit our Financial Aid Center for more information about financing your education in the US.

Accommodation

Both countries provide students with residence halls in which to live. They are roughly equivalent, although in the UK it is more normal to have a bedroom by yourself, whereas in the US, you may very well share a bedroom with at least one other person. However, after the first year, students in the US may have additional housing options available to them, such as private housing or off-campus housing. It is also more common for dormitories to be self-catered in the UK, while the US normally provides a range of full dining options for its students. One potentially significant difference is that maid service is common in the residence halls in the UK, although students pay a nominal fee for this service.

Conclusion

While both countries provide a great education, each system approaches education slightly differently, and there are advantages and disadvantages to each. If you are considering getting your education in either the US or the UK, you should take into consideration the various differences mentioned in this article, especially the amount of time it takes to finish the degree, the tuition fees and whether you prefer more depth or more breadth in your degree program.

  America Britain
Length of Time BA: 4 years MA: 2 years PhD: 5-7 years or longer BA: 3 years MA: 1 year PhD: 3 years
Academic Term Most schools use the semester system, but some use a trimester or quarter system. Most schools start in mid to late August and end in May. Most also use a semester system, but some use trimester or quarter systems. The start and end of an academic year varies by university.
University Organization Universities are often divided into schools by subject, but these schools do not typically have a lot of autonomy from the university. University acts an umbrella organization for the different colleges. Colleges are fairly independent of one another.
Style of Education More varied, liberal arts, study outside your major. Take only classes in your college.
Depth vs Breadth Breadth Depth
Homework Constant reading and writing assignments General assignments or no assignments throughout the semester
Cost High Moderate
Grades Based on overall performance on all assignments Based mostly on the final exam
Athletics Important social activity; athletic scholarships available. Intramural sports; generally no athletic scholarships available.
Living Situation Dormitories with roommate. Off-campus housing occasionally available. Dormitories without roommate generally. Off-campus housing generally available.
Types of Degrees Associates, Bachelors, Masters, PhD, variety of vocational and professional degrees. Higher National Diploma, Certificate of Higher Education, Diploma of Higher Education, Foundation Degree, Bachelors, Masters, PhD, variety of professional and vocational degrees. Postgraduate degrees divided into taught and research degrees.

Visit our Study Centers to learn more about studying in the United Kingdom and the United States.

 

Religious scenes (in the US and GB)

Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual nature and a study of inherited ancestral traditions, knowledge and wisdom related to understanding human life. The term "religion" refers to both the personal practices related to faith as well as to the larger shared systems of belief.

There are many definitions of religion, and most have struggled to avoid an overly sharp definition on the one hand, and meaningless generalities on the other. Some have tried to use formalistic, doctrinal definitions and others have tried to use experiential, emotive, intuitive, valuational and ethical factors.

The most popular religions in the world today are:

Christianity 33%

Islam 21%

Non-Adherent (Secular/Atheist/Irreligious/Agnostic/Nontheist) 16%

Hinduism 14%

Chinese folk religion 6%

Buddhism 6%

Primal indigenous ("Pagan") 6%

Now let’s have a look at the religious scene in the US and GB.

America is a highly religious country, and has been since its earliest days. Nearly every religion in the world has adherents or organized institutions in America. Religion in the United States today is built primarily on the structure of Protestantism, Catholicism, and Judaism.

Such religious diversity in the USA can be accounted for in the following way. The immigrants who first came to America from countries all over the world brought a variety of religions. Many came with the express purpose of establishing communities where they could practice their own form of worship without interference or fear of persecution. Although the official separation of Church and State provided a climate for these diverse religious practices to flourish, Protestantism, because of numbers and influence, has until recent decades occupied a dominant position in American society.

Protestantism originated in Reformation, the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century. Initially, the term “protestant” meant “to be a witness” rather than, “to be against” as the current popular interpretation of the word seems to imply. In the broader sense of the word, Protestant came to be used as the collective name for those individuals and churches who advocated a formal separation from the Roman Catholic Church.

The first settlers of Massachusetts were members of a radical Protestant group called Puritans. From Puritanism the new American nation took many of its basic values: materialism with little asceticism (mollified by a stress on the importance of religion), moral fervor, and a high regard for law and social order.

Nowadays almost all Americans regard religion as a matter for each adult to determine for himself. Each is free to be religious or not, and to observe religion in whatever ways he chooses, as long as his conduct does not violate the law. Nearly half of citizens (48 %) think that America has had special protection from God for most of its history and only 15 % of the population do not belong to any church or religious community.

