a) спасательная шлюпка b) моторная лодка c) плот


a) надстройка b) полубак c) ют


a) привод b) руль c) трос

Double bottom tank

a) танк двойного дна b) двойная цистерна c) второй танк


a) грузовая марка b) осадка c) погрузочная линия


a) hold b) poop c) derrick

Грузовые помещения

a) accommodation spaces b) engine room c) cargo spaces

Обшивка корпуса

a) plating shell b) bilge keel c) shell plating

Exercise 8. Look through the text and then decide which statement is TRUE/FALSE.

· In case of flooding the watertight compartments allow a ship to be afloat with a hole.

· Bulkheads are the special decks.

· All the structures below the main deck make up the superstructure.

· Overloading and faulty loading can lead to severe damage of a ship.

· Usually cargo is stowed in the tanks.

The main parts of a ship are the hull, the engines, the propellers, and the rudder. The main body of a ship is called the hull. The hull is the watertight shell of a ship. It is divided into a number of horizontal surfaces called decks. Bulkheads are walls built between the decks, forming compartments. Each compartment has special doors that, when closed, make it watertight. Those dividing up compartments are known as tween decks* on which the cargo rests. If water floods one compartment because of an accident, closing the doors will trap the water there and prevent it from flooding other compartments. Watertight compartments enable a ship to float even with a hole in its hull. The hull is divided into three parts: fore end, mid­ships and after end. The deck at the top of the hull is called the main deck. This deck covers the holds where the cargo is stowed. Several more decks may be above it. All the structures above the main deck make up the superstructure. At the fore end is the forecastle. At the after end the bridge super­structure and the poop are combined.

The ship's position below water must be closely watched. The angle that a ship is making fore and aft with the water is known as trim. The levels are read by numbers painted on the ship's stem and called draught marks. A list or inclination from one side to another, caused by faulty loading, is known as heel. In the course of loading load lines must be watched above all. The load lines are engraved and then painted on the both sides of ships. The divided circle on the left shows the depth to which the ship may be loaded in summer time. Below this line are, on the grid to the right, two lines. The one marked W means winter loading, the lower one marked WNA means the maximum depth to which the ship may be loaded if she is going across the North Atlantic in winter. The other marks above these are: T for tropical, F for fresh water. These lines are shown on the ship's Load Line Certificate. In case of overloading a ship, so that these lines are under water, the penalties are severe.

* the translation of the words in italics can be found in the exercise 1.

Exercise 9. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Чтобы обеспечить прочность и увеличить безопасно­сти плавания корпус судна разделяется во­донепроницаемыми переборками на ряд отсеков.

2. Форпик и ахтерпик используются обычно для приема забортной воды (балласта).

3.Отсеки, предназначенные для приема, воды, жидкого топлива или жидкого груза, называются цистернами или танками.

4. Отсеки судна, расположенные между вторым дном и нижней палубой и предназначенные для перевозки грузов, называются грузовыми трюмами.

5. На грузо­пассажирских судах в твиндеках, расположенных выше грузовой ватерлинии, размещают жилые помещения (accommodation).

VIII. Retell the text, add more of your opinion.





1.1. Key word an expressions to the text.

1. master – капитан (судна)

2. seaworthiness – мореходность, пригодность к плаванию

3. economical operation – экономическая эксплуатация

4. chief officer – старший помощник капитана

5. supervision - надзор

6. officer-in-charge – старший начальник

7. stowage – укладка, размещение

8. to ensure that – обеспечить, чтобы…

9. to comply with – выплнять что-либо, подчиняться кому-либо

10. performance (seamanlike) – исполнение (на уровне хор. морск. практики)

11. operating condition – рабочее состояние

12. life saving appliances – спасательные средства

13. steward department – служба заведующего хозяйством

14. to attend to – обслуживать что-либо, заботиться о чем-либо

15. watchkeeping officer – вахтенный офицер

16. winding – заводка (часов)

17. accurate account – точный (подробный) отчет

18. third mate – третий помощник капитана

19. payroll – платежная ведомость

20. remunaration – вознаграждение (премия)

21. authorized deductions – законные вычеты (удержания)

22. storekeeper – подшкипер

23. A.B.seamen – матрос I-го класса

24. ordinary seamen – матрос II-го класса

25. deck hands – палубная команда

26. mooring operations – швартовые операции

27. standing and running rigging – стоячий и бегущий такелаж

28. swabbing – мытье шваброй, драйка


1.2. Read and translate.

Retell the Text

Спасательные средства

Life-saving appliances


Exercise 1. Read and learn the following words and expressions:


1. reinforced усиленный, укрепленный
2. enclosed закрытый
3. approved одобренный, утвержденный
4. carrying capacity грузоподъёмность, несущая способность
5. to derive from выводить, определить
6. inflammable легко воспламеняющийся
7. buoyancy плавучесть; способность держаться на поверхности воды
8. to wear (wore, worn) одевать, носить
9. to abandon ship покидать судно
10. whistle свисток
11. alleyway коридор
12. self-regulating самовыравнивающийся
13. to capsize переворачиваться
14. lifelines леерные ограждения
15. davit launched life raft плот, спускаемый шлюпбалкой
16. canopy тент, навес
17. fully manned полностью человекоуправляемый
18. gas accumulation газонакопление
19. inclined наклонный
20. inflatable надувной
21. radar responder or the aerial радиолокационный передатчик или антенна
22. rail леер
23. arrangement расположение
24. safety valve предохранительный клапан
25. feed and blowoff поддув и сдув


Exercise 2. Read and translate the text, then be ready to answer the questions and retell it.


