ТОП 10:

Read the text and match the headings (A-F) to the paragraphs (1-5). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.



Read the text and match the headings (A-F) to the paragraphs (1-5). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.

 

A A Unique Idea

B Our Furry Friends

C A Bright Future

D A Serious Problem
E Looking for a Solution
F Jobs Are Hard to Find

CHANGING LIVES

1. _______________________

When we hear the word 'unemployment', we often wrongly assume it is caused by lazy people who would rather be paid by the state than work for a living. Today, however, due to company closures, business takeovers and a worldwide economic downturn a lot of highly motivated people have lost their jobs.

2. ________________________

Two such people, John and Valerie Meeson, had been unemployed for six months. However, they decided to take action to improve their situation. They gradually raised funds for a job creation plan that would not only provide them with work, but also dosome good within their local area.

3._________________________

The Britleton Buddy Scheme, which provides companionship and assistance for the sick and elderly, is one of their employment programmes. John and Valerie were troubled by the fact that a lot of old people suffer from loneliness and isolation because their families are too busy to spend time with them. Many of them also find it difficult to go out alone because of health problems. With the help of funding from big businesses, as well as grants from charitable trusts, the Britleton Buddy Scheme pays for people to visit the elderly every day, take them shopping or out for a walk, help them prepare their meals and do various jobs around the house.

4. ________________________

The couple have also come up with a scheme to help stray animals. They employ people to feed dogs and cats living on the streets and try to find homes for them. Someof the pets have even been adopted by lonely elderly people taking part in their Buddy Scheme.-The people who are involved in these programmes feel they have been given the opportunity to do something worthwhile. "It's wonderful to be able to help those who really need you, and get paid for it too," said Jack Brightly. "I was made redundant from a company making car parts", said Buddy Project worker, Mary Radley, "but that seems meaningless to me now - this is the first time I've had a job which I feel is worth do­ing."

5.________________________

John and Valerie have now started similar projects in other parts of the country. "Thanks to funding from charitable trusts and donations from companies, we have raised the income to recruit three more project leaders," explained John. "Who knows what changes they can make?" One thing is certain, John and Valerie Messon have shown that unemployed people can change, not just their own lives, but those of oth­ers.

 

Read the text below. For questions (6—18) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

 

The band got together in Dublin, Ireland, in 1976. At the (6) __ of the 1980s they started to have hits in the UK and America. They (7) __in the Live Aid concert in 1985, and after that they were international superstars. Their album The Joshua Tree came out in 1987 and it spent nine weeks at the top of the American charts. In Britain they sold 250,000 copies in two days. A year laterthe album Rattle and Hum (8) __the same success. In the early 1990s they made a series of (9) __and original CDs including Zooropa and Achtung Baby — and continued to sell millions of copies.

Is their music Irish? Not really. Bono is (10) __ by Irish folk songs, but the band hasn't got an Irish sound. It is sometimes American, sometimes British, sometimes pure «U2». But «U2» are rather (11) __from other big rock bands. (12) __ one thing, three of them are Christians and sometimes their concerts have a Christian atmosphere. Bono says: «We are Christians. But it's a very private thing. We are not comfortable (13) __ about it».

Also, they talk about serious problems. They are great (14) __of Amnesty International and Greenpeace. The group is well known for (15) __political songs. Their message is peace and understanding. Even the name of the band is (16) __ this message with others: «U2» also (17) __ «you too».

 

  A B C D
begin beginner begun beginning
appear appeared appearing appears
have had has to have
interesting interest interested interests
fascinate fascinating fascinated is fascinated
different difference differ differentiate
On For With In
talking to talking talked told
support supporting supporter supporters
her his it its
share sharing shared have shared
mean means meaning have meant

Read the text. For questions (1-5), choose the answer (A, B, or C) which you think fits best according to the text.

 

HOLLAND: SHOPPING FRENZY

The best Christmas present for the Dutch is snow! During the holidays , they like to ice skate, but the Dutch only see white Christmas about once every three or four years. May be that is why the Dutch Sinterklaas sails to the local children from Spain, rather than from Lapland. The kids eagerly meet him at the dock, and with his assistant, an elf called Black Pete (Zwarte Piet), he gives everyone marzipan fruits, toys, gingerbread and flower-shaped candies. But this is not enough for the kids, so at night they put their shoes near the fireplace or electric heater in hope of more presents.

Meanwhile, the adults are racing around the shops to make all the proper preparations for Christmas. One must have a Christmas tree, decorations, food for holiday dinner and, of course, presents, which in Holland are exchanged on December 25, Sinterklaas Day. In the Dutch language there is even a special word for the Christmas shopping frenzy - kerstress. The Dutch, who promise themselves to buy only the best, can hardly resist the temptation of the bright displays in all the shop windows.

