ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Consult a dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the following words and word combinations, quote the sentences in which they are used in the text or submit the examples of your own.



AGENDA

2.1 Lead-in Section Overview
2.2 Language input Developing vocabulary  
2.3 Background information Political Power and Governance Systems
2.4 Comprehension Understanding the reading Scanning  
2.5 Speaking & Writing Skills focus Fill-in exercises Writing skills  
2.6 Dialogue Political System and Social Order
  Supporting materials Government Creates Social Order?
  Reading for Cross-cultural Associations  
2.7 Role play Political System, State and Government
2.8 Grammar Back Up Practice with Verbs (II)

 

LEAD-IN

Section Overview

This section provides for the essentials of Power and State. Power is a complex social interaction between those who command and those who obey. For power to be effective there must be consent, cooperation, and obedience.

Þ What do you think may happen to the power of those who hold it in the lack of thereof?

(broad-based defiance, authority, hold power, significantly, erode or overthrow power, political system and social order)

Þ How do you differentiate between power and state?

(the ability to control people or events, administration of public resources, power in international relations, an organized political community, live under a government)

 

 

LANGUAGE INPUT

power n   powerful adj power relations power politics   intimate n   threat n threaten v coerce v coercion n coercive adj execute v executive adj executive n   apply v applicable adj application n seize v seizure n assassinate v     assassination n assassin n   persuade v persuasion n editorial n testimony n institutionalized part monarchy n oligarchy n dictatorship n totalitarianism n democracy n representative democracy enforce v enforcement n   overwhelming adj large-scale adj destiny n mode n social order   state n   statehood n   government n   category n categorize v   categorization n   differentiate v overlap v status quo (Lat.)   sovereignty n   essentials n (pl)   власть, могущество, полномочие, мощь, держава полномочный, авторитетный соотношение сил силовая политика, политика с позиции силы близкий друг; лицо, пользующееся доверием угроза угрожать принуждать, подавлять принуждение принудительный, силовой исполнять, доводить до конца, казнить административный, организационный исполнительная власть, сотрудник, должностное лицо применять, подавать заявку применимый, подходящий сфера применения, заявка захватить, конфисковать захват, наложение ареста, конфискация убивать политических или общественных деятелей, совершать террористический акт политическое убийство убийца по найму или политическим мотивам убеждать, уговаривать увещевание, воздействие передовая или редакционная статья доказательство, клятвенное заверение носящий официальный характер монархия, самодержавие олигархия диктатура тоталитаризм демократия, народовластие представительная демократия принуждать, добиваться силой правоприменение, приведение в исполнение подавляющий, безграничный большой, крупный, масштабный судьба, участь, неизбежный ход событий метод, способ, образ действий общественный строй, социальное устройство страна, государство, государственная власть государственность, статус государства   правительство, государственный аппарат, органы власти категория, разряд, класс распределять по категориям, классифицировать систематизация, ранжирование, классификация различать, устанавливать различия частично совпадать, дублировать существующее положение вещей, статус-кво суверенитет, независимость, полноправность основы, прописные истины, базовые знания
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

DEVELOPING VOCABULARY

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

COMPREHENSION

Understanding the reading

PRACTICE

Skills focus

2.5.1 Read the extract and fill in prepositions wherever necessary.
  Discuss the text. Give the text the appropriate heading.

_______________________________

Members …… Congress represent the views …… people …… vastly different parts …… the country …… vastly different perspectives, priorities, and interests, which makes the task …… producing legislation a difficult one. Disputes are an expected part …… the process. Congressional committees play a key role …… sorting …… all the bills that are introduced …… Congress, …… less than 10% ever making it out of committee. The legislative process is long and complicated, …… numerous steps and obstacles …… the way, all to ensure that multiple voices are heard and bad ideas do not pass quickly …… the heat of the moment. The leadership …… Congress has considerable influence …… what legislation gets considered. It also has ways to short-cut the process …… order to get something done, but that is often upsetting …… those …… the minority.

Given the country’s incredible diversity, compromise plays a key role …… the system …… government—listening …… the other side, trying to find accommodations …… various viewpoints, searching …… common ground.

 

 

2.5.2 Complete the text by using the following word combinations from the box and fill in the grid. Discuss the text.
A by mutual consent G the rich or of the poor
B qualified to judge H the early legislation
C by the threat of punishment I produce and trade
D responds to economic changes J rather than another
F by voluntary means K law reform

DIALOGUE

What is social order?