Life-saving appliances

Among the collective life-saving appliances the main ones are lifeboats, life rafts and lifebuyos.

There are wooden, steel, aluminium and glass-fibre reinforced plastic lifeboats. There are open, partially enclosed and totally enclosed type. Each type of lifeboats is used nowadays, but modern ships are equipped with glass-fibre reinforced ones because of their high corrosion resistance and low maintenance requirements.

Cargo ships and passenger vessels as well as fishing crafts are equipped with approved life rafts. The number, type and carrying capacity derive from regulations and additional requirements. Life rafts are automatically inflatable and can be launched either automatically thrown overboard or by manually.

Life buoy is a life saving buoy designed to be thrown to a person in the water, to provide buoyancy, to prevent drowning. Some modern life buoys are fitted with a seawater-activated light, or lights, to aid rescue at night. The life buoy usually is ring-shaped or horseshoe-shaped and has a connecting line allowing the casualty to be pulled to the rescuer.

Personal life-saving appliances include lifejackets, immersion suits and some other personal floatation devices (PFD’s in short).

A lifejacket can be made from solid material, plastics, etc. Lifejackets use air or gas to keep the water afloat and must be inflated before they provide buoyancy. Each crewmember should check how a lifejacket is put on and inflated before having to use in emergency. It should be mentioned that inflammable (working) lifejackets will also be required to be worn in certain situations when working at or near the ship’s side or stern and not only before abandoning ship or operating on the open deck under poor weather condition. Standard lifejackets must be orange, yellow or red, and have a whistle attached. The lifejacket is stowed in a cabin wardrobe. Instructions for putting it on are on the inside of the door to the wardrobe and/or on display cards on alleyway bulkheads.

An approved PFD is designed to keep man afloat in the water. PFDs are generally smaller, less bulky and more comfortable than lifejackets. They have less flotation than lifejackets and have limited turning capacity. An inflatable PFD is a type of personal flotation device that either automatically inflates when immersed in water, or is inflated by the wearer using either an oral or manual inflation device. Most inflatable PFDs use a carbon dioxide cartridge to inflate.


Exercise 3. Give brief answers to the following questions:


1. How many types of life-saving appliances do you know? 2. How many lifeboats are on a ship? 3. Where are they located? 3. What type of lifeboats is the most popular nowadays and why? 4. How can life rafts be activated? 5. What do you know about the lifejackets? 6. Where is lifejacket stored? 7. When should lifejacket be used? 8. What does the abbreviation PFD mean? 9. What document regulates the lifesaving appliance list? 10. Why should any crewmember know everything about the life-saving appliances and their operation?

Exercise 4. Give equivalents:


· in Russian: life raft, enclosed lifeboat, to lower lifeboat, inflammable life raft, to put on lifejacket, afloat, to stow, under fair weather conditions, attached to, to immerse, flotation, to pull side-tapes down, manual inflation device, to ensure, ring-shaped, PFD, abandoning ship, to be belted, to launch lifeboat, under poor weather conditions, temperature range, alleyway bulkhead, to be inflated;


· in English: гидрокостюм для погружения, открытая шлюпка, надеть спасательный жилет, спустить шлюпку, клапан поддува, опрокидываться, шлюпбалка, отвечать требованиям, спасательный леер, приводить в движение, камера плавучести, быть рассчитанным, спасательный надувной плот, обслуживание, предохранительный клапан, зависеть от, малые суда, сбросить на воду, быть оснащенным.


Exercise 5. Match the answer with the question.


Question Answer
What advantages have totally enclosed lifeboats? a Approved ones are life rafts thrown overboard type, life rafts davit launched type and life rafts without any protection.
Why should a lifeboat leave the damaged ship as quickly as possible? b The weight of a life raft lies between 100 kg and 185 kg, it withstands all weather conditions at sea for 30 days, and it is operable over an air temperature range – 30 and +60 degrees of Celsius.
What kinds of life rafts are approved? c Instructions for putting them on are on the inside of the door to the wardrobe and/or on display cards on alleyway bulkheads
Where life rafts usually stowed? d Totally enclosed boats are self-righting.
How are life rafts packed? e The biggest danger to the boat and its occupant comes from the damaged and sinking ship itself by its capsizing and by explosions etc.
What are the main characteristics of life rafts? f Life rafts are packed tightly folded in plastic containers.
Where can instructions for putting on lifejackets be found out? g Life rafts are almost always stowed on swinging-out storage frames, inclined ramps or equipment appliances.



Exercise 6. Read an abstract of the conversation between Port Inspector and Watch officer and then make up your own dialogue.