And how one could resist, with wonderful presents like decorated ceramic beads and bells, sweets, festive decorations made from candles and fir branches, cute snowmen, figu­rines of whole Dutch families in ethnic dress and even steam engines and trains complete with Sinterklaas! And don't forget to stock up on the cooked rabbit and delicious dough­nuts that are a Christmas tradition in the Netherlands: they are sold on every corner, but only for the week before and the week after Christmas.

For those who say that Holland is too emancipated, remember that the old European traditions are alive and well here, especially Christmas ones.

 

1. Where does the Dutch Sinterklaas sail from?
A Spain

B Norway

C Lapland

2. Who is the Sinterklaas's assistant?
A Snow Maiden

B an elf

C Santa Claus

3. What do the adults do to make all preparations for Christmas?

A They race around the shops.

B They decorate a Christmas tree.
C They cook delicious dishes.

4. What is a Christmas tradition in Netherlands?
A the cooked rabbit

B the cooked rabbit and doughnuts

C doughnuts

5. How long are the traditional dishes sold?

A a week before Christmas and a week after Christmas
B a week before Christmas
C a week after Christmas

 

Read the text below. For questions (6—15) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

 

FLOOD

Flood is a body of water that covers normally dry land. Most floods are harmful. They may destroy homes and other property and even carry off the topsoil, leaving the land bar­ren. Sudden and violent floods, which leave people little time to prepare, may bring huge losses. Rivers, lakes, or seas may flood the land. River floods are more common, though lake and seacoast floods can be more serious.

However, sometimes floods may be helpful. For example, the yearly floods of the Nile River built up the plains of Egypt and made the Nile Valley one of the most fertile regions in the world. These floods brought fertile soil from lands far to the south and deposited the soil on the Egyptian plains.

Most rivers overflow their normal channels about once every two years. When a river overflows land where people live, it causes a flood. Common causes of river floods include two much rain at one time and sudden melting of snow and ice.

Under such conditions, rivers may receive more than 10 times as much water as their beds can hold. Heavy rains, sometimes from thunderstorms, can produce flash floods if small rivers or streams rise suddenly and overflow. Flash floods occur chiefly in moun­tainous areas and do not allow much time for people to be warned of danger.

A flash flood at Rapid City, South Dakota, in 1972 killed 238 people along the Rapid Creek. Minor causes of flooding include bridges, piers, filled land, sand bars, and other obstacles to river waters.

In 1993 heavy rains in Midwest for about two months resulted in flooding along the upper Mississippi and the Missouri river system. The flood caused about 15 billion USD worth of damage and forced about 75,000 people from their homes.

The Huang He (Yellow River) in China is known for its tendency to overflow its banks. The river has been called 'China's sorrow' because its floods cause such a great destruc­tion. The worst Huang He flood ever recorded occurred in 1887. Nearly a million of people died in China after the river overflowed its banks.

 

A Flash floods occur chiefly in mountainous areas and do not allow much time for people to be warned of danger.

В The yearly floods of the Nile River made the Nile Valley one of the most fertile regions in the world.

С Flood is water that covers dry land.

D The Huang He in China overflows its banks causing a great destruction.

E Much rain and sudden melting of snow and ice cause river floods.

F Heavy rain for about two months in Midwest resulted in flooding and 15 billion USD worth of damage.

 

Read the text below. For questions (6—17) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

 

THAT'S THE WHOLE POINT!

One day Columbus was at a dinner which a Spanish gentleman (7) __in his honour, and several persons (8) __ who were jealous of the great (9) __success. They were proud, conceited fellows, and they very soon (10) __to try to make Columbus uncomfortable.

« You (11) __ strange lands beyond the seas»,' they said, «but what of that? We do not see (12) __ .There should be so much said about it. Anybody can sail (14) __„ the ocean; and anybody can coast along the islands on the other side, just as you have done. It is (15) __thing in the world».'Columbus(16) __ no answer; but after a while he took an egg from a dish and said to the company: «Who among you, gentlemen, can make this egg stand on its end?»

One by one those at the table tried the experiment. When the egg (17) __entirely around and none had succeeded, everybody said that it could not be done.

Then Columbus took the egg and struck its small end gently upon the table so as to break the shell a little. After that there was no trouble in (18) __ it stand upright.

«Gentlemen», he said, «what is easier than to do this which you said was impossible? It is the sim­plest thing in the world. Anybody can do it, — after it(19)__how!»

 

  A B C D
has given had given been given had been given
are present were present was present had been present
admiral's admirals admirals' admiral
begin to begin has begun began
discovered have discovered had discovered be discovered
when why how what
along towards across behind
the most simple simpler simplest the simplest
make makes made has made
went has gone had gone was gone
make making to make made
have been shown was shown has been shown had been shown

 

OSCAR

It's been called 'the Academy statuette', 'the golden trophy' and 'the statue of merit'. The entertainment trade paper. Weekly Variety, even attempted to popularize 'the iron man'. Thankfully, the term never stuck. Born in 1928, the Academy Award of Merit -which we know as simply 'the Oscar' - depicts a knight holding a crusader's sword, stand­ing on a reel of film with five spokes, signifying the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers and Technicians.

