РАЗВИТИЕ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

РАЗВИТИЕ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ



РАЗВИТИЕ НАВЫКОВ УСТНОЙ РЕЧИ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

 

TOPICAL MATERIALS FOR CREATIVE

PRESENTATION

 

Рекомендовано УМО по образованию

в области информатики и радиоэлектроники для специальностей,

закрепленных за УМО в качестве пособия

 

 

Минск БГУИР 2015

УДК 811.111(076)

ББК 81.2Англ я73

Р17

 

А в т о р ы:

М. В. Ладыженко, Л. С. Карпик, Р.Т. Максимчук, Е. В. Барановская,

Т. В. Булавская, О. В. Пинчук, Л. Е.Синкевич

 

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:

кафедра межкультурной экономической коммуникации учреждения образования «Белорусский государственный экономический университет»,

(протокол №7 от 16.02.2015 г.);

 

доцент кафедры иностранных языков ИУК «Академии управления при Президенте Республики Беларусь», кандидат педагогических наук

О. В. Соколовская

 

 

Р17
Развитие навыков устной речи на английском языке = Topical Materials for Creative Presentation: M. В. Ладыженко [и др.]. – Минск : БГУИР, 2015. – 77 с.

ISBN 978-985-448-884-2

 

Пособие предназначено для студентов первой ступени всех форм обучения. Основной целью является подготовка студентов к практическому владению английским языком в области устной речи по устным темам в соответствии с типовой программой по иностранным языкам.

 

УДК 811.11(076)

ББК 81.2Англ я73

ISBN 978-985-488-884-2 © УО «Белорусский государственный

университет информатики

и радиоэлектроники», 2015

Содержание

 

Предисловие……………………………………………………………………...…..5

 

 

UNIT I: STUDENT’S PROFILE…………………………………………………...6

 

Text A. My Daily Routine……………………………………………………….…..7

Text B. Tech Addiction Harms Learning…………………………………………….9

Text C. Leisure Time……………………………………………………………...…12

UNIT II: BELARUS……………………………………………………………….14

 

Text A. The Republic of Belarus………………………………………….…….…...14

Text B. Minsk………………………………………………………………………..18

Text C. From the History of Belarus……………………………………………...…20

Text D. Holidays in Belarus……………………………………………………...….22

Text E. Places of Interest in Belarus……………………………………….……..….23

UNIT III: GREAT BRITAIN………………………………………………...…....25

 

Text A. Four Countries – One Kingdom ………………………………………...….25

Text B. How Britain Is Run………………………………………………………….27

Text C. How the Education System Works……………………..………………...…29

Text D. Britain and Europe……………………………………………...…………...31

Text E: A Language that Came from Nowhere to Conquer the World …...……….32

 

 

UNIT IV: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES…………………………………………34

 

Text A. Global Warming Is a Reality…………………………………………..……35

Text B. Environmental Problems and Solutions……………………………..……37

Text C. Deforestation ……………………………………………………………….39

Text D. Humanity and Greenhouse Warming………………………………………40

Text E. Where in Nature Can We Look for Salvation?...............................................42

Text F. Green Answers. Making Clean Energy……………………………………..43

Text G. Chernobyl: Decades Later ………………………………………………….45

UNIT V: MY UNIVERSITY……………………………………………………....48

 

Text A. The Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics……..49

Text B. Oxbridge………………………………………………………………...…..52

Text C. Student’s Life at English and American Universities……...………………54

Text D. How to Survive Your First Year at University……………...………………57

Text E. A Few Tips That Will Help to Make That First Year Easier for You………58

 

 

UNIT VI: MY FUTURE PROFESSION………………...………………………..60

 

Text A. Information Technology in Today’s Society………………….……………60

Text B. Requirements for IT Specialists………………...…………………………..61

Text C. How Do You Fit the IT Field?................... …................................................64

Text D. Possible Сareers in IT……………………………………………………….66

Text E. Text E: Economics. My Speciality………………………………………….70

Text F. Curriculum Vitae………………………………………………...…………..73

 

Литература…………………………………………………………………………..76

 

Предисловие

Данное пособие предназначено для студентов первой ступени обучения. В пособие вошли 6 разделов: Student’s Profile, Belarus, Great Britain, Environmental Issues, My University, My Future Profession.

В каждый раздел входит от 4-7 оригинальных, но несколько сокращенных в учебных целях, текстов по устным темам. Цель текстов – способствовать развитию навыков и умений устной речи на английском языке, активизировать лексический минимум, а также служить полезным источником информации, дающим возможность в дальнейшем вести беседу по заданным темам.

После каждого текста авторами предлагается специально созданный комплекс упражнений, который нацелен на развитие и совершенствование навыков устной речи на английском языке. Работа носит практический характер.

Авторами реализованы требования индивидуализации и дифференциации учебного процесса, что способствует повышению мотивации и развитию творческого потенциала студента.

В конце каждого раздела представлено задание Discussion (Практика устной речи), направленное на развитие и совершенствование, на реализацию речевого намерения в ситуациях общения по устным темам.

Каждый раздел рассчитан примерно на 5 часов аудиторных занятий, в зависимости от уровня индивидуальной языковой компетенции студентов.