A: I am authorized to inspect your ship’s safety equipment. Show me your ship’s International Certificate issued to you under SOLAS Convention.

B: Here you are. I think everything is all right, as we were surveyed only a year ago.

A: Let me have a look. Well, all certificates are valid. And now if you don’t mind I’d like to make survey of your ship’s safety equipment. Will you show me to the boat-deck?

B: This way, please. We are on the boat-deck.

A: I see all boats are available here and provided with proper supplies and equipment. You’ve got only 7 life buoys, but under SOLAS Convention you are to have 8 ones. You should get the missing life buoy within 1-2 days through your agent.

B: So it will not delay our departure, won’t it?

A: Certainly, it won’t. I’ll visit you before the ship’s departure and check the availability of all lifesaving appliances once more.

B: Good. Settled.

Exercise 7. Choose the right variant.


1. Replace the life raft ___ the next port. a) within b) in c) through d) from


2. Jump ___ the water and board the life raft. a) near b) off c) into d) above


3. The life buoys are ____ the deck railing. a) through b) on c) from d) in


4. ___ each other when entering lifeboat.

a) Are not pushing b) Have not pushed c) Do not push d) Does not push


5. ____ the new crew members instructed on occupational safety?

a) Has b) Had c) Are d) Is


6. You ___ your immersion suit. a) brings b) is bringing c) must bring d) to bring


7. ____ to your lifeboat stations. a) To go b) Go c) Goes d) Going


8. Lifejackets _____ in your cabins. a) storing b) to store c) are stored d) is stored


9. Only twelve people ____ in the lifeboat. a) is fitting b) can be fitting c) fits d) can fit


10. The safety manuals ____ last month.

a) issued b) has been issued c) was issued d) were issued


Exercise 8. Choose one of the texts and translate it.

Types of Lifeboats

There are several types of lifeboats that are used on large and small ships. The material of this safety equipment can be wood, steel or aluminum, plastics and even rubber. Wooden or metal lifeboats require significant maintenance. Metal boats tend to corrode quickly if neglected, wooden ones can dry out and then become leaky. Glass-fiber reinforced plastic lifeboats on the other hand have a high corrosion resistance and a low maintenance requirement. For that reason, almost all lifeboats built nowadays are of GRP.

Let’s speak about other classification of lifeboats. There are open, partially enclosed and totally enclosed types. Totally enclosed lifeboats are self-regulating if all openings are closed watertight and the persons on board are belted into their seats. That is the normal condition even at launch. If a totally enclosed boat capsizes with the across or ventilation openings open it still possible to leave it above water. In open lifeboats everyone holds onto the lifelines. Before climbing into free-fall boats, lifejackets are taken off and stowed in the boat.

Partially enclosed lifeboats are also used, particularly on passenger vessels. They are not suitable for free-fall launching.

Free-fall boats are totally enclosed lifeboats stowed on specially designed launching appliance at the stern.

Rescue boats may be of rigid or inflatable construction or of combination of both. Rescue boats have either an inboard or an outboard motor. That enables them to achieve a speed of at least 6 knots running and 2 knots towing.


Life Rafts

Each ship no matter its size is equipped with approved life rafts. Regulations and some additional requirements determine the number, type and carrying capacity of such a safety equipment.

There are different life rafts, they are thrown overboard type, davit launched type and large life rafts without any protective canopy and usable either way up.

Life rafts are automatically inflammable. For launching they may be thrown overboard or designed and positioned near launching appliances for launching fully manned.

All life rafts are so installed that they can be launched quickly, securely and safely – if possible by one man – even with 20° list, over the high side. For that reason life rafts are nowadays almost always stowed on swinging-out storage frames, inclined ramps or equivalent appliances.

Depending on the size of the raft the weight of a life raft including its packing and full distress equipment lies between 100 kg and 185 kg.

Every inflatable life raft afloat withstands all weather conditions at sea for 30 days. It can be thrown into water in its container and it has adequate stability in a seaway when inflated, the floor is waterproof and can be inflated for installation against cold. Life raft has a light on the top, inside and outside, an arrangement for collecting rainwater and a fitting for the radar responder or the aerial of the portable radio apparatus.


* the translation of the words in italics can be found in the exercise 1.


Look through the texts once more and complete the following sentences:


1. Nowadays most of lifeboats are of …

2. Partially enclosed lifeboats are not suitable…

3. Rescue boats can in calm water reach speeds of …

4. For launching life rafts they may be …

5. The main characteristics of the life rafts …


Exercise 9. Translate the sentences into English


1. Спасательная шлюпка должна отвечать всем требованиям, предъявляемым Морским регистром.

2. Открытые шлюпки приводятся в движение с помощью двигателя и вдоль бортов шлюпки протянуты спасательные леера с деревянными или пластмассовыми ручками, за которые может ухватиться человек, находящийся в воде.

3. При опрокидывании закрытая шлюпка самостоятельно возвращается в нормальное положение.

4. Спасательный надувной плот состоит из основной камеры плавучести овальной формы, разделенной посредине на две равные по объему автономные секции.