Weighing 3.5 pounds and standing 13.5 inches tall, the statuette was designed by a chief art director Cedric Gibbons. Frederic Hope, the Gibbons' assistant, created the original Belgian black marble base; an artist George Stanley sculpted the design; and the California Bronze Foundry hand cast the first statuette in bronze plated with 24-karat gold.

A popular story has been that the nickname caught on after the Academy librarian and eventual executive director Margaret Herrick said that the statuette resembled her uncle Oscar. Its first documented mention came after the sixth Awards Presentation in 1934 when the Hollywood columnist Sidney Skolsky used it in reference to Katharine Hepburn's first Best Actress win. The Academy itself didn't use the nickname officially until 1939.

Oscar has changed his look on occasion. From the 1930s through the 1950s, juvenile players received miniature replicas of the statuette: the ventriloquist Edgar Bergen was presented with a wooden statuette with a movable mouth; and Walt Disney was honoured with one full-size and seven miniature statuettes on behalf of his animated feature Snow White and Seven Dwarfs.

In support of the World War II effort between 1942 and 1944, Oscars were made of plaster, to be traded in for golden statuettes after the war. Additionally, the base was raised and changed from marble to metal in 1945. And in 1949, the Academy Award statuettes began to be numbered, starting with No. 501.

 

1.Five spokes of the Merit signify the original branches of the Academy.

2.The first statuette was made of gold.

3.The Academy did not use the nickname Oscar officially until 1939.

4.Walt Disney was honoured with seven miniature statuettes on behalf of his ani­mated film Snow White and Seven Dwarfs,

5.Oscars were made of plaster between 1942 and 1944 in support of the World War II.

 

Read the text below. For questions (6—17) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

 

THE FROG IN THE WELL

There was a frog that (6) __in a shallow well.

«Look how well off I am here! » he (7) __a big turtle from the Eastern Ocean. «I can (8) __ along the coping of the well when I go (9) __, and rest by a crevice in the bricks on my return. I can wallow to my heart's content with only my head above water, or (10) __ankle deep through soft mud. No crabs or tadpoles can compare with me. I am the master of the water and the lord of this shallow well. (11) __ more can a fellow ask? Why don't you come here more often to have a good time? ».

Before the turtle from the Eastern Ocean could get his left foot into the well, (12) __, he (13) __ his right claw on something. So he halted and stepped back, then began (14) __the ocean to the frog.

«It's more than a thousand miles across and more than ten thousand feet deep. In ancient times there were floods nine years out of ten, yet the water in the ocean (15) __».

And later there were droughts seven years out of eight, yet the water in the ocean has never grown less. It remained quite constant throughout the ages. That is why I'd (16) __live in the Eastern Ocean».

Then the frog in the shallow well was silent and felt a little (17) __.

 

  A B C D
live lived living lives
tell told telling has told
hop to hop hopping hopped
in out from behind
to stroll stroll strolling strolled
Which Who Why What
however furthermore moreover thus
catch catched caught caughted
describe description to describe described
have never increased has never increased is never increased never increased
rather rather to prefer like
shame ashame ashamed ashaming

 

MARIE CURIE

Marie Curie was one of the most accomplished scientists in history. Together with her husband, Pierre, she discovered radium, an element widely used for treating can­cer, and studied uranium and other radioactive substances. Pierre and Marie's amicable collaboration later helped to unlock the secrets of the atom.

Marie was born in 1867 in Warsaw, Poland, where her father was a professor of phy­sics. At an early age, she displayed a brilliant mind and a blithe personality. Many of her friends would even describe her as easy-going. Her great exuberance1 for learning prom­pted her to continue with her studies after high school. She became disgruntled, however, when she learned that the university in Warsaw was closed to women. Determined to receive a higher education, she defiantly left Poland and in 1891 entered the Sorbonne, a French university, where she earned her master's degree and doctorate in physics.

Marie was fortunate to have studied at the Sorbonne with some of the greatest scientists of her day, one of whom was Pierre Curie. Marie and Pierre were married in 1895 and spent many productive years working together in the physics laboratory. A short time after they discovered radium, Pierre was killed by a horse-drawn wagon in 1906. Marie was stunned by this horrible misfortune and endured heart-breaking anguish. Despondently she recalled their close relationship and the joy that they had shared in scientific research. The fact that she had two young daughters to raise by herself greatly increased her distress.

Curie's feeling of desolation finally began to fade when she was asked to succeed her husband as a physics professor at the Sorbonne. She was the first woman to be given a professorship at the world-famous university. In 1911 she received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for isolating radium. Although Marie Curie eventually suffered a fatal illness from her long exposure to radium, she never became disillusioned about her work. Regardless of the consequences, she had dedicated herself to science and to revealing the mysteries of the physical world.

