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The UN and its role in the modern world
The United Nations Organization came into being on October 24, 1945, a date commemorated every year as UN Day. On that day the Charter of the UN entered into force. The Charter had been drawn up in San Francisco at the UN Conference in the closing days of the 2nd World War, when the representatives of 50 countries resolved to establish an international organization to be known as the UN.
The purposes and principles of the Organization, as set forth in the Charter, are:
– To maintain international peace and security
– To develop friendly relations among nations
– To achieve cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems, and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms
– To be a centre for harmonizing the actions in attaining these common ends
The Member States are sovereign and equal, and the Charter provides that the UN shall not intervene in matters essentially within the jurisdiction of any state except when it is acting to maintain or restore international peace. But the Member States have certain obligations under the Charter. They are committed
o to settle their international disputes by peaceful means,
o to refrain from the threat of use of force against other States
o to assist the UN in any action it takes in accordance with Charter.
Membership in the UN is open to all peace-loving states which accept the obligations of the Charter.
The 6 main organs of the UN are:
Ø the General Assembly
Ø the Security Council
Ø the Economic and Social Council
Ø the Trusteeship Council
Ø the Secretariat
Ø the International Court of Justice.
The Court has its seat at the Hague, Netherlands. All other organs are based at the UN Headquarters in New York.
The General Assembly (GA) is the main deliberative organ of the UN. It is composed of all Member States. The main functions of the Assembly are:
1. to consider and make recommendations on the principles of international cooperation in maintenance of peace and security, including the principles governing disagreement and the regulations of armaments
2. to discuss any problem affecting peace and security
3. to receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other organs of the UN
4. to elect 10 non-permanent members of the Security Council and members f the main organs of the UN
5. to consider and approve the budget of the UN
The GA meets once a year in regular sessions which begin on the 3rd Tuesday of September and continue until mid-December, or at the demand of the Security Council.
Each member nation has one vote in the GA. In matters which the Charter defines as important (recommendations on peace and security, elections of members to organs and budgetary matters) decisions are taken by two-thirds majority vote of those present and voting. Other matters are decided by a simple majority.
Members of the GA talk to each other in many languages, but officially there are only 6 – Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. The GA deals with its work through 7 main comities in which all the members have the right to be represented.
The Security Council (SC). The organ on which the Charter confers primary responsibilities for maintaining peace and security is the SC. It is composed of 5 permanent members: China, France, Russia, the UK and the US – and 10 non0permament members elected by the GA for 2-year terms.
The main functions of the SC are:
o to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the purposes and principles of the UN
o to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international conflicts
o to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regular armaments
o to determine the existence of a threat to peace or act of aggression
o to recommend actions against an aggressor should be taken etc.
Each member of the SC has one vote. Decisions on procedural matters are made by the affirmative vote of any 9 members. Decisions on substantive matters also require 9 votes, including the concurring votes of all 5 permanent members. This is the rule of “great power unanimity”, often referred to as the “veto”. All 5 permanent members have exercised the veto at one time or another. If a permanent member does not support a decision but has no desire to block it through a veto, it may abstain; an abstention is not regarded as a veto, but the vote is required on substantial matters, so it may be equal to veto.
The SC is organized as to be able to function continuously, and a representative of each of its members must be present at all time at the Headquarters of the UN.
The Economic and Social Council has been entrusted with the task of helping to raise the standards of living of all peoples and of promotions conditions of economic and social progress and development. The major issues:
o planning for economic development
o financial and technical assistance to the less developed countries
o improvement of education
o the promotion of human rights
The E&SC has regional commissions for Europe, Latin America, Africa and functional comities dealing with statistics, population, status of women, narcotics, social development, human rights. It consists of 54 members elected be the GA.
The Trusteeship Council (TC). The function of the TC is to supervise the administration of the Trust Territories. The main objectives of the UN trusteeship are to promote the political, economic, social and educational advancement of the inhabitants of the Trust Territories and their progressive development towards self-government or independence. Under the guidance of the TC 10 of the 11 Trust Territories have gained their independence. (The original 11 Trust Territories included former colonies located primarily in Africa and the Pacific. By the early 1990s only 1 Trusteeship remained – the Palau Aland Group administered by the US).
The International Court of Justice, popularly known as the World Court, is the principal judicial organ of the UN. The court’s decisions are binding. It may give advisory opinions at the request of the GA or the SC or at the request of other organs and specialized agencies authorized by the GA.
The 15 judges of the court are elected by the GA and SC. No 2 judges may be nationals of the same state. They serve for 9 years and are eligible for re-election.
The Secretariat services the other organs of the UN and administers the programmes and polices laid down by them. It is headed by the Secretary-general, who is appointed for a 5-year term (and may be reappointed) by the GA on the recommendation of the SC.