5. Плоты рассчитаны на 6 или 10 человек, они с наружной и внутренней сторон окрашены в оранжевый цвет.

6. На внутренней стороне тента помещены: инструкция по первоочередному обслуживанию плота, схема расположения клапанов (предохранительных, поддува и сдува) и знаки азбуки Морзе.

7. В случае аварии плот сбрасывается на воду, где с помощью механизма газонаполнения в течение нескольких минут приводится в рабочее состояние.

8. Спасательные шлюпки изготавливаются из металла или стеклопластика.

9. Современные суда оснащены только закрытыми шлюпками.

10. Спасательные плоты - очень эффективное спасательное средство, а на малых судах - основное.

11. Количество спасательных кругов зависит от длины судна.

12. Применение надувных жилетов на танкерах и пассажирских судах не допускается.

Exercise 10. Get ready to speak about life-saving appliances.


Общесудовые учения

General Drills


Exercise 1. Read and learn the following words and expressions:


1. general drills общесудовые учения
2. to excuse (from) освобождать от (работы, обязанности)
3. muster list расписание по постам (на случай аварийной или пожарной тревоги и шлюпочных учений)
4. emergency station аварийный пост
5. crew on watch/watchkeepers члены экипажа, находящиеся на вахте/вахтенные
6. fire drills пожарные учения
7. boat drills шлюпочные учения
8. life raft спасательный плот
9. life buoy спасательный буй
10. lifejacket , immersion suit спасательный жилет, гидрокостюм для погружения
11. general alarm bell общесудовой сигнал тревоги
12. to extinguish, extinguisher тушить, огнетушитель
13. Emergency squad аварийная команда/партия
14. port иллюминатор, лацпорт
15. air shaft вентиляционная шахта
16. fan, blower вентилятор, воздуходувка или компрессор
17. fire hose пожарный шланг
18. to lead out разносить
19. affected area аварийная зона
20. rank должность, звание
21. fire and emergency station пост по пожарному и аварийному расписанию
22. embarkation ladder посадочный трап (шторм-трап)
23. general announcing system общесудовая система оповещения
24. to stand by стоять наготове, приготовиться к
25. boat stations места по расписанию по шлюпочной тревоге

Exercise 2. Read and translate the text, paying attention to the words in italics.


General Drills

General drills aboard ship are designed to prepare the crew to handle emergencies. By using a standard system of drills it is possible for a sailor to move from one ship to another and know what to do in an emergency. Any crewmember should know where his station is and what his duty is for each drill or emergency. This information is stated on the Muster List.

No one is excused from any drill unless permission has been granted by the department head. All crewmembers must familiarize themselves with the location and duties of their emergency stations upon reporting on board. Each crewmember is provided with an individual muster list card, which shows in detail the special duties to perform. Watchkeepers will remain on watch on signal to Emergency Drill.

Depending on the ship’s type and company’s safety policy fire drills are held once a week or once a month. The main function of each drill is to check the state of fire-fighting equipment and to improve the skills of the crewmembers during such an emergency. Fire drills are normally held in conjunction with boat drills.

During boat drills the special attention should be paid to the location of all lifeboats, life rafts, lifebuyos and lifejackets on board. Each boat drill must be entered in the logbook.

Any crewmembers must consult the Muster List immediately upon joining the ship.

It should be mentioned that all crewmembers must be instructed in the performance of their special duties. So, drills are held to train seaman to cope with real emergencies.


Exercise 3. Give brief answers to the following questions:

1. What is the function of general drills? 2. Where can any crewmember find any information about emergencies and his behaviour during them? 3. Who can leave a crewmember from participating in the drills? 4. Should you find out the particularities of new ship and its organization, if you join the ship? 5. Does crew on watch take part in the drills? 6. How many types of drills do you know? 7. What is the function of fire drills? 8. How often is fire drill carried out? 9. What is the equipment that is used during boat drills? 10. What is the main thing that should be mentioned about boat drills? 11. What is the logbook? 12. How often are boat drills carried out? 13. What is the difference between lifeboats and life rafts, if any? 14. Where are the lifejackets stored? 15. What do you know about the fire-fighting equipment?

Exercise 4. Give equivalents:


· in Russian: life rafts, to be on watch, joining the ship, general announcing system, oiler, rank, officer in charge of, to familiarize oneself, wiper, muster list, to be instructed, to grant permission, department head, boat station, ordinary seaman, to ensure, fire extinguisher, to lead out, helmsman, to keep the watch, boat drills, to give the alarm, emergency station;


· in English: шлюпочные учения, спустить шлюпку, пожаротушения, карточка со сведениями из аварийного расписания, общесудовая система оповещения, тревога, спасательный плот, разнести пожарный шланг, принимать участие в общесудовых учениях, получить разрешение, вахтенный, каюта, аварийный трап, иллюминатор, одеть спасательный жилет, поднять шлюпку, сделать запись в судовой журнал, покидать судно, спасательный буй, аварийный пост, ознакомиться с, освобождать от.