 

1. Pierre and Marie Curie helped unlock the secrets to the universe.

2. The Curies had a poor working relationship.

3. Marie Curie's father worked as a science professor.

4. The university in Warsaw only admitted men.

5. Marie challenged the norms of society by leaving Poland to go to a university in France.

6. Marie met her future husband, Pierre, in Warsaw.

7. A long time after the couple discovered radium, Pierre died in an accident.

8. When Pierre died, Marie had to raise their three children alone.

9. Marie was asked to find a new professor to replace her husband at the Sorbonne.
10. The Noble prize for physics was awarded to Marie Curie.

 

Read the text below. For questions (6—17) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

 

The British Museum is the (11) __, and one of the largest museums in the world. Where else can you (12) __ some of the greatest treasures of all time under one roof? Here you can see at first hand The Elgin Marbles, The Portland Vase, The Lewis Chessmen, The Sutton Hoo Treasure ,to name only a few of the (13) __collections awaiting you. You(14) __ fascinated by the Egiptian Mummies, and (15) __ by the superb exhibition of prints and drawings which changes severaltimes a year. Allow plenty of time for your visit — the British Museum is a vast store house of treasures. Better still, why not (16) __several times, concentrating on just one exhibit eachtime? In 1753 an act of Parliament (17) __ the British Museum as the world's first public museum. The Cottonian Library was immediately (18) __to the collection.

Another major change to the museum (19) __place when it was decided to remove the British Library to new purpose built premises at St Pancreas. This enormous undertaking begun in the 1970s was not completed until 1998.
Today, the British Museum is home to no less than six and a half million objects and has ninety-four permanent and temporary exhibition galleries. An Education Department (20) __ a wide range of services for adults and children. Other departments are Coins and Medals, Ancient Egypt and Sudan, Africa, Oceania and the Americas, Greek and Roman Antiquities, Asia, Prehistory and Europe, Prints and Drawings, and Middle Eastern Antiquities.

If you want to visit the British Museum, you should remember the following information.
Please, note there are two entrances: the main entrance is at Great Russell Street — this is where the information desk (21) __and where you may obtain a free floor plan. The other entrance is (22) __the north side of the building in Montague Place.

 

  A B C D
old older oldest eldest
see to see saw seeing
wonder wondered wonderful wondering
be to be being will be
inspire inspired inspiring inspires
visit to visit visited visiting
establish established establishing establishment
add to add added adding
take took taking taken
provide provides providing provision
situated being situated situates is situated
in to on for

 

HARRY PORTER

Harry is famous in the wizarding world for his encounter with the evil Lord Voldemort, one of the most powerful sorcerers of all time and the primary antagonist villain in the series, when he was just a year old. Voldemort mysteriously lost his powers in the encounter and was severely crippled, although he survived.

James and Lily Potter were killed in this incident in 1981 while protecting baby Harry from Voldemort's attack. James died first, and Lily's dying act - sacrificing herself to save her infant son - placed Harry under a spell of love and protection, Subsequently, Harry survived the Avada Kedavra or 'killing curse' which was cast against him by Voldemort. Due to a spell of love and protection attributed to Harry after his mother's act of sacrifice, Voldemort's attempt to kill Harry backfired; resulting in the loss of his po­wers, as well as exile and eventual decline from a position of power and fear in the wizard-ing world. This event led to Harry being heralded as a celebrity - "The boy who lived"; due to him being the only person to ever survive the Avada Kedavra curse - a lightning shaped scar being the sole remnant of the incident.

Despite the fact that Harry survived Voldemort's attempted murder, he still has no recollection as to why Voldemort lost his powers. In "Harry Potter and The Chamber of Secrets", Harry confirms this fact when he questions Voldemort.

After the death of his parents, Harry was left with the only family he had left - his mother's sister and her husband Petunia and Vernon Dursley in a small town in Surrey, England, called Little Whinging. They neglected him in favour of their own son and in their attempt to remove all traces of his magical self to make him 'normal', kept him fully isolated from the wizarding world.

 

1. James and Lily Potter couldn't help their son to survive 'killing curse" which was cast on him by Voldemort.

2 .Voldemort lost his powers because of Harry's mother placed her son under a spell of love and protection.

3. Harry had a lightning shaped scar, the reminder of the Avada Kedavra curse survival.

4. Harry Potter lived a happy life at his mother's sister.

5. His aunt and uncle wanted Harry to keep away from the wizarding world.

Read the text below. For questions (6—17) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

 

In 2005 the Rolling Stones released an album (6) __«A Bigger Bang». Many critics, as usual, chose it as their favourite of the year. This isn't very (7) __ , but if you think that «A Bigger Bang» was their 25th album now the Rolling Stones have been around (8) __more than 40 years, and that singer Mick Jagger, guitarist Keith Richards and the other musicians are all well into their 60s, and are (9) __ grandfathers, it starts to look a bit strange. The idea of my grandfather standing on a stage in front of thousands of people singing «I Can't Get No Satisfaction» is just embarrassing. Can you imagine your grandfather doing this?