Авторы пособия предлагают постепенную работу над разделами, без нарушений последовательности упражнений и заданий.

Содержание работы подобрано в соответствии с типовой программой по английскому языку и рабочей программой, исходя из современных требований методики преподавания иностранных языков в неязыковом вузе.

UNIT I: STUDENTS’ PROFILE

Pre-reading

Which of the following statements are true for you?

My classes begin at 8 p.m. I am always late for classes.
I often study on Saturdays. I usually have lunch in the cafeteria.
I go to the university by bicycle. My favourite subject is maths.
I put my homework off until the last minute. I have to wear a uniform at the university.

What do you think a typical day of a student is like? What about you?

Match up the verbs and nouns below to make collocations.

 

do your, fail, hand in, have, pass, miss, pay, learn, make, attend, take
debts, a retake, an exam, programming, classes, seminars, by heart, progress, best, homework, attention

Write 5-7 questions, use the collocations from the previous exercise.

5. Interview your partner using the following prompts: get up, have breakfast, go to the university, classes begin, have a break, have lunch, classes are over, come home, do homework, have dinner, go to bed.

How does student’s life differ from other people’s life?

Match the words with the corresponding definitions.

1.A person who has completed a university degree c) a) lecturer
2. A teacher of the highest rank in a university department d) b) assignment
3. Work that you must do as a part of a course of study b) c) graduate
4. A period of time into which the teaching year is divided at universities g) d) professor
6. Money that you pay to take classes at a university e) e) tuition
7. A student who is doing a university course for a first degree l) f) tutor
8. A student who is doing studies at a university after he has received his first degree h) g) term
9. Money given to a student to pay for a course of study. K) h) postgraduate
10. A teacher who directs studies in a small group and gives private instructions f) k) scholarship
11a)A teacher who gives lectures, esp. at a university, college l) undergraduate

Reading

Read the following text and find the answers to the questions.

1. How does Nikita describe himself?

2. What is he keen on?

3. What is his family like?

5. What is his duty?

4. Does he enjoy spending time with his family? Why?

5. Why is it so vital to follow the schedule if you have one?

 

Text A: My Daily Routine

 

As the saying goes - if you want something to be done well, do it yourself. I follow this wise(мудрый) advice and I would like to introduce(представить) myself.

My name is Nikita Kovalevich. I was born on June 20, 1998. I am 18 years old. I come from Minsk, Belarus. How do I see myself? I am an active and energetic person. I can’t bear(выносить) just sitting around and doing nothing. It just makes me impatient and restless(утомляет). But I know what I want, and I think I have got what it takes to achieve my goals. I am a hard worker when it comes to what I am interested in. Does it make me sound horribly ambitious and selfish? I hope not!

I'm friendly, kind, and honest. I have my own likes and dislikes. I enjoy other people’s company. Friends visit me regularly and I never feel lonely.

I am modest(скромный) and sometimes shy(застенчивый), but I would not advise anyone tricking or kidding me. I am the kind of person who doesn’t let friends down. I do not like hypocrisy(лицемерие). I always say in open what I think. It is very difficult for me to deal with people who are selfish and dishonest.

This summer I passed the entrance examinations in the form of centralized testing and on the basis of the results was admitted to the University. Now I’m a first-year student of the Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics where I’m taking programming. So my main duty is to study at university. I am a full-time student and my day-to-day activities depend on my timetable.

My classes usually begin at 8 a.m. Every day I get up at half past six and go jogging in the park. It takes me thirty minutes. Then I do some morning exercises. That’s why I never feel sleepy in the morning. I feel refreshed and full of energy. When I am back I take a cold shower and have breakfast. I like talking to my parents while having it. I leave at about 7.45 a.m. If the weather is fine I get to the university by bicycle. The University is situated in the city center. It takes me 20 minutes to get there. As a rule my classes start at 8 a.m. I have 3 or 4 classes a day: lectures, seminars, practical classes and lab works. They are usually over at 3 p.m.

I go to the sports center where I have karate trainings three times a week. I also take guitar lessons. I come home at 7 p.m. I have dinner and start doing my homework. If I have some spare time I play the guitar or read classical literature. I go to bed at about half past eleven. I think it is very important to go to bed before midnight and get up early in the morning, especially on weekdays. Thus you can manage everything you plan to do.

At weekends I usually get up at 8 o'clock and do the same things I do on weekdays. Sometimes I have a rehearsal with the rock band where I play the guitar. Sometimes I can stay home, read books, or hang out with my friends.

I can’t imagine my life without my family. It isn't big. There are four of us: my father, mother and a sister. My father is a well-educated and knowledgeable person. That is why it is always interesting to talk to him: he usually tells a lot of exciting stories. My mother is a nice person. I admire her character. She is an optimist. She is full of energy and enthusiasm. I really like her sense of humour. My mother is a housewife. It takes her much time and patience to look after the house. But she copes with her household chores very well. Besides, both my father and I help her with the housework. For example, I do the dishes and my father goes shopping. She is keen on cooking so she spends much time in the kitchen. My father likes stamp collecting and when a child I got interested in it as well. Since that time, stamps and old coins have become my hobby. We have a big collection of them. We also like music and everybody who visits us is impressed with our CD and DVD collection.