Exercise 5. Match the term with its definition.


term definition
1. muster or emergency station a. It’s the place assigned to crew where they have to meet before they will be ordered to enter the lifeboats.
2. boat station b. A sound signal of seven blasts and one long blast given with the vessel’s sound system. This alarm is sounded to make aware the crew on board that an emergency has occurred.
3. blast c. It is sounded as continuous ringing of ship’s electrical bell or continuous sounding of ship’s horn.
4. fire alarm d. Place on deck that is assigned to crew where they have to meet according to the muster list when the corresponding alarm is released or announcement made
5. general emergency alarm e. A sound signal made with the whistle of the vessel.



Exercise 6. Read the dialogue and then make up your own one.


A: You joined our ship only two days ago. A crewmember should be ready for general drills.

B: Thanks for your help. I have already got and learned my muster list card. But…

A: First of all, the locations of lifejackets and lifeboats should be known. Check the best way to get muster station and be ready to use fire extinguisher.

B: I see. By the way, how often are boat drills carried out?

A: They should be held with fire drills, but in practice we’ll take part in fire drills once a week, in boat drills and the exercise of man overboard one time in four months or when more than 5 crewmembers join the ship.

B: It means that next Sunday as far as I know next fire drill will be held together with boat drill.

A: yes, you are right.

Exercise 7. Choose the right variant.


1. ____ the last man-overboard drill? a) Where are b) How is c) Why was d) When was
2. Is extra power available _____ an emergency? a) above b) near c) in d) within
3. _____ the company’s safety manual? a) Have read b) Read c) Have you read d) Read you
4. Have fire patrols ready ____ all areas. a) through b) in c)over d)with
5. Operate the lifeboat engine and then ___ back to the bridge. a) reported b) report c)reporting d)to report
6. ____ fire extinguishers are in the galley? a) How long b) How far c) How much d) How many
7. Some fires _____ because of electrical faults. a) occurs b) occur c) occurring d) does occur
8. ____ did the accident happen? a) That b) Which c) Who d) What time
9. Switch ___ the fire alarms. a) at b) from c)near d) off
10. Smoke is coming ____ the engine room. a) from b) for c) between d) on


Exercise 8. Choose one of the texts and translate it, then answer the questions. Be ready to make a brief report about the main sense of the text.


· What is the main function of the drills?

· What equipment is used during the drills?

· Who is responsible for the equipment?

· How often are the drills carried out?

· What is the signal to the beginning of the drills?


Text A. Fire Drills

Alarm for a real fire may be given at any time and it will be rapid ringing of the General Alarm Bells for a period of at least 10 seconds. An announcement is made twice over general announcing system.

For drill purposes, a fire may be in a specific place. The person who discovers an actual fire must give the alarm. Once the alarm has sounded personnel nearby should act to check or extinguish the fire. All other crewmembers respond to the alarm in accordance with the Muster List.

Emergency squad or party will assemble with equipment immediately upon the Emergency Signal. Fire pumps must be started, all watertight doors, ports and air shafts must be closed, and all fans and blowers stopped. Fire hose must be led out in the affected area.

All fire-fighting equipment must be kept in good operating condition ready for immediate use. The deck department is responsible for the maintenance and care, inspection and refilling of all portable fire-fighting equipment: fire extinguishers, fire hoses, fire nozzles, etc. The engine department is responsible for the maintenance and care of all fixed fire-fighting systems, fire pumps, fire mains and fire hydrants and sand boxes in the boiler rooms. This equipment includes piping, valves, bottles, controls and alarms.

Fire drills are held weekly or monthly depending on the ship’s safety and company’s safety policy. At each drill, the crew is instructed in the proper use of the various types of fire-fighting equipment.


Text B. Boat Drills

According the regulations boat drills should be held just before the departure of the ship, especially if new crewmembers have embarked, and at sea at least once a week.

During boat drills new crewmembers are familiarized with the working of the life-saving equipment and each seaman has an opportunity to improve his skills. The Third Officer is in charge of the life-saving equipment. From time to time some drills should be held with the life saving equipment, such as lowering a lifeboat in the water. Crewmembers test the engines in the lifeboatsand check the emergency radio equipment in the lifeboat. Also they are shown video’s about the use of the life rafts and demonstrated the use of marine pyrotechnics.

Upon emergency signal the crewmembers should go to the muster station, where the tasks and instructions are made by the officer in charge. He determines the order in which seamen embark.

Drills are to be carried out under the best possible conditions for supervision in still water. Boat drills are if possible to be held when the ship is loaded to its deepest draft. That above all reduces the danger form the propeller. Everyone in the boat wears an immersion suit or lifejacket. RT communication using VHF radiotelephones is established between the bridge and the officer in charge of the drill and is maintained throughout the drill.


* the translation of the words in italics can be found in the exercise 1.


Exercise 9. Study the abstracts of muster list with the help of the dictionary. Lean by heart the name of the emergency stations and duties of the crewmembers.