But the Rolling Stones are not an exception.(10) __ year, ex-Beatle Paul McCartney (11) __ released a new record. He worked with the producer of the band Radiohead to (12) __ himself a more modern sound. His record had limited success, but again thousands of people came out to (13) __ the man when he played live concerts. Many young people still listen to Madonna, as well. She is regarded as being an exciting contemporary artist, even though she has now been making records for more (14) __ 20 years and is in her 50s. It used to be said that pop music was an art form created by and for young people, but now it has grown (15) __. Now pop and rock music have been around for 50 years, people who started listening to it when they were young are now old. Why should their tastes change?

Of course, boy bands — groups of singing and dancing young people who are often not much older than the people who buy or download their songs — still continue to be hugely popular all (16) __the world. However, it is very difficult to imagine a group like Blue still going in forty years' time. And while older readers might remember the Backstreet Boys, or even Take That — how significant has their contribution to popular music really been? And can anyone already even (17) __McFly? Will anybody still be listening to Blue or Britney Spears when they're in their sixties?

  A B C D
name called termed identity
surprising ordinary predicted disbelief
for since until before
each every entire all
First Next Last After
too also and besides
give take get bring
look notice imagine see
that than then them
out about up down
above under beyond over
remember consider keep in mind summon up

 

Read the text below. For questions (6—17) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

 

Two thousand years (6) __ the Romans tried to turn this desert into an oasis, a place full of rivers and lakes and canals. The Romans wanted to build big white temples and big houses under the hot sun, they wanted to turn this desert into a new paradise, full of trees and flowers and fields. They planned to (7) __their ships across the desert. But they failed. The water in the aqueducts dried up. There is nothing (8) __of the Roman canals.

In 1777 a Portuguese (9) __called Emanuel de Melo Pimento came to this desert with a plan to turn it into an oasis. At that time in history, everybody was very excited by new (10) __in science and technology and engineering. Emanuel de Melo Pimento was a man of his times, one of the new scientist-philosopher-engineers who believed that all the problems of people in the world could be (11) __by science and philosophy. He wanted to build a (12) __new city here, he wanted to build a completely new country. He wanted to call it «Pimentia», named after himself, of(13) __.

Emanuel de Melo Pimento had (14) __money because many rich people in Portugal and Spain gave him money to go around the world and explore. Those rich people invested in Emanuel de Melo Pimento's(15) __of exploration and discovery. Emanuel de Melo Pimento took their money and used it not to try and change the surface of the land, like the Romans, but to change what is under the surface of the desert. Emanuel de Melo Pimento wanted to dig canals under the desert, to make big (16) __rivers where the water would not dry up under the heat of the sun. He failed, of course. But some of his plans still (17) __.They are very beautiful works of art.

But none of his plans was ever completed — they needed too much money, more money than even the rich people in Portugal and Spain gave to Emanuel de Melo Pimento. Instead, Emanuel de Melo Pimento spent all the money on building beautiful buildings where he could live and dream of his new city.

 

  A B C D
after before ago since
ride drive push sail
left stayed stand kept
adventure travelling tourist explorer
developing ventures discoveries devices
solved fixed made created
completely quiet finally entire
certain sure right course
many a lot of few crowds of
excursions tours journeys visits
soil ground overground underground
. survive carry on alive perish

 

THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA

The Great Wall of China is the only man-made construction that can be seen from space. It is 6,000 kilometres long. It runs along China's northern border and has an unusual shape. It looks as if its architects did not have any specific plans. It looks like a snake or a long road. Nobody knows why its shape is like this but legend states that it was built to imitate the movements of a dragon - a popular religious symbol in China. The section of the Wall visited by most tourists is at Badaling Pass near Peking. Here, the building mate­rial is grey granite blocks, 6 metres high. On both sides of its roof, there are low walls which protect you from falling off the Wall. In the middle, there is a road which is wide enough for five horses running side by side. Other sections of the Great Wall are built of various materials, often of poor quality, for example of wood or sand depending on whether the wall crossed deserts, plains or the country. The people who were forced to build the Great Wall were often those who could not pay their taxes, prisoners of war and criminals. There were about one million slaves working on the Wall. They lived in poor conditions, in places called work camps. They worked without clothes during the summer and they wore only animal skins in the winter. They often died of disease and hunger. Those who died were often buried in its foundations, making the Wall the 'world's longest cemetery'. There are still many of the original 25,000 towers left. They are about 12 metres high and the distance between two neighbouring towers is over 200 metres. The army usually lived in these towers. In the period of the Wall's glory almost a million men stayed there. Today, the Great Wall is one of the China's tourist attractions. Where else in the world can you see something built by man over twenty-two centuries ago?

