The future perfect continuous



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The future perfect continuous



Formation. The future perfect continuous is formed analytically by means of the auxiliary to be in the future perfect (shall/will have been) and participle I of the notional verb.

Their interrogative, negative and negative-interrogative forms are built similar to other future forms.

He will have been writing a letter for two hours when I came

It denotes actions which begin before a certain moment of time in the future and go on up to that moment or into it: I shall have been living there for five years next February.

The Pronoun

The pronounis a notional part of speech, which points to objects, their properties and relations, their local or temporal reference, or placement, without naming them.

Morphological composition and their characteristics

Pronouns may be of different structure:

1) Simple pronouns- I, You, he, she

2) Compound pronouns comprise more than one morpheme (stem). Everybody, something, somebody, nothing

3) Composite pronouns have the form of a phrase: Each other, one another

Classification of pronouns

According to the semantic meaning pronouns are divided into the following groups:

Personal pronouns Жіктеу есімдіктері

2) Тәуелдеу есімдіктері - Possessive pronouns

Сілтеу есімдіктері - Demonstrative pronouns

4) Сұрау есімдіктері - Interrogative pronouns

5) Қатыстық есімдіктер немесе байланыстырушы есімдіктер –

Relative pronouns

Белгісіздік есімдіктер - Indefinite pronouns

7) Болымсыздық есімдіктер - Negative pronouns

8) Өздік есімдіктер - Reflexive pronouns

9) - Reciprocal pronouns Ортақ есімдіктер

Жалпылау есімдіктер - Universal pronouns –every, everyone, each, other, either

Personal pronouns

Personal pronounsare noun-pronouns, indicating persons (I, you, he, she, we, they) or non-persons (it, they) from the point of view of their relations to the speaker.

Thus I (me) indicates the speaker himself, we (us) indicates the speaker together with some other person or persons, youindicates the person or persons addressed, while he, she, they (him, her, them) indicate persons or things which are neither the speaker nor the persons addressed to by the speaker.

Personal pronouns have the category of person, number, case and gender.

The category of person (Жақ категориясы)

The 1st person I - we

The 2nd person you – you

The 3rd person he, she it - they

The category number (Түр категориясы)

1) The singular number – Жекеше түр

2) The plural number – Көпше түр

The category of case

Personal pronouns have two cases there are corresponding possessive pronouns and their absolute forms

NOMINATIVE CASE WHO?/WHAT? OBJECTIVE CASE Whom? POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS/CONJOINT FORM ABSOLUTE FORM
I Me My Mine
You You Your Yours
She Her Her Hers
He Him His His
It It Its Its
We Us Our Ours
They them their Theirs

Possessive pronouns indicate possession by persons (my, mine, your, yours, their, theirs) or non-persons (its, their, theirs). They comprise two sets of forms:

1) The conjoint forms – my, your, his, her, its, our, their - which always combine with nouns and premodify them as attributes.

My book is interesting. Whose book is interesting?

2) The absolute forms –mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, theirs. They don’t combine with nouns, but function as their substitutes.

Mineis interesting.

Demonstrative Pronouns

This (These) / That (Those)/ Such/The same

Singular Plural

This /that These /those

Both this and that can be applied to persons or things;

‘I like thatfellow,’-he said to his brother.

Other people were anxious to get thissoap at thisprice.

INTERROGANIVE PRONOUNS

Who/Whose/What/Which/Whom

They are used to form special questions.

Who refers to human beings, what usually refers to things (it may be applied to people when inquirinq about their occupation)

Whowas that? – It was my friend./it was tom waits.

Whatare you looking for? – I`m looking for a pen.

Whatis he? – A painter.

Which has a selective meaning (“который из”).

It may refer to persons or things:

Whichof us does he mean?

Reciprocal pronouns

Reciprocal pronouns are each other –бір-біріне,, one another -біреуі екіншісіне, бір-біріне are usually used corresponding two persons or two things.

e.g. Tolegen and kyz-Zhibek looked at each other lovely.

College students always help one another.

Reflexive pronouns

Myself/Himself/Itself/Ourselves/Yourself (Yourselves) /Themselves

We often use reflexive pronouns with these verbs: amuse/blame/cut/dry/enjoy/hurt/introduce:

I enjoyed myself very much at the party.

We amused ourselves playing football on the beach.

Jim prides himself on his cooking.

We can use reflexive pronouns after prepositions:

Look after yourself! Take care of yourself.

She lives by herself (=alone).She made the dress by herself (=without help)

We don’t use “myself”, etc.after feet /relax/ concentrate/wash/dress/shave/behave;

I feel great after having a swim

You must try and concentrate

I got up,washed, shaved and dressedquickly.

But:Wash /dress/ shave yourself!-Помойся/оденься/побрейся!

Behave yourself!-Веди себя прилично!

Compare:

selves (себя) each other /one another (друг друга)

Tom and Ann stood in front of Tom and Ann stood in front in of the

The mirror and looked at mirror and looked at each other themselves. (one another)

(Tom looked at Tom, Ann (Tom looked at Tom, Ann

looked Ann) looked Ann)”Each other” generally

implies only two. «one another”-two or more.

Remember set expressions meaning:

 
 
On my (her/his/its/our/their) own by myself/yourself/himself/itself(singular) ourselves/yourselves/themselves(plural)

 

 


I like living on own/by myself

Did you go on holidays on your own/by yourself?

Learner-drivers are not allowed to drive on their own/by themselves



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