I enjoy spending time with my family very much. We often go for a walk together. My family is fond of travelling. We visit different countries and have great time. So I could definitely(определенно) say we are a very friendly family.

Comprehension check

Vocabulary

Reading

13. Read the text below and find the arguments in favour of:

1. Technology addiction among young people is having a disruptive effect on their learning.

2. Mobile phones are overused nowadays.

3. Modern technologies lead to poor attention levels.

4. Internet addiction has been linked to depression.

5. The Internet now plays a huge part in modern life, but its benefits are accompanied by a darker side.

6. Social interaction online should not replace an offline social life.

7. Internet addicts are emotionally distressed.

 

Comprehension

14. Discuss the following questions in pairs using the opening phrases:

as far as I know, in fact, it is hard to say, I suppose/believe, to my mind, etc.

 

1. What does a modern lifestyle require?

2. Why did the researchers use a written questionnaire? What was their purpose?

3. Why can’t young people get motivated to read for a long period of time?

4. Why might the Internet addiction have a negative effect on mental wellbeing?

5. What impact are mobile phones and handheld computer games having on young people’s attention? Say why?

6. Is a Web addict substituting meaningful friendships and socializing with virtual contacts on the Net?

7. Do you think there is no good evidence that the problem is the Internet itself?

Vocabulary

Reading

Text C: Leisure Time

Leisure is time spent in non-compulsory activities. Because leisure time is free from compulsory activities such as work, study, household duties, eating and sleeping, it is often referred to as 'free time'. The ideas of leisure and leisure time are thought to have emerged in the late 19th century with the rise of mechanized industry, when the increase in productivity of labour resulted in the fact that workers had some time to spend on themselves.

They started doing sports and visiting theatres. Since then the idea of leisure time and relaxation has been popular with all the age groups and social classes. The old and the young, the rich and the poor have been using their free time for rest and entertainment. The ways people spend their leisure time normally differ according to the age group: middle-aged and old people normally prefer more passive kind of rest like watching TV, going to the theatre, or sometimes gardening. Younger people enjoy more active pastimes like doing extreme sports, visiting night clubs and discos or travelling. However, the idea of active leisure like doing sports or travelling is gaining popularity with the older people, too.

So the basic leisure time activities of the young are travelling, doing sports including extreme sports, visiting discos and night clubs or more passive ways of recreation like listening to music or watching TV and videos, and surfing the Internet. Teenagers normally prefer to do extreme sports, that is sports featuring speed, height and danger as they lead to the so-called 'adrenaline rush’ in participants. They wish to push themselves to the limits of their physical ability and fear, and push the boundaries of a particular sport, such as bungee jumping, climbing, white-water rafting, surfing, windsurfing, etc. Their tastes in music are normally different kinds of popular music associated with youth subcultures, such as hard rock, hip-hop or rap, punk rock, psychedelic rock and the like. In watching TV and videos or going to the cinema, they prefer film genres which are full of action, movement, colour, cinema effects and have a good soundtrack. They normally like action films, comedies, musicals, thrillers and cartoons.

Sometimes the ways young people spend their free time varies according to the country, as they sometimes depend on national traditions. British youngsters are really fond of watching football matches and sorts of races such as horse-racing, boat-racing and even dog-racing, as well as playing football, rugby, golf and taking part in races. They are really fond of pets and often spend some time in the evening taking their dog for a walk. In going out for the evening, they still prefer pubs to restaurants, bars and cafes.

Comprehension

Vocabulary

19. Find the words or expressions in the text which mean the following:

 

a) time when one is not working or occupied; free time.

b) people or things classed together as being of similar age.

c) a sport that is exciting, physically dangerous.

d) a subdivision of a national culture different from that generally accepted in a

e) society, shared by youth individual groups.

f) a recording of the musical accompaniment of a film.

g) a particular type of literature, painting, music, film, or other form of art.

Discussion

1. Do you believe Internet addiction is a real disorder? Choose the most appropriate answer for you and share your ideas with the groupmates:

a) Yes, but can't answer now. Gotta check Twitter and Facebook.

b) No. The Internet is for work and shopping. That's about it.

c) Maybe. I'm waiting to speed-read the new psychiatric literature.

d) I think …

2. Discuss with your partner what the youth from different countries have in common.

 

Project

Prepare a report/presentation on how your life at university differs from your school years.

UNIT II: BELARUS

Pre-reading

Reading

Comprehension check

3. Work in pairs. Ask your partner:

- where Belarus is situated and what its area is;

- what countries Belarus borders on;

- why Belarus is sometimes called «blue-eyed»;

- what is meant by «socially-oriented model of market economy»;

- what major branches the Belarus economy include;

- if Belarus is an energy-dependent country;

- what agriculture the country specializes in;

- what your partnerknows about the High-Tech Park.