Muster List (extract)

Rank Fire and Emergency Station and Duty
Deck Department
Boatswain Emergency squad. Provide life line.
Helmsman On the bridge. Relieve the wheelman.
Helmsman Emergency squad. Provide fire extinguisher.
Able Seaman Emergency squad. Provide extra length of hose and spanner.
Able Seaman Main deck forward fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose.
Ordinary Seaman On the bridge. Act as a messenger.
Ordinary Seaman Boat deck fire hydrants. Stand by to lead out hose.
Engine Department
Oiler Engine room. Assist at fire pumps.
Oiler Engine room. Stand by with foam fire extinguisher.
Wiper Main deck amidships. Outside fire hydrants. Starboard side. Stand by and assist.


life line – спасательный леер

length of hose – кусок/отрезок пожарного рукава

fire hydrant – пожарный кран

spanner – гаечный ключ

messenger - посыльный

foam extinguisher – пенный огнетушитель


Actions in Emergencies

An emergency situation on ship must be handled with confidence and calmness, for haste decisions and “jumping to conclusions” can make the matters even worse. Efficient tackling of emergency situations can be achieved by continuous training and by practical drills onboard vessel. However, it has been seen that in spite of adequate training, people get panic attacks and eventually do not do what they should in an emergency situation.

As far as the seafarer is concerned, first and foremost, he or she must be aware of the different types of emergency situations that can arise on board ship. This would help in understanding the real scenario in a better way, and would also lead to taking correct actions to save life, property, and environment.

Officers and crew should familiarize themselves thoroughly with the Fire Training Manual and the training manual on Life Saving Appliances of the ship.

A ship crew must be prepared all the time to tackle and fight against any kind of emergencies which can arise due to reasons such as rough weather, machinery malfunction, pirate attack, human error etc. Such emergencies can lead to fire, collision, flooding, grounding, environmental pollution, and loss of life. To stress the importance of training for different emergency procedures and duties of personnel, muster list is provided onboard ship.

It should be mentioned that different teams are made to tackle emergencies like fire, flooding etc. these are command team that is operated from bridge, emergency team 1 that operates at the point of scenario, while emergency team 2 is a standby team and helping hand for emergency team 1. And also there are two more special groups such as roving commission that is a team working along with all other team and engine room team that stands by in engine control room (ECR).

The muster list is posted to keep the crew aware of the different emergency situations and duties to be performed if such situations occur in reality. Some of the important areas where the muster list is posted are bridge, engine, and accommodation alleyways etc., areas where ship’s crew spends the maximum of their time.


Exercise 3. Give brief answers to the following questions:


1. What emergency situations do you know? 2. Where can the crewmembers find out about their duties in emergency and types of alarms? 3. What is “emergency team”? 4. Where is the muster list posted? 5. What manuals should any crewmember look through regularly? 6. What kinds of trainings can be carried out? 7. What are the possible reasons of emergencies?

Exercise 4. Give equivalents:


· in Russian: emergency team, to tackle emergency, alleyway, life saving appliances, search and rescue manual, to inform the bridge, officer on watch, to give the alarm, muster list, prescribed actions, accommodations, engine control room, equipment malfunction, collision, proper actions to be taken, dedicated alarm, to throw life buoy, to hoist and launch lifeboat;


· in English: штатное расписание, механизмы в исправном состоянии, выполнять распоряжения, спускать спасательную шлюпку, сообщить на мостик, одеть спасательные жилеты, содержать судовое оборудование в рабочем состоянии, нападение пиратов, бросить спасательный круг, расположение огнетушителей, предотвращать загрязнение окружающей среды, не создавать паники, человек за бортом, различать сигналы тревог, короткий сигнал, длинный гудок.


Exercise 5. Match the type of the alarms and the actions in this particular kind of emergency.


Type of the alarms The actions in emergency
1. a general alarm a. All Ship Engineers Should assemble in the Engine Control Room.
2. a fire alarm b. Chief Engineer should be called immediately and general alarm should be raised. Immediate action should be taken in preventing more sea water to enter the engine room and Emergency bilging from the engine room should be established in accordance with the Chief Engineer.
3. Man Over Board signal c. raise the Fire/General alarm as soon as possible. Try to stop fire and if it is not possible, muster according to the Fire Muster List
4. Abandon Ship signal d. in this case Master must be informed immediately. All precaution must be taken to contain the flooding to that hold. General alarm must be raised.
5. Engineers Call e. immediate action should be taken according to the vessel’s “Shipboard Oil Pollution Prevention Plan”. Emergency Plan (SOPEP) and Onboard SOPEP Equipment located in deck stores should be used in case of Oil Spill.
6. CO2 alarm f. Inform Officer On Watch. Check if it is a false or true alarm and report back of findings.
7. Engine Room Flooding g. call for help either by using the phone or by activating the emergency call. Whatever might be the situation, keep the Master, Chief Engineer and Officer on Watch informed of the situation all the time.
8. Cargo Hold Flooding h. leave the engine room immediately.
9. In case of any oil spill/pollution i. Rush to the deck and try to locate the crew member fallen in the water and throw lifebuoy and inform deck.
10. In case of fire k. Rush to the muster station. Carry as much ration, water, and warm clothing as you can carry. Act according to the vessel’s Muster Lists.
11. In case of any other emergency situations l. Rush to muster station with life jacket, immersion suit, and act according to the vessel’s Muster Lists. Act as per the emergency explained by the in charge officer.