A. Hi, Tom. I haven’t seen you lately. I hope you are all right. We have started social sciences and I need your help to clear up some concepts and terms.
B. Hi, Peter. Let me think a little. What issues are you currently discussing in class?
A. To begin with, the concept of ‘social order’ is beyond my understanding. I am not sure if it can be defined by Sociology or History.
B. I see. The point is that it can be described by both. However, it is historically central to Sociology. As far as I could remember from my research on Sociology it refers to a set of linked social structures, social institutions and social practices which conserve, maintain and enforce "normal" ways of relating and behaving.
A. Oh, it sounds much too fundamental and academic.Could you put it in simpler words for me?
B. Sure, I’ll try to. The concept refers to all those facts of society which remain relatively constant over time. These include institutions, patterns of interactions and customs.
A. Yes, of course. I remember from my lectures on Sociology that social order helps reproduce the conditions essential for its existence. They are property and power relations, cultural forms, communication relations and ideological systems of values.
B. That's right.It should be mentioned that Social theorists have proposed different explanations for what a social order consists of, and what its real basis is. Have you remembered any of them?
A. Unfortunately, the name of the theorist has just escaped from my mind! Still, I remember that he referred to the social order as a set of shared social norms. Could you explain the term of ‘social norm’ to me?
B. Of course, I can. Social norms are laws that govern society’s behaviors. It’s only natural that they work to promote a great deal of social control.
A. Yes, it's absolutely true. Can I butt in? It has just dawned upon me, that if people do not follow these norms they will become the outcast of society.
B. That’s it! I think, you’ve grasped the idea!
A. Thank you for clarifying the matter for me.

 

Task 1. Report the dialogue. Use the following reporting verbs:

 

· to refer to · to explain that
· to conclude that · to focus one’s attention on
· to agree · to guess if/whether
· to sum up · to point out
· to emphasize · to expand on
· to state · to account for

 

Task 2. Work with a partner. Look at the dialogue and discuss what A. and B. say about the following subjects.

 

a. the difficulty of learning the basics of social sciences

b. the concepts central to sociology

c. the importance of social order

d. the correlation between social order and social norms

Task 3. Say it in English:

· общественные науки

· понятия и термины

· вопросы, подлежащие обсуждению

· общественное устройство

· недоступно моему пониманию

· основной для социологии

· сохранять, поддерживать и проводить в жизнь

· фундаментально и отвлеченно

· институты, модели общения и обычаи

· лекции по социологии

· воспроизводить условия

· необходимый для существования

· имущественные отношения, соотношения сил, коммуникационные связи

· провести отбор для исследования

· система ценностей

· теоретики социологии

· коллективно используемые социальные нормы

· управлять нормами общественного поведения

· способствовать общественному контролю

· изгой общества

Task 4. Do it in English.

Общественный строй является предметом изучения всех общественных и юридических наук. К экономическим основам общественного строя относятся:

- тип собственности и статус ее отдельных форм,

- отношения, связанные с производством и обменом, распределением и потреблением материальных и духовных благ,

- принципы руководства и управления экономикой.

Социальные основы общественного строя включают:

- социальные и национальные отношения,

- отношения между трудом и капиталом,

- отношения между государством и личностью,

- семейные отношения,

- отношения в области экологии, здравоохранения, социального обеспечения и культуры.

Политическими основами общественного строя являются отношения, возникающие по поводу осуществления государственной власти через политические организации, которые в совокупности образуют политическую систему – механизм политической власти.

 

Task 5. Read the following supporting materials and get ready to analyze and discuss the given information.

Role-Play

Situation

Social science refers to the academic disciplines concerned with society and human behavior. "Social science" is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to anthropology, archaeology, economics, communication studies, political science, sociology, and includes elements of other fields of knowledge. The terms ‘political system’, ‘state’ and ‘government’ are the key elements of social science categorizations. They are closely interrelated and very often students have difficulty differentiating between them, which distorts the understanding of the basic questions of social sciences.

 

What you must decide:

Brainstorm the issue of the overlapping terms and draw a distinction between them. Work in groups (students A, B, C).

Student A

You are in your first year at the University of Finance. You are doing a course on Political Science. You are seeking advice on differentiating between the basic terms of ‘political system’, ‘state’ and ‘government’. They are uncharted territory for you. You ask your fellow students to clarify these things to you.

 

Make use of the helpful phrases:

  • Let me explain the situation to you … .
  • As far as I know … .
  • As things stand, … .
  • It’s beyond me … .
  • I must admit … .
  • My own view is … .

Student B

You see what your interlocutor means, but you want to know which of the terms is the most confusing. You explain that a state is a formal group that is sovereign over its members and occupies a well defined territory. You add that it is the formal apparatus of authoritative roles and law norms through which that sovereignty is exercised.You also emphasize that ‘state’, however, should not be confused with a specific balance of powers a particular status quo, a government. Governments may make massive changes in laws and roles while the state remains the same.

Make use of the helpful phrases:

§ At first ... seemed completely out of the question ... .

§ One of the things is … .

§ You will realize of course … .

§ Well, that’s another matter.

§ In my opinion … .

 

Student A

You thank your friend for the explanation but you are mostly concerned about the difference between the terms ‘political system’ and ‘state’. You suggest mentioning so called political structures and ask your friends to clarify it to you.

Make use of the helpful phrases:

  • In my opinion … .
  • It makes sense for us to … .
  • As things stand, … .
  • I totally agree … .