 

Vocabulary practice

Reading

6. Read the text and find the arguments in favour of:

 

1. How the streets of Minsk tell the visitor their story of growth and change?

2. In what way Minsk has developed its own sense of architectural continuity?

3. Various possibilities for entertainment the capital offers to its dwellers and visitors;

4. What makes Minsk an industrial center?

5. What the enterprises of the city manufacture?

6. What are the most important educational establishments of Minsk?

 

Text B: Minsk

 

Minsk is the capital of the Republic of Belarus. It is the country’s political, financial, industrial, scientific and cultural centre. The President of the Republic of Belarus, the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus, the Parliament and the Government reside in Minsk. It is also home to the Executive Committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States, diplomatic corps, consulates and representative offices of international organizations in the Republic of Belarus.

Minsk is the most economically developed city in Belarus. It manufactures almost a quarter of the country’s industrial products. The main branches are: food production, light industry, motor industry, tractor manufacturing, instrument making, radio engineering and electronic equipment manufacturing. More than 300 industrial enterprises of the city manufacture cargo trucks, tractors, powerful wheel-tire tractors, comfortable buses, trolley buses and trams, motorcycles and bicycles, TV sets, furniture, fabrics and many other products. The acknowledged leaders of industrial sector are “Minsk Tractor Works” (being among the eight top producers of tractors in the world), “MAZ” (Minsk Automobile Plant), Minsk Refrigerators Plant "Atlant", “Minsk Motor Plant”, “Minsk Mechanical Plant” named after S.I.Vavilov, “Integral”, and many others.

Minsk is the largest educational and scientific centre of Belarus. It numbers 34 higher educational establishments: among them the Belarusian State University , the Academy of Management of the President of the Republic of Belarus, the Belarusian State Economics University, the Belarusian National Technical University, the Belarusian State Academy of Arts. Scientific researches are carried out at higher educational establishments such as: the Belarusian State University, the Belarusian National Technical University, the Minsk State Linguistic University, the Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioengineering.

Minsk was first described in the Story of Bygone Years, an early chronicle, as a fortress of the Polotsk Principality associated with a feudal battle on the Nemiga River in 1067.

Minsk is dotted with parks, including Gorki Park, Yanka Kupala Park, Cheluskintsy Park, Victory Park, Alexandrovski Garden, the Central Botanical Gardens and the water-and-park Svisloch reserve. The parks provide an escape from the city's maze of streets and buildings. In the Botanical Gardens you can stroll from a rainforest to a formal French park, explore an alpine rock garden, or learn about plants of the Far East – all in one afternoon.

A well-planned city, Minsk has developed its own sense of architectural continuity, balancing the monolithic buildings of business with the living needs of its people. The present-day city is almost entirely of new construction; most of the principal buildings in the centre are in architectural style of the early Soviet period – the Government House, the building of the Central Party Committee, the Red Army Club, the Opera and Ballet Theatre, the Academy of Sciences and others.

The Holy Spirit Cathedral, the Cathedral of Sts. Peter and Paul, the Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Maryinski Cathedral, St. Symon and St. Alena Church, or the «red church» all survive as relics of the past.

The major Minsk theatres and museums were instrumental in turning the city into a cultural mecca of Belarus: the Belarus State Theatre of Opera and Ballet (or the Belarus Bolshoi), the Yanka Kupala National Drama Theatre, the Gorky Drama Theatre, the National Art Gallery, the State Museum of History, the Museum of the Great Patriotic War.

Minsk's charm is not easy to describe. At work or at play, the inhabitants ultimately do create the city's character, but its physical presence – bustling streets, concrete texture, park oases, the skyline over the Svisloch – sets the pace for the city-dwellers.

 

Comprehension check

7. Decide if the following statements are True or False? Say, why?

 

1. The first mention of Minsk in the chronicles dates back to 1076.

2. Minsk suffered heavy losses during World War II.

3. The best and most expensive hotels, restaurants, clubs, theatres, cinemas and the richest shops are found in the Trinity Suburb.

4. Present-day Minsk is a well-planned city with numerous shady parks, broad streets and avenues, modern buildings and a few churches which have survived as relics of the past.

5. If you want to know more about the history of our country, you can go to the State Museum of History.

6. There aren't any sports facilities in Minsk to welcome international events.

 

Vocabulary practice

Reading

Comprehension check

11. Answer the following questions.

 

1. When did the first people to inhabit the territory of Belarus appear?

2. What do you know about the ancestors of the Belarusians?

3. When was Rzecz Pospolita formed?

4. When was Belarus invaded by Napoleon?

5 What events took place on the territory of Belarus in the first half of the 20th century?

6. When did Belarus become an independent state?

 

Vocabulary practice

13. Write the derivatives of the following words.

history, populate, invade, organize, develop, occupy, independent, locate, annex, settle, form, emerge, move, commemorate, celebrate, interrupt, restore

Reading

14. Read the text and answer the following questions.

1. What are the most popular holidays in Belarus?

2. Why is Remembrance Day a great holiday for all Belarusians?

3. Why is the Ivan Kupala holiday “Kupalle” considered to be one of the most mysterious holidays in Belarus?

4. What do you think the typical features of the Belarusian national character are?

Text D: Holidays in Belarus

The Belarusians are known to be hard-working people. They don't lose their temper and patience. Belarusian people are tolerant; they always keep their good sense of humour. The Belarusians are open, friendly and very hospitable. They remember the heroic past of the country, look into their future with hope and do everything possible to live a better life. They can work hard and have a good rest.

