Give extensive answers to the questions. Use the following expressions to present your answers.

· It ran through my mind that ...

· To begin with ...

· I am absolutely sure that ...

· Speaking about …

· As far as … is concerned …

· As far as I could understand ...

· Judging by what I have learned from the above ...

1. Why do you think the political system and power relations are so important in every society?

2. What are the three basic sources of power? How do they correlate?

3. What is government? What basic types of government do you know?

4. What is typical for monarchy?

5. What is the difference between oligarchy and dictatorship?

6. What are the main features of totalitarian states?

7. How does democracy differ from the other forms of government?

8. Why do you think each generation must be encouraged to accept a society's basic political values and its particular methods of decision making?


Scan the text to determine whether these statements are true (T) or false (F). With a partner, discuss why.

e.g. In my opinion it is true that/I’m afraid it is false that ..., because ...

1. Political power is a type of power held by a group in a society which allows administration of some or all of public resources, including labor and wealth.
2. There are three basic sources of power within any political system – authority, governance and force.
3. State refers to a set of institutions and practices which combines administrative, judicial, rule-making and coercive powers.
4. Force is the actual or threatened use of influence.
5. 6. 7.   8.   9.     10. Authority is the exercise of power through a process of persuasion. A political system is a system of politics and government. A political system is a complete set of institutions, interest groups (such as political parties, trade unions, lobby groups), the relationships between those institutions and the political norms and rules that govern their functions (constitution, election law). Authority is the people or organizations that are in charge of a particular country or area. There are two kinds of democracy: representative democracy and direct democracy, the latter being a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected people representing a group of people. A dictatorship is defined as an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by an individual: a dictator.


2.4.3 Write a paragraph on: a) the defining features of a totalitarian state; b) the approaches to the definition of republic or representative democracy, the terms being interchangeable.


Skills focus

2.5.1 Read the extract and fill in prepositions wherever necessary.
  Discuss the text. Give the text the appropriate heading.


Members …… Congress represent the views …… people …… vastly different parts …… the country …… vastly different perspectives, priorities, and interests, which makes the task …… producing legislation a difficult one. Disputes are an expected part …… the process. Congressional committees play a key role …… sorting …… all the bills that are introduced …… Congress, …… less than 10% ever making it out of committee. The legislative process is long and complicated, …… numerous steps and obstacles …… the way, all to ensure that multiple voices are heard and bad ideas do not pass quickly …… the heat of the moment. The leadership …… Congress has considerable influence …… what legislation gets considered. It also has ways to short-cut the process …… order to get something done, but that is often upsetting …… those …… the minority.

Given the country’s incredible diversity, compromise plays a key role …… the system …… government—listening …… the other side, trying to find accommodations …… various viewpoints, searching …… common ground.



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