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Passenger and Freight Services



Passenger service at stations has greatly improved in recent years.Both reconstructed and newly built stations have large waiting rooms,automated luggage checkrooms,ticket printing machines,

electrically operated information devices,cleaning machines,etc.

The railways are closely connected with the network of spur tracks

belonging to various enterprises.Approximately 80 per cent of all railway freightis handled by this network.Millions of tons of freight mainly small shipmentsinvolving operations of a laborious nature – are handled at the regular railway stations,yards and warehouses.The railways have millions of square meters of warehouses and platforms and also container (roofed) grounds equipped withcranes.

Much advance has been made in freight handling.Now about 80

per centof freight operations are performed by mechanisms.

 

luggage checkroom – камера хранения

Вариант № 3

 

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните модальные глаголы. Переведитепредложениянарусскийязык.

1. Passengers are not allowed to leave the carriage at this station.

2.Going abroad by train you must fill in the customs declaration.

3. The rails by themselves cannot support the weight of the train.

 

II. Перепишите ii переведите предложение. Задайте к нему все виды во­просов.

The rails are affected by temperature changes.

 

III.Перепишите предложения. Определите вид причастия (I или II), его функцию (определение, обстоятельство или часть глагола-сказуемого). Предложенияпереведите.

1. Passengers taking the trip between Moscow and St. have all possible comforts.

2. The largest train hauled by a locomotive weighed 13,000 tons.

 

IV.Перепишите предложения. Определите сказуемое и инфинитив гла­гола. Переведитепредложения, обращая внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

1.Many operations in lokomotive depots are mechanizednes.

2.It is also planned to make use of atomic energy in rail transport.

 

V. Прочтите текст и письменно его переведите.

 

Various Types of Sleepers

Sleepers which were first introduced in 1855 are now employed universally.They are made of wood,steel,cast iron or concrete.The required number ofsleepers is enormous, and timber is becoming scarce.That ’s why sleepers of other materials are widely used in many countries. Metal sleepers find a wider application in Britain; wooden sleepers last about 20 years in the main tracks,and then they give further service in sidings.Cast iron sleepers are little used because metal is very expensive everywhere.

In our country concrete sleepers are being used increasingly, especially in Metro construction.Concrete sleepers have theadvantage of material which withstands corrosion and rotting.

 

concrete- бетон

cast iron – чугун

siding – запасной путь

 

 

Вариант № 4

I.Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните модальные глаголы. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.The sleepers or crossties must hold the rails in place.

2.Modern electric and diesel locomotives can operate at higher speed.

3. The sleepers had to be replaced by October.

 

II. Перепишите и переведите предложение. Задайте к нему все виды во­просов.

The railway brige construction lasted half a year.

 

III. Перепишите предложения. Определите вид причастия (I или Л), его функцию (определение, обстоятельство или часть глагола-сказуемого). Предложенияпереведите.

1.We saw the train leaving the railway station.

2. The graded right of way was well prepared for the roadbed.

 

IV.Перепишите предложения. Определите сказуемое и инфинитив гла­гола. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод пассивных кон­струкций.

 

1.Road building is always connected with the development of industry.

2. Several towns will be linked by this raiway line.

 

V. Прочтите текст и письменно его переведите.

 

Underground Railways

The first underground railways for city transport appeared in the second part of the nineteenth century.At that time the traffic was operated by steam locomotives.The use of electric power had its beginning in 1887, and the construction of rapid underground lines began in such cities as London, New York and Moscow.For the first time an underground railway for Moscow was discussed in the beginning of the century.

But only in the thirties the construction of the underground system was

initiated. Our engineers made a study of existing undergrounds and worked out their own project.Work on the first line from Sokolniky to the Central Park beganin 1932 and was completed in 1938.Now the Moscow underground system is oneof the most highly developed in the world.The beautiful architecture andcleanliness of its stations are well known.

 

 

Вариант № 5

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните модальные глаголы. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Only the strong track on modern railways can ensure safe and

uninterrupted traffict.

2. The new railroad line that was built around the town last year must

be electrified.

3. The efficiency of a railway passenger station cannot be determined

without the number of trains handled.

 

II. Перепишите и переведите предложение. Задайте к нему все виды во­просов.

The Cherepanovs constructed the first steam locomotive in Russia.

 

Ш. Перепишите предложения. Определите вид причастия (I или II), его функцию (определение, обстоятельство или часть глагола-сказуемого). Предложенияпереведите.

1.The goods required can be delivered in a few days.

2. A freight train starting on its run consists of cars moving to a number

of different destinations.

 

IV.Перепишите предложения. Определите сказуемое и инфинитив гла­гола. Переведитепредложения, обращая внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.

1. As the ballast was being unloaded, gangs of platelayers spread it over

the track.

2. The first railway line was constructed in Japan in 1872.

 

V. Прочтите текст и письменно его переведите.

 

The Operation of Trains

All railroads are divided into divisions in order to simplify the problem of running trains.A division may be of different length.

Each railway has two kinds of trains: regular trains and extra trains. A regular train is a ‘scheduled’ train, a train listed on the railroad time-table. Regular trains have definite time for arrival and departure. All regular trains may be both freight and passenger ones. Passenger trains are subdivided into fast expresses which have long runs and make few stops and local trains which stop at all stations. Freight trains are used for carrying goods. Some freight trains make few stops during their runs and some freight trains stop at small stations to load and unload freight.

‘Ex tra’ trains are not scheduled in the railroad time-table.

 





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