There are many holidays celebrated in our Republic. We celebrate New Year, Christmas, Easter, May Day, Victory Day, Independence Day, Remembrance Day “Dziady” and others.

Some holidays are connected with our history, some of them are religious. All the holidays are very important for Belarusian people, especially such old ones as Easter and Christmas.

Easter is a religious holiday. It is a church holiday and many churches have an outdoor service on this day. Easter marks the end of winter and the beginning of spring. There exists a custom to colour eggs on that day.

Christmas is a religious holiday, too. On that day people send cards of Christmas greetings to their relatives and friends and wish «Merry and Happy Christmas».

Remembrance Day is a great event for the Belarusians. It is called “Dziady”. This holiday is dedicated to the memory of those who died or perished. It is officially celebrated on the first Saturday in November. On this day people remember their dead parents, grandparents and relatives. To express their honour to the dead, the Belarusians lay the table with food on this day. They do their best to show the warmest welcome to the souls of their grandfathers and ancestors. It is believed that on Remembrance Day the souls return to the houses they used to live in. “Dziady” is a holiday when people associate everything in nature with the souls of the dead.

The most exciting holiday is Victory Day marked on May 9. On this day in 1945 Soviet people won the great victory over the German fascists. Since that time people have been commemorating the heroes who gave their lives for the future of our Motherland. On May 9, we put flowers to the graves of the defenders of our country.

There is one holiday which is celebrated on the day of summer solstice. It is the Ivan Kupala holiday, one of the most poetic holidays in Belarus. Young men and women gather together in clearings, make crowns of flowers and jump over camp-fires. Most of them wear Belarusian costumes – white linen shirts or white dresses. On the shortest summer night young people go to the woods where they try to find a blooming fern as the tradition says.

Most of the folk holidays in Belarus are associated with farm work. One of them called ”Dozhinki” literally means picking up the last remaining wheat ears in the field. It signals the end of the harvesting in autumn. This holiday is five hundred years old. During the holiday people make a show of their work and art: potters make pots and jugs, musicians play the svirel – the ancient wood pipe. People usually dance to fiddles.

 

Comprehension check

Vocabulary practice

16. These words can be used both as verbs and nouns. Make up your own sentences to show the difference in their usage.

 

work, mark, colour, honour, signal, dance, wish

 

Reading

Discussion

 

1. You have to organize a Belarus day for exchange students' visit from Great Britain or the USA. What activities would you choose?

2. Suggest your friend, who's come from another city, to meet at 8 o'clock tomorrow morning for a sightseeing tour of Minsk (or your native place). Discuss the plan of your tour with your friend.

3. Steve Brennon, your friend from Great Britain, is visiting your home city. You have taken him to many places. He shares his impressions with his friends.

Project

Make a report/presentation about a famous compatriot.

UNIT III: GREAT BRITAIN

Pre-reading

Reading

Comprehension

Vocabulary

Reading

Text B: How Britain Is Run

 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy.

A constitutional monarchy has either a king or a queen – as its Head of State, but the power of the monarch is limited by the country’s constitution. In practice, the monarch reigns but does not rule. The legal authority is given to Parliament (the passing of acts), and executive authority (the carrying out of laws) to the government. The British form of government might seem a puzzling notion to many on discovering that Britain does not actually have a written constitution. The rules of the country have developed by all the laws and decrees that have been made over the centuries, by the way these laws have been interpreted in the Law Court in the past and are now reinterpreted from time to time. If there is enough pressure from the public for change, it is comparatively easy to change such a constitution.

Parliament is the most important law-making body of the British people consisting of the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Sovereign (king or queen). The main purpose of the House of Commons is to make laws of the state by passing various Acts, as well as to discuss current political issues. The House sits for five days each week. Each “sitting” starts in the afternoon and may go on throughout the night. The House sits for about 175 days in the year and has a maximum term of five years.

The House of Lords, the upper house of the British Parliament, consists of over 1000 non-elected members (all peers and peeresses, certain clergy of the Church of England, some judges).The work of the House of Lords is largely complementary to that of the House of Commons, and includes examining and revising bills from the Commons, and discussing important matters which the Commons cannot find time to debate. The House of Lords does not have the same power as the House of Commons. It can pass Bills sent to it from the House of Commons, amend Bills and send them back to the Commons for approval, delay Bills for a limited time, start its own Bills, but it must send them to the Commons for approval.

The Queen is a symbol of Britain. The present Sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II. She is the Centre of much of the nation’s ceremonial and by ancient tradition, the leader of society. Royal duties include visiting many parts of the UK each year to encourage scientific, industrial, artistic and charitable works of national importance, paying state visits to foreign countries.

The UK is governed by the Government – a body of ministers who are responsible for the administration affairs. The ministers are the leading members of the political party which wins a majority of seats in Parliament. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Queen. All other Ministers are appointed by the Queen on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.