 

1. Astronauts can see the Great Wall of China from space.

2. The Great Wall of China was designed to look like a snake.

3. The Great Wall of China was built of one type of material.

4. Prisoners and criminals were not allowed to build the Wall.

5. The builders of the Great Wall of China wore poor clothes.

6. The builders of the Great Wall of China had enough food to live.

7. The Wall's towers are over two hundred metres from each other.

8. In the towers of the Great Wall there lived about one million slaves.

Read the text below. For questions (6—17) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

Sir Timothy Berners-Lee is a British computer scientist who (9) __ the World Wide Web. He received a knighthood from the British (10) __for his efforts (so he is called «Sir»). He is director of W3C, which looks after the Web's development. A (11) __ British newspaper ranked him as the world's greatest living genius. Today's world would be very different (12) __his discovery.

Berners-Lee was born in 1955 to parents who were mathematicians and computer scientists. He (13) __ with numbers and electronics and managed to build his own computer. He (14) __to Oxford University and was banned from using the computers for hacking. Berners-Lee graduated with a degree in physics. His first (15) __after graduating was as a computer programmer and software developer. Berners-Lee spent the 1980s on a (16) __ based on sharing and updating information online.

In 1991, he put the first website online. It explained what the World Wide(17) __was and how it was used. He gave his idea to the world for (18) __. In 1994, Berners-Lee founded W3C to set standards and improve the quality of the Web.

Berners-Lee now spends his (19) __between W3C and as a professor of computer science in England. He also writes (20) __the future of the Web. In 2004, he was named as the first ever winner of the Millennium Technology Prize. He has a string of other awards and is listed as one of Time magazine's 100 most important people of the 20th century.

 

  A B C D
settled mended improved invented
10 King leading Queen key President crucial Governor   primary
with of out without
grew up brought up adult mature
attended passed went entered
job career proficiency occupation
idea website mission project
Mesh Trap Web Net
charge free charity granted
money schedule time period
about on off at

Read the text below. For questions (6—17) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

 

DAVID BECKHAM

David Beckham is an English footballer who has (6) ___ for Manchester United and Real Madrid, (7) ___ representing his country 100 times. He moved to Los Angeles Galaxy in 2007 to increase the profile of football in America. He married «Spice Girl» Victoria Beckham and has become a worldwide (8) ___, an advertising brand and a fashion icon.

Beckham was (9) ___ in London in 1975. His parents were fanatical Manchester United. (10) ___ His talent was obvious from an early (11) ___and he signed with Manchester United on his fourteenth birthday. He helped the youth (12) ___ to win several trophies and made his first team debut in 1995. He helped his team to (13) ___considerable success in his eleven seasons with them.

Beckham has been runner-up twice as world football's best player. He(14) ___ many trophies with Manchester United, including the Champions League, and won a league title with Real Madrid. He also captained his club and country. He was famously sent off in a match against Argentina in the 1998 World Cup. In 2003, Beckham (15) ___ an honour for services to football from Britain's Queen.

Beckham has many interests off the soccer pitch and is rarely(16) ___ of the headlines, especially concerning his marriage and children. He has established football academies in Los Angeles and London. In 2006 he was (17) ___ a judge for the British Book Awards. He lives near Tom Cruise and the two are best friends. Beckham is also a United Nations Goodwill Ambassador.

  A B C D
stayed played won lost
as well as in order to as soon as hardly ever
fame celebrated outstanding celebrity
born come birthday bear
devoted sponsors supporters enthusiastic
epoch era age period
team class game band
took ran achieve realize
came first prevailed lost won
collected granted gave received
on at out in
named labelled fold identified

 

Read the extracts (A-D) and answer the questions (1-5).

HOW DO YOU USE THE NET?

We asked members of one family to tell us what they use the Internet for and why. Here is what they told us.

A Granddad Peter

I might be over 80 but the Internet is invaluable to me. At my age it's not always so easy to get about and my friends and family are scattered all over the globe. It's difficult to visit and have face-to-face conversations very often. It's a bit pricy too! Phoning isn't convenient because of the different time zones. I don't think my brother in Australia would appreciate being woken up at three in the morning just for me to say hello! So I keep in touch by e-mail and it's very important to me. It took me a while to get the hang of it but now it's no problem at all.

B Daughter Lynne

I must admit that I'm a spendaholic and I'm on auction sites all the time. I can't resist a bargain and I love the excitement of bidding against other people and never being sure whether you're going to win or not. It's quite addictive so I have to be careful or else I would be completely broke! I think it's incredible that whatever you're looking to buy, someone out there has got it to sell.

C Mum Karen

I find the Net useful for downloading information for my students. You can also access sites that give you free lesson plans and good, imaginative ideas for making les­sons interesting. There's such a lot of knowledge out there too. To get the answers to the kind of questions I have, it would take hours with piles of books and I simply don't have the time. For me the Net is a lifeline!