The United States had achieved a unique balance between religion and government. They are diverse people of different religious traditions, different intellectual traditions, and so they have to come together and not ask the government to do too much, particularly not ask the government to do too much in promulgating a civil religion that is inevitable.

The United Kingdom is traditionally a Christian state, though of the four constituent countries, only England still has a state faith in the form of an established church. Christianity is the majority religion, and a wide variety of Christian churches, denominations, and sects exists.

During the 20th century, many other religions have established a presence, mainly through immigration, though also partly through the attraction of converts. Those with the most adherents are Hinduism, Sikhism, and various forms of Islam (mainly among immigrants from southern Asia). Apart from a period of expulsion between 1290 and 1656, there has been a Jewish minority in the United Kingdom for many centuries. Other minority faiths include Buddhism, the Baha'i Faith, and Rastafarianism. There are also small neopagan groups, and various organizations which actively promote rationalism and secularism.

There are two established or state churches in Britain: the Church of England, or Anglican Church as it is also called, and the Church of Scotland, or 'Kirk'.

In 1533 the English king, Henry VIII, broke away from Rome and declared himself head of the Church in England. Ever since 1534 the monarch has been Supreme Governor of the Church of England. No one may take the throne who is not a member of the Church of England.

The Church of Scotland is recognised in law (by the Church of Scotland Act 1921) as the national church in Scotland, but is not an established church and is independent of state control in matters spiritual. The Church of Scotland is a Reformed church, with a Presbyterian system of ecclesiastical polity as determined in 1690.

According to the 2001 Census 15% of people in Great Britain (8.6 million people) said they had no religion. 72% of people (41 million) identified themselves as Christian, making it the largest religious group. Muslims were the second largest religious group (1.6 million) and the information provided by them shows a young, tightly clustered, and often disadvantaged, community.

 

 

Yes

Financial costs to taxpayers of capital punishment is several times that of keeping someone in prison for life. Most people don't realize that carrying out one death sentence costs 2-5 times more than keeping that same criminal in prison for the rest of his life. How can this be? It has to do with the endless appeals, additional required procedures, and legal wrangling that drag the process out. It's not unusual for a prisoner to be on death row for 15-20 years. Judges, attorneys, court reporters, clerks, and court facilities all require a substantial investment by the taxpayers.

It is barbaric and violates the "cruel and unusual" clause in the Bill of Rights. Whether it's a firing squad, electric chair, gas chamber, lethal injection, or hanging, it's barbaric to allow state-sanctioned murder before a crowd of people. We condemn people like Saddam Hussein and Kim Jong Il when they murder their own people while we continue to do the same (although our procedures for allowing it are obviously more thorough). The 8th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution prevents the use of "cruel and unusual punishment". Many would interpret the death penalty as violating this restriction.

The endless appeals and required additional procedures clog our court system. The U.S. court system goes to enormous lengths before allowing a death sentence to be carried out. All the appeals, motions, hearings, briefs, etc. monopolize much of the time of judges, attorneys, and other court employees as well as use up courtrooms & facilities. This is time & space that could be used for other unresolved matters. The court system is tremendously backed up. This would help move things along.

We as a society have to move away from the "eye for an eye" revenge mentality if civilization is to advance. The "eye for an eye" mentality will never solve anything. A revenge philosophy inevitably leads to an endless cycle of violence. Why do you think the Israeli-Palestine conflict has been going on for 50+ years? Why do you think gang violence in this country never seems to end? It is important to send a message to society that striking back at your enemy purely for revenge will always make matters worse.

It sends the wrong message: why kill people who kill people to show killing is wrong. Yes, we want to make sure there is accountability for crime and an effective deterrent in place; however, the death penalty has a message of "You killed one of us, so we'll kill you". The state is actually using a murder to punish someone who committed a murder. Does that make sense?

Life in prison is a worse punishment and a more effective deterrent. For those of you who don't feel much sympathy for a murderer, keep in mind that death may be too good for them. With a death sentence, the suffering is over in an instant. With life in prison, the pain goes on for decades. Prisoners are confined to a cage and live in an internal environment of rape and violence where they're treated as animals. And consider terrorists. Do you think they'd rather suffer the humiliation of lifelong prison or be "martyred" by a death sentence? Other countries (especially in Europe) would have a more favorable image of America. It's no secret that anti-Americanism is rampant around the world. One of the reasons is America's continued use of the death penalty. We're seen as a violent, vengeful nation for such a policy. This is pretty much the same view that Europeans had of America when we continued the practice of slavery long after it had been banned in Europe.