 

Comprehension

Vocabulary

Reading

Comprehension

Reading

Text D: Britain and Europe

 

The idea of European Communities developed in the years following the end of World War II during which much of Europe had been devastated. In 1950 France and Germany suggested that several European countries should combine their coal and steel industries under a shared management. Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg might even become a “United States of Europe” with no barriers to people, goods, money or services crossing frontiers, a common money system, common laws concerning industry and farming and perhaps some form of overall European Government. Britain did not seek membership of the Community from the beginning. Some of the main reasons were: the UK had strong trade links with other countries in the Commonwealth, which gave access to cheaper food, and strong political links with the USA. It was thought both would be weakened. The international trading traditions created a feeling that the UK was separate from “mainland Europe”. A lot of people opposed the idea.

They thought that conceding power to any outside body mean loss of national sovereignty. However in 1961, Britain, together with Denmark and the Republic of Ireland, applied for full membership. Negotiations were broken off in 1963 when France vetoed (blocked) British entry. In 1967 Britain reapplied and France vetoed the British application again. Only in 1972 Britain became a member of the Community. The EC was popularly called “The Common Market”. Then it became the European Union (EU).

Many people in Britain are not keen on the EC. They especially dislike the way in which EC law controls the small details of life in Britain. Britain frequently complains about the programme and budget of the EC.

After the USA, the countries of the EC have the richest and widest range of industries in the world. It is one of the great centers of world trading and banking. Trade is much easier between member countries. Companies can make goods to sell to the whole Community rather than just to their own country, and workers from member countries can work freely in any of the other Community countries. The common agricultural policy protects European farmers so that the Community need never depend on imports from overseas. The Community tries to ensure that farmers are guaranteed fair reward for their work. Britain has one of the most efficient agricultural industries in Europe and is a major exporter of agricultural and food products, agrochemicals and machinery. Only about 2 % of the workforce is employed in agriculture. The manufacturing sector plays an important role and Britain excels in pharmaceuticals, electronics, and aerospace.

The service sector (finance, retailing, tourism and business services) is the fastest growing industry. Britain is now the world’s ninth largest producer of crude oil, which is the nation’s main source of power.

The UK exports oil and manufactured goods such as machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, aerospace equipment and chemicals. Just over half of Britain’s exports are to other countries in the European Union.

 

Comprehension

Vocabulary

Reading

Discussion

 

1. What form of governing a country can lead to prosperity and progress in different fields?

2. How should a country be governed to become peaceful, politically stable and economically developed?

 

Project

Collect new stories and make notes about current events in the UK. They could be about politics, personalities, anything. Use newspapers and magazines in the English language and in your own language, TV and radio programmes.

Do the quiz.

Our environment is constantly changing. However, as our environment changes, so does the need to become increasingly aware of the problems that surround it. Here is a quiz to find out how much you know about the environment.

1. What do you call the area that is inhabited by a particular species? a) habitat b) environment c) biosphere
2. What do you call the processing of used materials and their reuse? a) recycling b) reusing c) reprocessing
3. Which layer protects the Earth from ultraviolet radiation? a) oxygen b) nitrogen c) ozone
4. The process by which the Earth’s temperature is increased is called… a) biothermal effect b) greenhouse effect c) temperature effect
5. Which of the following is biodegradable? a) plastic b) paper c) glass
6. What is the term for the complete disappearance of a species? a) termination b) disappearance c) extinction
7. Which of these energy sources is renewable? a) natural gas b) coal c) wind
8. What do you call the rain that contains a lot of chemicals and is harmful? a) monsoon b) acid rain c) smog
9. What do you call the substance that pollutes the air, water or soil? a) pollutant b) pesticides c) acid
10. What is the most used renewable energy source in the world? a) hydro energy b) solar energy c) wind energy
11. Which of these animals is not now in danger of becoming extinct? a) panda bear b) polar bear c) grizzly bear
12. Which type of shopping bag is more eco-friendly? a) paper b) plastic c) canvas
13. Global warming will cause an increase of… a) heat waves b) hurricanes c) both
14. Which gas is responsible for global warming? a) carbon dioxide b) oxygen c) hydrogen
15. What are some of the consequences of deforestation? a) loss of habitats b) soil erosion c) both
16. Which of the following is not a fossil fuel? a) coal b) wood c) oil
17. Which of these human activities contributes to global warming the most? a) using fossil fuels b) cutting down trees c) both
18. Which of the following can be recycled?   a) milk cartons b) plastic bottles c) both
19. Which of these animals is not yet extinct? a) dodo b) auroch c) tasmanian tiger
20. Rainforest land is most often cleared for… a) factories b) pasture c) farmland

Reading

Comprehension

Vocabulary

Reading

Comprehension

Vocabulary

Reading

Text C: Deforestation

 

Deforestation used to be something that few people apart from environmentalists talked about, but in the last twenty years or so, it has received increasing __(1)__ from governments and the media, and is now generally considered one of the world’s most serious environmental problems.

There is __(2)__ about how much forest has been disappearing, but few people doubt there is much less forest now than there was, say, fifty years ago.