D Dad Oliver

My big thing is news and sports and I'm always online checking the latest scores. I work shifts too, so I often miss the regular news slots and with the Net I can always watch news clips of programmes that were on earlier. It also brings you breaking news and with the more controversial issues if you want to, you can read people's comments and of course, make your own. I do that quite often. And there are also online newspa­pers. If I don't get a paper, I can always go online and click on to the newspapers web­site. It's easier to choose what you want to read rather than leafing through the papers which can be so big these days.

 

Which person says…

1. I see the Net as time saving. ____

2. I sometimes share my opinions with others. ____

3. I use it to get help with my work. ____

4. I don't always get what I want. ____

5. It took time to work out how to use the Net. ____

 

Read the text below. For questions (6—17) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

Native English Animals

Now England has hardly any predatory animals in the wild, but has it always been that way? Not according to ancient rhymes. England was once a country where predatory animals freely roamed and so danger lurked.

Many centuries ago bears, wolves, lynx, etc, ranged the forests and woodlands. Also wild boar, Elk and Aurochs (wild bulls) were (6)___. However, although some of these species hung on till medieval times, most of these animals were long gone by that time. The last English wolf in England was (7)___ killed and the population extinct by the 16th century, although in Wales it is thought to have lasted a few centuries (8)____. The great Auroch herds did not last nearly as long and were sadly gone as early as the 9th Century, although on the continent it lasted for many, many (9)____ centuries.

There was an even bigger size herding animal in Britain in the early centuries. The Giant deer species called Megaloceros, with an antler span of up to 3 meters; it was possibly (10)____ by the time Neolithic man was making wooden stockades. But the antlers were often found, and perhaps used for digging with.

Lynx is thought to have gone by the 10th Century, in England at least. It is thought that the Neolithic settlers mingling with peoples already present or taking over, came from the continent and brought their own animals; cattle, (11)____ dogs and cats, pigs and also goats with them and built the wooden stockades to protect them.

In Saxon England land was cleared of the forest and a large communal area was used (12)_____ farming; this was divided into strips called furrows. However by Medieval times the rich landlords had claimed a lot of land and planted hedges (13)____ their boundaries. This may have meant farming was easier, but for the poor it meant they were beggared and starving, (14)____ the loss of their land meant the loss of their livelihoods.

Land by the Thames was taken from the people in medieval times and given over to sheep farmers for the trading of wool, which by then had become an important industry that provided (15)____ for the crown.

So by now most of the original predatory or herding wild animals had been (16)_____ by non-native species. Thankfully there is now a program that is re-releasing our original, surviving animals back into their own natural habitat. We (17)____ desperately that this is successful.

 

    A B C D
rich plentiful many brimful
credible maybe possible probably
longer later more earlier
more past less last
dead obsolete extinct vestigial
schooled captured educated domesticated
to for out of of
to mark to show to exhibit to label
like as that so
pay fee income rent
survived transferred carried replaced
dream hope think sure

 

 

Read the text and choose the best answer (A-D) to complete the sentences (1-6).

UNDER THE WEATHER

 

Have you ever wondered if the weather affects your mood and behaviour? If you have, then you're right! The way you think and feel can actually change depending on the weather.

Many people complain of feeling 'down' or having 'the blues' in winter. This may be because there isn't as much sunshine in the winter and our brains respond to natural light. In Britain, for example, many people suffer from SAD (Seasonal Affective Disor­der) which makes them tired and bed-tempered because there is little sunshine in the often grey and cloudy United Kingdom.

Of course, we all know that a bright, sunny day can make us really cheerful and put us in a good mood. In New York City, however, the police blame hot weather for rises in crime. During heat waves in the summer crime levels rise as people get angry and aggressive because of the change in temperature.

Some scientists have discovered that low air pressure can cause people to have prob­lems concentrating and make them forgetful. So, if you're the kid or person that's always forgetting where you've left your house keys, blame it on the weather!

What about the wind? Does it drive you mad? It actually could be making you crazy! Strong and constant winds really can get to you. Children tend to be more troublesome in school and behave badly when it's windy. Another result of windy weather is that there are more traffic accidents. Therefore you should also take extra care while driving.

So, next time you watch the weather report it could even predict your mood for the day!

 

1. The article is about_

Apredicting the weather

B how the weather changes how we feel

C sickness caused by the weather

D changes in the seasons

2. People in Britain are said to suffer from SAD in the winter because_____

A there isn't a lot of sunshine

B there aren't many clouds

C they are tired

D their brains don't respond

3. Summer heat waves are blamed for__

A people becoming forgetful

B car accidents

C crime levels getting higher

D making it difficult to concentrate

4. If you are forgetful, it could be because

A of rain

B of a heat wave

C of low pressure in the air

D of no air pressure

5. During windy weather children might____

A have more traffic accidents

B be more careful at school
C be more tired
D not be well-behaved

6. The writer suggests that when it`s windy

A teachers should close the windows

B drivers should be more careful

C people should take care crossing the road

D children should try to be happy

Read the text below. For questions (6—17) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

 

ADVERTISING

 

Whether it isin print or on television, radio, or billboards, advertising profoundly (7)___ our life. The ads we see, hear, and smell (in the case of open-and-sniff perfume inserts in magazines) (8)___ how we feel and what we think about a wide range of products. Companies pay a lot of money (up to $1 million for a 30-second Super Bowl spot) to (9)____ us that their products are the best.

