ТОП 10:

Read the text and match the headings (A-G) to the paragraphs (1-6). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.


A Everything Is for Tourists

B Edinburgh - the National Symbol of Scotland

C New Job for Stewards

D The History of the Castle Is the History of Scotland

E Schedule for Visitors

F Fortress and Seat of Kings

G Sights of the Castle



A majestic landmark which dominates the capital city's skyline just as it has dominated Scotland's long and colourful history, Edinburgh Castle is the best-known and most of ten visited of the country's historic buildings. Perched on an extinct volcano and offering stunning views, this instantly recognizable fortress is a powerful National symbol, and a part of Edinburgh's world heritage site.

2. _________________________________

The castle's story is that of Scotland. 'The stronghold of Eidyn' was first recorded before 600 AD and by the Middle Ages it has become a mighty fortification and the royal residence of Scotland's kings and queens. Since the Bronze Age it has witnessed much of the nation's rich past including the birth of Mary Queen of Scots` the only child - James VI, who united the crowns of Scotland and England - to Cromwell`s Roundheads and the Jacobite Risings.

3. _________________________________

A rich mix of architectural styles reflects the castle's complex history and role as both the stronghold and the seat of kings. The tiny St Margaret's Chapel, the Edinburgh's old­est building, dates from the 1100s; Crown Square, the principal courtyard, was developed in the 15ti: century; the Great Hall with its impressive hammer beam roof was built by James IV, the Half Moon Battery was created in the late 16th century; and the Scottish National War Memorial was added later, after the World War I,

4. ______________________________

For visitors today, the Castle offers a wealth of attractions to explore. These include: the magnificent Laich Hall; the National War Memorial: the Vaults where the prisoners of war were held in the 18th and 19th centuries; the 'Honours of the Kingdom' exhibition telling the story of Scotland's Crown Jewels - saved from Cromwell to become some of the oldest surviving regalia in Europe; the Stone of Destiny - taken to Westminster Abbey in 1296 and returned to Scotland 700 years later; the One O'clock Gun and a display on the history of time guns and timekeeping; and the giant medieval siege cannon Mons Meg, once again standing proudly on the castle ramparts.

5. ________________________________

Castle stewards provide guided tours and there is also an audio tour in six languages. As well as gift and bookshops, the Crown Jewel's shop offers exclusive, specially designed jewellery for sale. Visitors can take a break in the Castle cafe.

6. ________________________________

The Castle is open all year seven days a week: April to September from 9.80 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. and October to March from 9.30 a.m. to 5.00 p.m. The last ticket is sold 45 minutes before the closing. It is closed on Christmas Day and Boxing Day. Car parking is not available from June to October due to the Edinburgh Military Tattoo.

Read the text below. For questions (7—16) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).



The Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata, had been observed in the wild for a period of over 30 years. In 1952, on the island of Koshima, scientists were providing monkeys with sweet potatoes dropped in the sand. The monkey liked the taste of the (7) __sweet potatoes, but they found the dirt unpleasant.

An 18-month-old female named Imo found she could (8) __the problem by washing the potatoes in a nearby stream. She taught this trick to her mother. Her playmates also (9) __this new way and they taught their mothers too.

This cultural (10) __was gradually picked up by various monkeys before the eyes of the scientists. Between 1952 and 1958 all the young monkeys learned to wash the sandy sweet potatoes to make them more palatable. Only the adults who (11) __their children learned this social improvement. Other adults kept eating the dirty sweet potatoes.

Then something (12) __took place. In the autumn of 1958, a certain number of Koshima monkeys were washing sweet potatoes — the exact number is not known. Let us suppose that when the sun (13) __one morning there were 99 monkeys on Koshima Island who had learned to wash their sweet potatoes. Let's further suppose that later that morning, the hundredth monkey learned to wash potatoes. Then it happened!

By that evening almost everyone in the (14) __was washing sweet potatoes before eating them. The added energy of this hundredth monkey somehow (15) __an ideological breakthrough!

But notice: A most surprising thing observed by these scientists was that the (16) __of washing sweet pota­toes then jumped over the sea. Colonies of monkeys on other islands and the mainland troop of monkeys at Takasakiyamabegan washing their sweet potatoes. Thus, when a certain critical number achieves awareness, this new awareness may be communicated from mind to mind.

  A B C D
boiled raw undercooked washed
do solve guess understand
taught studied learned found out
innovation invention research device
followed copied duplicated imitated
wonderful startling terrific overwhelming
raised arose rose got up
group tribe family company
created founded worked out established
tradition custom tendency habit

Read the text and match the headings (A-F) to the paragraphs (1-5). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use.


AA New Kind of Leader

B A Sad Day

C How Did It Get There?

D Listen to Us

E They Couldn't Escape

F On Top of the World




In 1963, a gang of thirteen men carried out one of the biggest robberies in British history. They stopped a train and stole £2,3 million. During the robbery, the train driver was hit on the head and died seven years later. The police found their fingerprints and the gang travelled all over the world to escape but, at the end, the police caught all thirteen of them. Nobody ever found the money.

2. ________________________

King George VI was a very popular king and the country was heartbroken when he died in 1952. The coronation of his daughter, Elizabeth, took place on June 2nd 1952. Twenty million people watched on television and another 11 million listened to the coro­nation on the radio. While they were listening and watching, the news came in from Nepal that Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tensing had climbed to the top of Mount Eve­rest, the first people to do so. They reached the top on May 29th but the news took four days to come through.

3. _________________________

Margaret Thatcher became a leader of the Conservative Party in Britain in 1975 when the Labour Party were in power. There were many problems in Britain in the late 1970s. People found it hard to get jobs, prices were going up and, in 1979, the Conservative Party came up with a famous slogan: 'Labour isn't working.' In May that year, Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister, the first woman ever to be Prime Minister in Britain. She led the country for eleven years and changed it for ever.

4. ________________________

At the end of 1963, The Beatles were the most popular pop group in England. Fans screamed at their concerts and they sold millions of records. But, in America, nobody knew who they were. No English groups were popular in America. Two months later, in February 1964, The Beatles were number one in America and millions of people watched them on television on the Ed Sullivan Show. Over the next few years, many groups like The Rolling Stones and The Who also went to America and changed the world of rock and roll.


In 1966, the World Cup was played in England. The excitement started four months before when the cup disappeared. A dog, named Pickles, found it in a garden and nobody ever knew who took it and how it got into the garden. When the football started, Eng­land made it to the final against their old enemies West Germany. It was an exciting match, with six goals altogether, England winning 4-2. Just before the last goal, some fans started running onto the pitch. The commentator famously said, "They think it's all over" and then, when the goal went in, he continued, "It is now."


Read the text below. For questions (6—18) choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).


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