Exercise 6. Read the dialogue and then make up your own one.


A: What should be done on receiving a distress report from a ship?

B: The ships management is to establish at once whether assistance can be provided. Then the course of the ship will be laid for the distress position and the ship heads with all possible speed to the place of the disaster.

A: What precautions can be considered and made aboard the salvage vessel in regard to the shipwrecked?

B: Compartments are prepared for accommodating the shipwrecked, blankets and dry clothing are placed ready. The galley prepares warming food. The sickbay is prepared for looking after injured or sick persons.

A: Where are the details of the procedures to be used described?

B: In the “Search and Rescue” manual which is on the bridge.

Use the words and expressions:

1) a man has fallen overboard (to throw a life buoy, to take care not to hit him, to sound the alarm signal, to lower lifeboat, to inform the Master, to send for a doctor, to render first aid)

2) unknown vessel is asking for help after the collision (to respond to SOS distress call, to break off the voyage, to proceed to the place of the disaster, to take command of search and rescue)

Exercise 7. Choose the right variant.


1. The muster list must be promptly updated when ___ crew changes. a) have c) there are
b) are there d) are
2. The Master must place in charge of each boat and life raft a deck officer and also _____ a second in command. a) designates c) designating
b) designated d) designate
3. The Master should ensure the boat carrying the lifeboat radio has at least one crewman able _____ this equipment. a) will operate c) operates
b) to operate d) operate
4. A life buoy or a life jacket will help the man overboard to survive until he ____. a) is rescued c) will be rescu
b) will rescue d) be rescued
5. The Master decides when the ship is abandoned and if necessary he ____ a distress message to other ships. a) sends c) will send
b) is sent d) will be sent
6. Any drills _____ to prepare the crew to handle emergency. a) are designed c) that designed
b) is designed d) is designing
7. Any crewmember is ______ with an individual muster list card that shows the special duties to perform. a) providing c) provided
b) provides d) be provided

Exercise 8. Look through the text and then decide which statement is TRUE/FALSE.


1. The special signal should be given in such an emergency.

2. Once a crewmember informs the bridge about the fallen person, he can be free.

3. The main concern is the location of a person overboard.

4. The ship should stop and not to move, because the fallen man will swim to it.

5. No flag should be hoisted in order not to distract another ship.


Man overboard

Man overboard is a situation where in a ship’s crew member falls out at sea from the ship, no matter where the ship is sailing, in open seas or in still waters in port. A seafarer has to be very careful while performing his duties onboard vessel as a person can fall off the ship due to bad weather, swell in the sea, accidents, and due to negligence during. A man overboard is an emergency situation and it is very important to locate and recover the person as soon as possible as due to bad weather or rough sea, the crew member can drown or else due to temperature of the cold water the person can get hypothermia. A person will get unconscious after 15 minutes in water with temperature of 5 ̊ C.

There is a dedicated alarm signal used onboard vessels and is same for all entire vessels sailing in international waters. Three prolong blast on the ship’s electrical bell and ship’s whistle is an alarm signal used for man overboard emergency situation. The first and foremost thing is Never to lose the sight of fallen person and inform others onboard by shouting “Man overboard” along with side of the ship i.e. port or starboard side until someone informs the bridge and raises an alarm.

As soon as bridge officer knows the situation, raise the ‘man overboard alarm’ and hoist signal flag “O” to inform all the ship staff and other ships about the vicinity. Throw a lifebuoy with smoke float, light (and SART if available) near to the fallen person. Ship’s engine must be slowed down and ship should be turned toward the fallen crew for recovery manoeuvre. Engine is to be on stand by all the time.



Exercise 9. Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. Regular training and drill must be conducted by the master of the ship to ensure that all crew members are familiar with life saving and fire fighting appliances.

2. A muster list is basically a list which is displayed in prominent areas of the vessel so that every crew member on onboard can read it on a go.

3. If someone falls overboard, you should shout “Man Overboard” and throw him a life buoy.

4. To tackle any emergency efficiently and fast, it’s necessary to inform the bridge and the watchkeeping officer as soon as possible.

5. If you get overboard get clear of the ship and continue shouting and splashing water as long as there is a chance that you will be heard and seen, then swim on your back to keep your body warm.

6. Life jackets and where appropriate, immersion suits, should be worn by the rescue boat crew.

7. If for some reason a ship is going to sink the crew must abandon it, but only the master can decide when and if the ship will be abandoned.


Exercise 10. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Предотвращение возникновения аварийных ситуаций является самой важной задачей экипажа судна, для этого экипажу следует соблюдать меры предупреждения, содержать судно, его устройства и оборудование в рабочем состоянии и проводить тренировки.

2. Каждой тревоге соответствует свой сигнал, сигналы тревог повторяются 3-4 раза и дублируются голосом капитана или вахтенным помощником.

3. Существует несколько видов тревог – Человек за бортом, шлюпочная тревога, химическая и нападение пиратов, однако, самыми основными являются первые две из перечисленных и общесудовая тревога.