Deforestation leads to the extinction of many __(3)__ of forest animals and the erosion of soil after trees have been removed, but the __(4)__ of deforestation that we hear most about is its contribution to global warming. Trees naturally absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) from the Earth’s atmosphere, so __(5)__ trees mean higher levels of CO2. Many scientists estimate that about 20% of global warming is due to __(6)__.

Deforestation is taking place mostly in developing countries in tropical regions of Asia, Central and South __(7)__, Africa. Perhaps the most well-known case is the __(8)__ size of the huge Amazon rainforest in Brazil.

Many people around the world say that developing countries should do more to __(9)__ their forests – although the developing countries could point out that most of the world’s developed countries destroyed most of their own forests many centuries __(10)__.

In some cases, deforestation is caused by poor people who want to use the wood for fuel or to clear a small amount of land in order to grow __(11)__ for their families. In many cases, however, it happens because there are large profits to be made – for example, from selling the wood, or from growing crops, or raising animals on the land after the trees are gone. Products from __(12)___ land are often exported, so there is often a link between what people choose to buy in their local stores and what happens to forests in countries thousands of miles __(13)__.

Comprehension

Vocabulary

Reading

Reading

Reading

16. Read the text and find the phrases in favour of alternative types of energy.

 

Comprehension

17. Discuss the questions in pairs.

1. What resources can be replaced naturally?

2. What is the problem with fossil fuels?

3. What are the benefits of alternative energy?

4. What do you use electricity for?

5. Name 5 objects that use electricity and 5 objects that don’t use electricity.

6. Where can we make the use of solar/ wind/ hydroelectric energy efficiently?

7. What green answers are appropriate for your country and why?

Vocabulary

Reading

Comprehension

Vocabulary

Do the quiz.

There are a lot of things we can do in our everyday life to take care of the environment. What do you do? Here is a quiz to find out how eco-friendly your life is.

Score one point for every "YES" answer.

 

Questions   Scores
1. Do you read the list of ingredients on the food you buy?  
2. Do you take a shower instead of a bath?  
3. Have you planted at least one tree?  
4. Do you feed birds in winter?  
5. Do you insulate your house in winter to save heat?  
6. Do you switch off the lights if nobody needs them on?  
7. Does your family use recycled paper?  
8. If you have ever taken part in "subbotnics", score 5  
9. For short journeys, do you regularly walk, if you can?  
10. For long journeys, do you regularly use a bike or public transport?  
11. If your family has a car, does it run on unleaded petrol?  
12. If your family doesn't have a car, score 2  
13. Do you buy ozone-friendly aerosols?  
14. If you don't buy aerosols at all, score 5  
15. Do you know any environmental organizations?  
16. Can you name at least one endangered species?  
17. Is your home lit by energy saving light bulbs?  
18. Do you collect paper for recycling?  
19. If you are a non-smoker, score 3  
20. Coming back from the picnic, do you always take your litter with you?  

Discussion

1.What dangers are threatening our lives and our planet? Discuss in the group and make a list.

2. Do you believe in climate change? If so, why do you think it is happening? Discuss in the group.

3. Could climate change destroy life on the Earth? Discuss a best-case and a worst- case scenario.

4. Do you think climate change can be stopped? What should be done?

5. ‘Cutting carbon emissions' is an often used phrase. What does it mean and how can it be achieved?

6. The world is addicted to oil. Are there any alternatives to oil? Make a list of energy sources and their effect on nature.

7. Are governments doing enough to combat climate change? Name some measures that have been taken so far.

8. Do you use environment-friendly products? Have you ‘gone green'? Give examples.

Project

Write a short summary/essay of your opinions regarding what young people can do to prevent pollution. You may use the following prompts: collect…, stop…, put up…, organize…, plant…, invite…, create…, distribute…, make…, volunteer…, etc.

UNIT V: MY UNIVERSITY

Pre-reading

Reading

Comprehension

3. Discuss the questions in pairs.

 

1. When was the University founded?

2. What faculties are there at the University now?

3. How many students study at the University?

4. What training programmes does the University offer?

5. What subjects do the students study?

6. How many countries does the University cooperate with?

7. When was the first Belarusian IT business incubator opened?

8. Why is the BSUIR considered to be one of the top sporting universities in the country?

Vocabulary practice

Discuss in the group.

1. Do you like to study at the University?

2. What does the University give you?

3. What would you like to change at the University?

 

Reading

Text B: Oxbridge

 

The University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge are the two oldest universities in the English-speaking world. Both were founded more than 800 years ago. The two ancient English state universities have many common features and are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. Their similarities in having a collegiate structure and a tutorial (supervision) system have set them apart from other educational institutions. Students are selected on the basis of their results in the national examinations or the special entrance examinations. There are many applicants, and nobody can get a place by paying a fee. Successful candidates are admitted to a specified college of the university.

Undergraduate teaching is centred on the tutorial, where 1-4 students spend an hour with an academic discussing their week’s work, usually an essay or problem sheet. Students usually have one or two tutorials a week, and can be taught by academics at any other college – not just their own – as expertise and personnel require. These tutorials are complemented by lectures, classes and seminars, which are organised on a departmental basis.