Advertising has a long history in North America. As early as the 1600s, ads were used to (10)____ English settlers to the Colonies. According to historian Daniel Boorstin, these brochures (11)____ “hopeful overstatements, half-truths, and downright lies…”.

Nonetheless, the sales campaign was effective; people came. In the 1700s famous (12)_____ were involved in the advertising business, (13)____ them Benjamin Franklin, who ran ads in his publications, and Paul Revere, who advertised his handmade false teeth. But it was not until the late 1800s, with the boom in mass-circulation magazines, that advertising became the powerful force it is today. Television arrived in the 1940s and (14)____ a new, action-packed advertising medium.

Creating a good ad isn’t as (15)_____ as it might seem. One key is to find the right spokesperson. An effective approach is to have the company president speak. In the 1980s Chrysler’s Lee Lacocca (16)____ viewers, “If you can find a better car, buy it.” Another is to hire an athlete. Still another option is to create(17)___ characters, such as the dancing California raisins, the Speedy Alka-Seltzer fellow, or an animated parrot (Gillette).

A memorable slogan is helpful as well: “I can’t (18)___ I ate the whole thing”; “Where is the beef?”; “You deserve a break today”…

 

    A B C D
installs inherits influences introduces
effect infect affect protect
assume retail remember persuade
win attract invade involve
contained consisted located contributed
numbers members figures peoples
along among between through
stayed remained created resulted
  slight easy light heavy
urged learned studied proclaimed
    unforgettable unforgivable undesirable uninviting
suppose consider hope believe

 

Read the text. For questions (1-5), choose the answer (A, B or C) which you think fits best according to the text.

HISTORY OF HAMBURGER

The roots of the modern hamburger go back to the German city of Hamburg. According to historians, German immigrants to the United States brought the recipe for a dish of raw-chopped beef mixed with egg. The Germans learned about the dish, now called Steak Tartar, from the Russian sailors who visited Hamburg and brought along an appetite for food from their homeland. The Russians apparently learned about the dish from the Tartars.

The first documented mention of hamburg steak in the United States was in the 1830s. In 1896, a hamburger was included in the famous cookbook of Boston chef Fannie Farmer for the first time.

More than one person has claimed to be the creator of the modern hamburger sandwich. At various times in the late 1800s and early 1900s, cooks from Wisconsin, Connecticut, Ohio, and Texas boasted of inventing the hamburger.

The most widely reported story about the origin of the hamburger comes from the 1904 World's Fair. Fletcher Davis and his wife from Athens set up a food counter and sold ham­burgers with hot mustard and a slice of onion. An article about the fair in St Louis was published in a New York newspaper, and it mentioned the sale of hamburgers but failed to include the name of the cook. Since then, the whole world has come to know the ham­burger, but no one will ever know with absolute certainty, who really created it!

 

1. How did the dish, now called Steak Tartar, come to Germany?

A It was brought by the Russian sailors.
В It was brought by the Native Americans.
С It was brought by the Tartars.

2. Where was a hamburg steak recipe written down first?

A In a menu

В In a cookbook

С In an encyclopaedia

3. Who has claimed to be the creator of the modern hamburger sandwich?

A Immigrants

В Cooks

С Sailors

4. Where were hamburgers sold in 1904?

A At the World's Fair
В At a rodeo

С At the Big Sky Games

5. What did a New York newspaper fail to mention about the fair in St Louis?

A The World Fair
В Hamburgers

С The name of the cook

Read the text below. For questions (6—15) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).

 

FREEDOM PARROT

A man, a great man, a fighter for freedom was travelling in the mountains. He stayed in a caravanserai for the night. He (6) __that in the caravanserai there was a beautiful parrot in a golden cage, continually(7) __'Freedom! Freedom!' And it was such a place that when the parrot repeated the word 'Freedom!' it would go on echoing in the valleys, in the mountains.

The man thought: 'I have seen many parrots, and I have thought they must want to be free from those cages... but I have never seen such a parrot whose whole day, from the morning to the evening when he (8) __to sleep, is spent in calling out for freedom.' He had an idea. In the middle of the night, when the owner was fast asleep, he got up and opened the door of the cage. He (9) __to the parrot, 'Now get out. ` But he was very surprised that the parrot was clinging to the bars of the cage. He said to him again and again, '(10) __about freedom? Just get out! The door is open and the owner is fast asleep; nobody will ever know. You just fly into the sky; the whole sky is yours.'

But the parrot was clinging so deeply, so hard, that the man said, 'What is the matter? Are you mad?' He tried to take the parrot out with his own hands, but the parrot started (11) __at him, and at the same time he was shouting 'Freedom! Freedom!' The va







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