4. В аварийных ситуациях действия членов экипажа, находящихся на вахте, определяются судовыми расписаниями и распоряжениями капитана, судовым расписанием указываются обязанности экипажа по каждому виду судовых тревог и тип одежды и снаряжения.

5. Каждый член экипажа обязан знать устройство и особенности судна, расположение всех спасательных средств и противопожарного оборудования, свои обязанности и действия по тревогам.

6. Три длинных сигнала означает тревогу «Человек за бортом», все не занятые на вахте обязаны встать по местам штатного расписания по шлюпочной тревоге, остальные поднимаются на ют и выполняют распоряжения старшего вахтенного офицера.

7. В случаях, не оговоренных в других тревогах (пожар, поступление воды, и др.), прозвучит общесудовая тревога – непрерывный сигнал в течение 25-20 секунд, а все аварийные действия будут начаты аварийной партией.

8. Сигнал из семи коротких и одного длинного означает шлюпочную тревогу, причиной является оставление судна экипажем, поэтому следует встать на места согласно штатному расписанию по данному виду тревоги или подняться на полуют, необходимо быть в спасательном жилете и со своими документами.

9. Учебные тревоги подаются с разрешения капитана и предваряются (to be anticipated) словом «Учебная», по всем тревогам, кроме шлюпочной и «Человек за бортом», экипаж жилеты не надевает, но обязательно подносит их к месту сбора.

10. На занятиях изучают устройство судна, организацию и средства борьбы с пожаром на других судах и т.п., кроме этого, важное значение придается тренировкам экипажа по борьбе с водой, которые должны проводиться в разное время суток.



Типы судов

Types of ships


Exercise 1. Read and learn the following words and expressions:


1. general cargo ship судно для перевозки генерального груза
2. dry bulk carrier судно для перевозки навалочного груза (балкер)
3. multipurpose ship судно многоцелевого назначения
4. liquid cargo жидкий груз
5. LASH ships лихтеровоз
6. freighter 1. фрахтователь, 2. грузовое судно
7. (seagoing) lighters (морской) лихтер, портовая баржа
8. to stack (upon) складывать, помещать (один на один)
9. to carry/to haul перевозить, транспортировать
10. in bulk/loose насыпью, навалом или наливом
11. shipper грузоотправитель
12. liner лайнер, пароход, совершающий регулярные рейсы
13. tramp трамповое судно (грузовое судно, не работающее на определенных рейсах)
14. schedule расписание, график, план, режим
15. deep-sea or short sea tramp трамповое судно дальнего или прибрежного плавания
16. shipping companies судоходная (транспортная) компания
17. to tow, tug буксировать; буксир
18. to submerge погружать(ся), затоплять
19. derelicts and wrecks фрагменты и обломки судна
20. obstacle препятствие
21. cell ячейка
22. perishable goods скоропортящиеся товары
23. ramp аппарель, пандус, наклонный въезд или съезд
24. coaster каботажное судно
25. cargo handling equipment/gear Оборудование для обработки груза


Exercise 2. Read and translate the text, paying attention to the words in italics.


Classification of cargo ships


Cargo ships, or freighters, can be divided into four groups, according to the kind of cargo they carry. These groups are (1) general cargo ships, (2) tankers, (3) dry bulk carriers, and (4) multi­purpose ships. General cargo ships, carry what are called "packaged" items - goods that are put in packages or that form a package in themselves. Packaged items include such products as chemi­cals, foods, furniture, machinery, motor vehicles, shoes, steel, textiles, and whiskey. The traditional cargo ships include container ships, roll-on/roll-off ships, and LASH ships. LASH ships are huge freighters that carry preloaded seagoing lighters (barges) stacked one upon the other. The term LASH stands for Lighter Aboard Ship. LASH ships can hold from 70 to 90 barges, each of which can carry 370 tons (336 metric tons) of cargo. Tankers carry oil or other liquid cargo. Dry bulk carriers haul coal, grain, iron ore, and similar products that can be loaded in bulk(loose) on the vessels. Multipurpose ships carry different classes of cargo - for example, liquid and general cargo - at the same time.

Cargo ships can also be divided into two types according to the service they offer shippers— liner service or tramp service. Cargo liners run on fixed schedules along certain trade routes and charge published rates. They usually transport only general cargo. Some cargo liners also carry passengers. Those that carry more than 12 passengers are called combinationor passenger-cargo ships. Tramp ships do not sail on regular trade routes or have regular schedules. They can be hired to haul almost anything, anywhere, anytime. Tramps can be classed as deep-sea or short-sea tramps. Some of them are classed as coasters. They ply on coastal routes and up rivers to inland ports. Small shipping companies and private individuals op­erate these ships.

Exercise 3. Give brief answers to the following questions:

1. What are the main types of cargo ships?

2. What are tankers used for?

3. What are general cargo ship?

4. What are multipurpose ships used for?

5. What are tramp ships?

6. What is the difference between cargo liners and tramps?

7. What types of tramps do you know?

8. How is containerised cargo loaded and unloaded?

9. What are some advantages of containerisation?


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