The academic year is divided into three terms. Within each of these terms, Council determines an eight-week period called Full Term, during which undergraduate teaching takes place. These teaching terms are shorter than those of many other British universities, and the total duration of Full Terms amounts to less than half the year. However undergraduates are also expected to do some academic work during the three holidays (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations).

The universities are responsible themselves for conducting examinations and conferring degrees. At Oxford the passing of two sets of examinations is a prerequisite for a first degree. The first set of examinations, called either Honour Moderations ("Honour Mods") or Preliminary Examinations ("Prelims"), are usually held at the end of the first year. The second set of examinations, the Final Honour School ("Finals"), is held at the end of the undergraduate course. Successful candidates receive first, upper or lower second-, or third-class honours, or simply a "pass" without honours, based on their performance in Finals. An upper second is the most usual result, and it is a minimum requirement for entry to many postgraduate courses in the UK, while a first is generally prerequisite for graduate study.

The University of Cambridge divides the different kinds of honours bachelor's degree by Tripos ['traɪpɔs] the three-legged stool candidates once used to sit on when taking oral examinations). Undergraduates are examined at the end of each part (one- or two-year section) of the Tripos, and results receive different classifications for different parts.

After three years of study a university graduate will leave with the Degree of Bachelor of Arts, Science, Engineering, Medicine, etc. Later he may continue to take a Master's Degree and then a Doctor's Degree. Research is an important feature of university work.

Comprehension

Vocabulary practice

Reading

Comprehension

Vocabulary practice

There are a few examples of American English in the text. Divide the following words into two groups: British English and American English (consult the dictionary, if necessary). The first two are done for you.

British English American English
trousers pants

trousers – pants, gas – petrol, freeway – motorway, a boot – a trunk, candy – sweets autumn – fall, an apartment – a flat, underground – subway, sidewalk – pavement a lift – an elevator, first floor – ground floor, post – mail, cookies – biscuits, chips – French fries, pharmacy – chemist’s, a truck – a lorry, rubbish – garbage, crazy - mad, holiday – vacation, to wait in line – to queue, a mobile phone – a cell phone, a city centre – downtown, a restroom – a toilet, soccer – football , a jumper – a sweater, at five past nine – at five after nine, a cab – a taxi, a tin – a can, a film – a movie, sneakers – trainers, a cooker - a stove, timetable – schedule, a hall of residence – campus.

Reading

Comprehension

Vocabulary practice

Reading

Discussion

1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying at a Belarusian University?

2. Convince your friend who doesn’t believe in University education that University is the best place to study law, history, computing, etc.

3. Interview your friend about his University experience.

4. Read the following and express your opinion:

– “The beautiful thing about learning is that nobody can take it from you”.

– “Nine tenths of education is encouragement”.

– “There is no royal road to learning”.

– “All things are difficult before they are easy”.

Project

Do some research and prepare a report/presentation on the topic “University life: Belarusian vs. British”.

Pre-reading

1. Write a dozen words that you think you might find in the text.

Reading

2. Read the text and do the following tasks:

- How many of the words predicted have you discovered? Find the sentences with the words in the text; read and translate them.

- Choose and put down key words or phrases for retelling.

Comprehension

Vocabulary

Speaking

Pre-reading

6. Work with your partner: think of and write down the qualities an IT specialist should have (2—3 items).

Vocabulary

Discussion

Pre-reading

13. Match up the words with their corresponding definitions.

determine a feeling fear or anxiety; frightened
provide b cause (something) to occur in a particular way or to have a particular nature
value c the quality or state of being different or diverse; the absence of uniformity or monotony
quality d a settled way of thinking or feeling about something
attitude e desire and determination to achieve success
ambition f the standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind
be afraid of g the importance, worth, or usefulness of something; the regard that something is held to deserve
appropriate h equip or supply someone with (something useful or necessary)
variety i suitable or proper in the circumstances

Reading

Comprehension

15. Answer the questions about yourself in IT sphere, you may use the expressions and words from the previous exercises.

Vocabulary

Writing

17. Write a short summary of your opinion concerning your vocational fitness, i.e. How do you fit in the IT field?

Reading

18. Look through the articles; choose the one that fits your choice best and prepare a presentation about your future profession. It should include the following items:

 

A.Information technology in today’s society

b. Requirements for it specialists

c. How you fit in the IT field

D. The way you see your future profession

 

Information Technology (IT) is a broad term that includes all aspects of managing and processing information and related technologies. IT is a field which is comparatively young in comparison with other fields. The professionals of this field are young and enthusiastic and dynamic.

IT has basically two potential zones to work upon. They are the hardware and the software. Hardware includes the maintenance aspects of physical components of computers. Software on the other hand is designing programs in the way of step by step instructions which help companies and other organizations recruiting and dealing with large number of people. While choosing a computer engineer’s position one should focus on job descriptions rather than job titles. Most probable career paths options in software are presented below:

A Computer Engineer Career

A computer engineer's job is different from that of a computer hardware engineer. Hardware experts design the actual computers. A computer software engineer develops tests and evaluates software to make computers operational. Computer engineers may also be responsible for constructing and managing an organization's computer system. Most computer engineers work as part of a tech team in an office or laboratory environment. Computer engineers design and develop a wide range of software including business applications, network control systems,





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