Advantages and disadvantages of the British and American system of education
According to the world university rankings compiled by the Times Higher Education, more than half of the world’s top 200 universities are located in either the US or the UK. Both countries share a rich tradition of quality higher education, excellent research facilities, and a culture that promotes intellectualism as well as academic freedom. However, while both certainly provide an excellent environment for learning, there are many differences between the two countries regarding the structure of the university as well as student life. In this article, we will explore the primary differences between the American and British systems of education.
Length of Time
Perhaps the most important difference between the education system in the US and the UK is the amount of time it takes to finish your degree (except in Scotland, where a bachelor’s degree also lasts four years). In general, degree programs in the US take about one year longer than programs in the UK, although this varies depending upon whether you receive a Master’s degree prior to a PhD. In both systems, you can go directly to a PhD program out of your undergraduate program, but in the UK it is more common to complete a Master’s degree program before moving on to a PhD. Courses of study are shorter in the UK because the course programs are generally much more focused than in the US.
Most universities in the US begin their terms in mid to late August, although smaller liberal arts colleges may start later. Most take a rather lengthy break beginning in mid-December and begin the second semester in early to mid-January. However, universities that are on different calendars, such as a trimester or quarter-based system, may begin their winter break at the Thanksgiving holiday, which falls at the end of November. The academic term in the UK is a bit more varied. While most also use the semester system, the trimester and quarter systems are used in some universities. Many schools start in September or October and end in May or June, making for a slightly longer academic year. However, the academic term is less standardized throughout the United Kingdom; if you choose to study there, your university might use a much different calendar.
Many universities in the UK are made up of “colleges” which are dedicated to a specific subject matter. While the colleges are still governed by the university, each college has quite a lot of autonomy from each other as well as the university itself. You live with others in your college, eat with others from your college, and generally stay within your college for the duration of your studies. Rather than applying to the central university admissions department, like you do in the US, you either apply directly to the college of the subject you want to study, or in the case of undergraduate programs, you apply through a centralized system which allows you to apply to several colleges at once. This system is called the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service, or UCAS. This means that you have to know what you want to study before you even apply.
By contrast, in the US, you apply to the larger university and for the first year or more, you take courses from a variety of fields and only declare a major at the end of the first year or perhaps even during the second year. American universities have different “schools,” or departments, such as the School of Arts and Sciences, which houses a number of related majors. However, even after you declare a major at an American university, you are still expected to take classes outside of that field, known as “electives.” For this reason, we can say that the general emphasis of higher education in the US is breadth, or getting a range of knowledge from a variety of different subjects. In the UK, the emphasis is more on depth; getting a very thorough understanding of your chosen subject.
Homework and Grades
Because the US system emphasizes breadth, courses require weekly or even biweekly readings as well as other assignments such as small writing projects, major research papers, and oral presentations throughout the course. In the UK, most schools are much more lecture-based, with only occasional assignments throughout the semester. In some cases, there may be no actual required assignments and instead your entire grade may be based on one final exam. In the US, your grade will be based on your performance on the variety of assignments, with a final exam making up only a percentage of your total grade.
The cost of education in both countries is far from cheap, but the cost of an education in the United States is generally higher. According to a law passed in 2012, universities in England may charge up to £9000 (approximately $14,300) per year. Of course, this applies only to citizens of the UK and the EU, not international students. Fees for international students can be significantly higher. The government sets the limits for tuition fees, and each individual school sets its own fee up to that limit.
By contrast, the government has very little control over what universities charge in the United States. The US differentiates between in-state tuition fees and out-of-state tuition fees, as well as between private and public universities. These distinctions determine the tuition fee. The average tuition fee for public two-year institutions is around $3000 per year, while the average fee for private four-year institutions is around $29,000 per year. Finally, some private four-year institutions can cost up to $50,000 per year. In order to help students cover the cost of tuition in both countries, loans are available through the government with favorable terms and interest rates. Visit our Financial Aid Center for more information about financing your education in the US.
Both countries provide students with residence halls in which to live. They are roughly equivalent, although in the UK it is more normal to have a bedroom by yourself, whereas in the US, you may very well share a bedroom with at least one other person. However, after the first year, students in the US may have additional housing options available to them, such as private housing or off-campus housing. It is also more common for dormitories to be self-catered in the UK, while the US normally provides a range of full dining options for its students. One potentially significant difference is that maid service is common in the residence halls in the UK, although students pay a nominal fee for this service.
While both countries provide a great education, each system approaches education slightly differently, and there are advantages and disadvantages to each. If you are considering getting your education in either the US or the UK, you should take into consideration the various differences mentioned in this article, especially the amount of time it takes to finish the degree, the tuition fees and whether you prefer more depth or more breadth in your degree program.
Visit our Study Centers to learn more about studying in the United Kingdom and the United States.
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