Some jury members are reluctant to convict if it means putting someone to death. Many states require any jury members to be polled during the pre-trial examination to be sure they have the stomach to sentence someone to death before they're allowed to serve. Even if they're against the death penalty, they still may lie in order to get on the panel. The thought of agreeing to kill someone even influences some jury members to acquit rather than risk the death. Some prosecutors may go for a lesser charge rather than force juries into a death-or-acquit choice. Obviously, in all these situations, justice may not be served.

The prisoner's family must suffer from seeing their loved one put to death by the state. One victim's innocent family is obviously forced to suffer from a capital murder, but by enforcing a death sentence, you force another family to suffer. Why double the suffering when we don't have to? The possibility exists that innocent men and women may be put to death. There are several documented cases where DNA testing showed that innocent people were put to death by the government. We have an imperfect justice system where poor defendants are given minimal legal attention by often lesser qualified individuals. We can't risk mistakes.

Mentally ill patients may be put to death. Many people are simply born with defects to their brain that cause them to act a certain way. No amount of drugs, schooling, rehabilitation, or positive reinforcement will change them. Is it fair that someone should be murdered just because they were unlucky enough to be born with a brain defect. It creates sympathy for the monsterous perpetrators of the crimes. Criminals usually are looked down upon by society. People are disgusted by the vile, unconscionable acts they commit and feel tremendous sympathy for the victims of murder, rape, etc. However, the death penalty has a way of shifting sympathy away from the victims and to the criminals themselves. An excellent example is the 2005 execution of former gang leader "Tookie" Williams. This is a man who founded the notorious Crips gang, which has a long legacy of robbery, assault, and murder. This is a man who was convicted with overwhelming evidence of the murder of 4 people at a restaurant, some of whom he shot in the back and then laughed at the sounds they made as they died. This is a man who never even took responsiblity for the crimes or apologized to the victims -- NOT ONCE! These victims had kids and spouses, but instead of sympathy for them, sympathy shifted to Tookie. Candlelight vigils were held for him. Websites like savetookie.org sprung up. Protests and a media circus ensued trying to prevent the execution, which eventually did take place -- 26 years after the crime itself! There are many cases like this, which makes a mockery of the evil crimes these degenerates commit.

It is useless in that it doesn't bring the victim back to life. Perhaps the biggest reason to ban the death penalty is that it doesn't change the fact that the victim is gone and will never come back. Hate, revenge, and anger will never cure the emptiness of a lost loved one. Forgiveness is the only way to start the healing process, and this won't happen in a revenge-focused individual.

No The death penalty gives closure to the victim's families who have suffered so much. Some family members of crime victims may take years or decades to recover from the shock and loss of a loved one. Some may never recover. One of the things that helps hasten this recovery is to achieve some kind of closure. Life in prison just means the criminal is still around to haunt the victim. A death sentence brings finality to a horrible chapter in the lives of these family members.

It creates another form of crime deterrent. Crime would run rampant as never before if there wasn't some way to deter people from committing the acts. Prison time is an effective deterrent, but with some people, more is needed. Prosecutors should have the option of using a variety of punishments in order to minimize crime. Justice is better served. The most fundamental principle of justice is that the punishment should fit the crime. When someone plans and brutally murders another person, doesn't it make sense that the punishment for the perpetrator also be death?

Our justice system shows more sympathy for criminals than it does victims.It's time we put the emphasis of our criminal justice system back on protecting the victim rather than the accused. Remember, a person who's on death row has almost always committed crimes before this. A long line of victims have been waiting for justice. We need justice for current and past victims. It provides a deterrent for prisoners already serving a life sentence. What about people already sentenced to life in prison. What's to stop them from murdering people constantly while in prison? What are they going to do--extend his sentence? Sure, they can take away some prison privileges, but is this enough of a deterrent to stop the killing? What about a person sentenced to life who happens to escape? What's to stop him from killing anyone who might try to bring him in or curb his crime spree?

DNA testing can now effectively eliminate uncertainty as to a person's guilt or innocence. One of the biggest arguments against the death penalty is the possibility of error. Sure, we can never completely eliminate all uncertainty, but nowadays, it's about as close as you can get. DNA testing is over 99 percent effective. And even if DNA testing didn't exist, the trial and appeals process is so thorough it's next to impossible to convict an innocent person. Remember, a jury of 12 members must unanimously decide there's not even a reasonable doubt the person is guilty. The number of innocent people that might somehow be convicted is no greater than the number of innocent victims of the murderers who are set free.