Student C

You think it might be a good idea to give the extended definition of the terms. You remember that a political system consists of the formal and informal structures which manifest the state's sovereignty over a territory and people. It is the civil aspect of statehood. But a state through its lifetime may have many different political systems, as have China, Russia, and France. As the political elite exercise more or less coercive power, we can call a state more or less powerful.

 

Make use of the helpful phrases:

§ What do you think of … ?

§ Well, that’s another matter.

§ I am inclined to think … .

§ As an alternative … .

§ Let me doubt ... .

Student B

You continue the discussion and suggest that you should focus on the types of political systems. Although there is a tendency in modern American political science to treat the political system as an abstract one of inputs and outputs, or of functions and institutions (Easton, 1965), you should not forget that a political system constitutes a balance among competing interests, capabilities, and wills, a specific status quo.

 

Make use of the helpful phrases:

  • If you ask me … .
  • I mean to say … .
  • I dare say … .
  • I want to make it clear that … .

Student C

Politely, you interrupt student B to say that this is a balance among individuals. A specific political system is a particular definition of authoritative roles and law norms and an allocation of rights and duties historically determined through conflict and balancing of powers. Those who fill these roles, who have the right to command others, are the political elite.

Make use of the helpful phrases:

  • It’s beyond doubt that
  • And we can hardly ignore it.
  • This is the way I look at it.
  • In conclusion I'd like to say that … .

Student A

You thank your fellow students for the discussion. You appreciate their knowledge of the essentials which are so important to understand because they lay the basis for professionalism.

 

Make use of the helpful phrases:

§ One of the things is … .

§ You will realize of course … .

§ In my opinion …

§ In conclusion I would like to say … ..

 

Your decision

 

 

 

AGENDA

2.1 Lead-in Section Overview
2.2 Language input Developing vocabulary  
2.3 Background information Political Power and Governance Systems
2.4 Comprehension Understanding the reading Scanning  
2.5 Speaking & Writing Skills focus Fill-in exercises Writing skills  
2.6 Dialogue Political System and Social Order
  Supporting materials Government Creates Social Order?
  Reading for Cross-cultural Associations  
2.7 Role play Political System, State and Government
2.8 Grammar Back Up Practice with Verbs (II)

 

LEAD-IN

Section Overview

This section provides for the essentials of Power and State. Power is a complex social interaction between those who command and those who obey. For power to be effective there must be consent, cooperation, and obedience.

Þ What do you think may happen to the power of those who hold it in the lack of thereof?

(broad-based defiance, authority, hold power, significantly, erode or overthrow power, political system and social order)

Þ How do you differentiate between power and state?

(the ability to control people or events, administration of public resources, power in international relations, an organized political community, live under a government)

 

 

LANGUAGE INPUT

power n   powerful adj power relations power politics   intimate n   threat n threaten v coerce v coercion n coercive adj execute v executive adj executive n   apply v applicable adj application n seize v seizure n assassinate v     assassination n assassin n   persuade v persuasion n editorial n testimony n institutionalized part monarchy n oligarchy n dictatorship n totalitarianism n democracy n representative democracy enforce v enforcement n   overwhelming adj large-scale adj destiny n mode n social order   state n   statehood n   government n   category n categorize v   categorization n   differentiate v overlap v status quo (Lat.)   sovereignty n   essentials n (pl)   власть, могущество, полномочие, мощь, держава полномочный, авторитетный соотношение сил силовая политика, политика с позиции силы близкий друг; лицо, пользующееся доверием угроза угрожать принуждать, подавлять принуждение принудительный, силовой исполнять, доводить до конца, казнить административный, организационный исполнительная власть, сотрудник, должностное лицо применять, подавать заявку применимый, подходящий сфера применения, заявка захватить, конфисковать захват, наложение ареста, конфискация убивать политических или общественных деятелей, совершать террористический акт политическое убийство убийца по найму или политическим мотивам убеждать, уговаривать увещевание, воздействие передовая или редакционная статья доказательство, клятвенное заверение носящий официальный характер монархия, самодержавие олигархия диктатура тоталитаризм демократия, народовластие представительная демократия принуждать, добиваться силой правоприменение, приведение в исполнение подавляющий, безграничный большой, крупный, масштабный судьба, участь, неизбежный ход событий метод, способ, образ действий общественный строй, социальное устройство страна, государство, государственная власть государственность, статус государства   правительство, государственный аппарат, органы власти категория, разряд, класс распределять по категориям, классифицировать систематизация, ранжирование, классификация различать, устанавливать различия частично совпадать, дублировать существующее положение вещей, статус-кво суверенитет, независимость, полноправность основы, прописные истины, базовые знания
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   

DEVELOPING VOCABULARY

Consult a dictionary and practise the pronunciation of the following words and word combinations, quote the sentences in which they are used in the text or submit the examples of your own.

 

legitimate

intimate

coercion

assassination

assassin

seizure

persuasion

institutionalized

overwhelming

differentiate

sovereignty

essentials

totalitarianism

oligarchy

executive

execute

association

authority

equitable

emphasize

anthropology

archaeology

economics

sociology





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