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Brazil Constitution 1988: translated, updated and commented
⇐ ПредыдущаяСтр 19 из 19
The following translation includes amendments until Constitutional Amendment 52, enacted on March 8th 2006. Readcomments about the latest Amendments.
Remarks in purple are text of Amendments.
Remarks in blue, smaller prints, are comments by the webmaster.
Preamble The principles which inspired the Constituents.
Below, comments about the most recent Constitutional Amendments, starting from Amendment 45, of December 8th 2004.
Constitutional Amendment 45, December 8th 2004.
· The Brazilian Justice is one of the slowest in the world; there are anedoctal stories of cases lasting more than 50 years. For example, the aiport Tom Jobim, most important in Rio de Janeiro, was inaugurated in 1952, but until today the ex-owners are disputing the expropriation in Justice (read other cases in Portuguese here). Now, by force of the clause LXXVIII of article 5, celerity of Justice, with a reasonable duration of proceedings, is an individual right. However, as with many other Constitutional individual rights (e.g., free legal assistance, decent minimum salary), there is no indication of when/how/by whom the right will be in fact exercized.
· The CA created the National Council of Justice; because the NCoJ was assigned with responsibilites which rested formerly with the other Brazilian Courts, several articles were amended to adapt to the new situation. Also, new rules apply to admission, promotion and training of judges, as well as the administrative, budgetary and financial management of Courts.
· Article 103-A created the binding summary (in Portuguese, súmula vinculante). In Brazil, in the name of the independence of the Judiciary, any judge could, in most cases, ignore decisions by the Superior Courts (the only exception was in the cases of Declaratory Acts of Constitucionality, which could not be contradicted); this meant that a significative number of cases would go all the way up to the Superior Courts, only to have the individual decisions by judges revoked. Now, in special circumstances, at discretion of the Justices of the Supreme Federal Court, a binding summary may be issued; once the binding summary is issued, all Judges and the Public Administration must abide to it.
· Article 103-B instituted the external control of the Judiciary Power (much criticized by Judges), by creating the National Council of Justice. In the composition of the NCoJ, there are Justices, Judges, Prosecutors, lawyers and citizens; many Judges protested against this, claiming this was "undue interference in the autonomy of the Judiciary". The NCoJ can not dispute the merit of the decisions, but must hear complaints about conduct of Judges. The NCoJ has powers to evaluate the legality of administrative acts of the Justice; in 2005, the NCoJ determined that employment of relatives is prohibited (read here).
· Article 111-A changed the composition of the Superior Labour Court; the Labour Justice in Brazil is the one which has been gone through more changes in recent times; one of the reasons for this is that the Labour Justice was created by a Labour Law which is more than 60 years old.
· Article 130-A created the National Council of Public Prosecution, to exercize the external control of the Public Prosecution.
Constitutional Amendment 47, May 5th 2005.
Constitutional Amendment 47, July 5th 2005.
· Changed article 37 (Public Administration).
· Changed article 195, paragraph 9, to allow small sized companies to pay lower social security taxes.
· Amended article 201, to include housekeepers into the social security system. Before the amendment, housekeepers who spent the life working at home reached elderly without any social security assistance; the amendment determines the payment of one minimum wage to housekeepers of low income.
Constitutional Amendment 48, August 10th 2005.
Constitutional Amendment 49, February 8th 2006.
Constitutional Amendment 50, February 14th 2006.
· The vacation of members of Congress was shortened. Former text obliged Congress to meet from February 15th to June 30th and from August 1st to December 15th; now, Congress must meet from February 2nd to July 17th and from August 1st to December 2nd.
· In special circumstances, the Congress may be called to meet during the vacations. In some recent occasions, there were disagreements between Senate and Chamber about the convenience of such callings; to circumvent this problem, an amendment established that only with the agreement of both Houses will the Congress be called during vacations.
Constitutional Amendment 51, February 14th 2006.
Constitutional Amendment 52, March 8th 2006.
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