Prisoner parole or escapes can give criminals another chance to kill. Perhaps the biggest reason to keep the death penalty is to prevent the crime from happening again. The parole system nowadays is a joke. Does it make sense to anyone outside the legal system to have multiple "life" sentences + 20 years or other jiverish? Even if a criminal is sentenced to life without possibility of parole, he still has a chance to kill while in prison, or even worse, escape and go on a crime/murder spree.

 

 

Success through a foreign language

A foreign language is an inseparable item of our fast-moving world; the world of high technology, of international business, fast-growing economy, international tourism, the influential “Forth Estate”, of multiculturalism. In order to keep pace with our fast-changing, competitive world we should learn foreign languages.

Today it’s not even a fashion to learn foreign language but it’s to the advantage of people to speak it. And for some people it’s a necessity. People who speak foreign language fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual, and those who are forced to use it for practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world’s entire population belongs to one of those three groups.

People of different walks of life realize the importance of foreign languages. Graduates understand that literacy and numeracy are not enough to get a post in a prosperous company. Now teenagers are guided by the thought that in order to reach smth in life, in order to feel fulfilled, in order to show your supremacy, one should renounce from different pleasures of life and study hard. Only through hard work a good job will not be just an elusive goal.

Nowadays, English is one of the major languages in the world. Due to the great growth of population and massive immigration in the 19th and 20th centuries, English became the most important and widespread language in the world.

There are at least 1.5 billion English-speakers around the world. In Europe more than 40 per cent speak English. And English is not only the national or official language of some thirty states which represent different cultures, but it is also the major international language of communication in such areas as science, technology, business and mass entertainment. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organization and other political organizations.

English is the language of literature, education, modern music, international tourism. And, as even a casual look suggests, it is the main language of advertising, the most influential newspapers, the rapidly growing magazines and the budding national television network.

Everybody understands that English is widely and increasingly viewed as a vital key to good jobs, financial success and personal advancement. Foreign languages are socially demanded especially at the present time. We know that the progress in science and technology has led to an explosion of knowledge and has contributed to an overflow of information. The total knowledge of mankind is known to double every seven years. English is needed as the main and the most efficient means of information exchange of the people of our planet.

So, nowadays, English is the most important language in the world and if you want to become a specialist of high qualification you should learn English and all doors will be open for you.

 

 

Leaders and leadership

Well, first of all we must ask ourselves such questions: Who we can name a leader? What qualities should the real leader possess? How we can become a leader?

All these questions are very important nowadays, because almost everyone wants to become a leader. Leadership is an inseparable item of our fast-moving world; the world of high technology, of international business, fast-growing economy, international tourism, the influential “Forth Estate”, of multiculturalism. In order to keep pace with our fast-changing, competitive world we should know how to become a leader. So let’s try to find the answer!

So, the first question is “Who is a leader?” In the dictionary we can find such a definition of a leader. LEADER – is a person who guides or directs a group of people and who makes the most important decisions. In other words it’s a person who stays under the leadership of others. I suggest that everyone, to some degree, wears the hat of a leader, even if it is self-leadership (which, to my point of view, is the most important leadership of all).

Another question is “What qualities should the real leader possess?”

He must be:

1. Self Starter - Leaders are made, not found.

2. Ability to see the big picture - vision.

3. Selector of good people - People are the most important asset.

4. Trainer of people - Motivator - Build a team.

5. Good communicator - Good listener.

6. Risk taker.

7. High energy level - hard work is the only career plan.

8. Sense of Humor - Doesn't take himself/herself too seriously.

9. Strategic thinker.

Another important question is “How we can become a leader?”

First of all we should become the sculptor of our own career and life – not the sculpture. Leaders are the authors of their own lives. We must show our supremacy and the desire to become a leader. We should take responsibility for our professional development. We should print it in our minds because no one has a greater investment in our success and satisfaction than we.

So, the first and most important step for a leader is the decision to become a leader. At some point in time, leaders decide that they want to provide others with vision direct the course of future events and inspire others to success, they want toinstill (внушить) in others a hope and belief that they can create change for the better. They want to bring out in people their best talents.

In conclusion I would like to say that leadership is the ability to work hard and get real results, to set goals and obtain them. I think that leadership is a great responsibility, rather than a privilege. Because when things go wrong (and they always do) leaders are always the scapegoats. So, personally I would not like to become a leader.

 

 



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