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TASK 2. Choose the correct definition for each legal profession mentioned in the text.
(a) an officer acting as a judge in the lower courts.
(b) a public official with authority to hear and decide cases in a law court.
(c) a group of people who swear to give a true decision on issues of in a law court.
(d) an official who investigates the cause of any death thought to be .violent or unnatural causes.
(e) a lawyer who has the right to speak and argue in higher law courts.
(f) a lawyer who prepares legal documents, advises clients on legal and speaks for them in lower law courts.
Task 3. Match the names of the courts with their definitions.
Magistrates' Court a) hears all civil cases that cannot be decided by County Courts
County Courts b) is the final appellate tribunal
Crown Courts c) the main civil courts
High Court d) try the majority of all criminal cases and some civil cases
Court of Appeal e) hears both criminal and civil appeals
House of Lords f) deals with all the more serious criminal cases.
Task 4.Read the story about the barrister Mr. Smith. The author made 3 mistakes. Find them.
Mr. Smith is going to take silk. For this he has to pass special legal exams. Then he will be able to give advice to non-professional clients and not to take part in the court trials as the counsel for the prosecution but only as the counsel for defence.
Task 5. Do you know how to call the person who does the following actions?
1. conduct a trial and pass the sentence;
2. have a first-hand knowledge of the event and give evidence under oath;
3. bring suits against other people;
4. in cooperation with other people are to decide the truth of the case tried before the judge;
5. act for the state in prosecuting criminals;
6. are appointed to try small offences in Britain;
7. break the laws;
8. are suspected of committing crimes and brought before the court.
Task 6. You must read the secret letter from the agent to his boss. But we have not got the capital letters and the prepositions. Put them on the right place.
Dear sir the plan you have sent to me can not be fulfilled everything i see around does not correspondent to what i learnt at home the people i meet are not like you told me about the scheme your specialists drafted is of no good the person i had to apply to appeared to be a nice girl i fell in love with the flat she lives in is very nice and soon we'll get married i'm sorry not to fulfil your task hope not to see you again yours j.
Task 7. Read the following text and fill in the chat. What is the difference between barristers and solicitors?
Solicitors and Barristers
England is almost unique in having two different kinds of lawyers, with separate jobs in the legal system. The two kinds of lawyers are solicitors and barristers.
If a person has a legal problem, he will go and see a solicitor. Almost every town will have at least one. In fact there are at least 50,000 solicitors hi Britain, and the number is increasing.
Many problems are dealt with exclusively by a solicitor. For instance, the solicitor deals with petty crimes and some matrimonial matters in Magistrates' Courts, the lowest Courts. He prepares the case and the evidence. He actually speaks in Court for you.
In a civil action he can speak in the County Court, when the case is one of divorce or recovering some debts. In the County Court the solicitor wears a black gown over his ordinary clothes.
A solicitor also deals with matters outside Court. He does the legal work involved in buying a house, for instance. He writes legal letters for you and carries on legal arguments outside Court. If you want to make a will the best man to advise you is a solicitor.
To qualify as a solicitor, a young man or woman joins a solicitor as a "clerk" and works for him whilst studying part time for the "Law Society" exams. Interestingly enough, it is not necessary for you to go to university. When you have passed all the necessary exams, you can "practice", which means you can start business on your own.
Barristers are different from solicitors. Barristers are experts in the interpretation of the Law. They are called in to advise on really difficult points. The barrister is also an expert on advocacy (the art of presenting cases in Court). Indeed, if you desire representation in any Court except the Magistrates' Court, you must have a barrister, with one or two exceptions.
Barristers are rather remote figures. If you need one, for instance, you never see him without your solicitor being with him. Barristers do not have public offices in any street. They work in what are known as chambers, often in London. They all belong to institutions called Inns of Court, which are ancient organizations rather like exclusive clubs. In many ways the remoteness they have and the job they do are medieval in conception.
To qualify as a barrister you have to take the examinations of the Bar Council. These are different from solicitors' examinations. There are over 5,000 barristers in England. A good one can earn 30,000 pounds a year. Only barristers can become judges in an English Court above a Magistrates' Court.
Barristers are also found in South Africa and New South Wales (Australia)
TASK 8. Answer the questions.
What is almost unique about the English legal system?
What kind of problems does a solicitor deal with?
How do you qualify as a solicitor?
What are barristers experts in?
When must you have a barrister?
What reasons are there for saying a barrister is rather remote?
How do you qualify as a barrister?
TASK 9. Read the following text and answer the questions.
One of the most important figures in the British legal system is the solicitor. It is his job to advise you on legal matters of all kinds. If you get into trouble with the police you will probably ask a solicitor to help prepare your defense and, if the offence is to be heard hi a Magistrates' Court, you can ask a solicitor to appear for you and argue your case. If the case goes to a higher Court, the solicitor still advises you, but you must get a barrister to appear for you.
On this tape a young solicitor discussed his experience: the reasons for theft, crimes of violence and how he feels when he knows the man he is defending is guilty. He gives his reason for defending someone hi these circumstances.
What are the two main jobs of a solicitor?
What does the young solicitor talk about on the tape?
TASK I0. Read the following text and answer the questions.
In Britain, the vast majority of judges (that is, the people who decide what should be done with people who commit crimes) are unpaid. They are called "Magistrates", or "Justices of the Peace" (JPs). They are ordinary citizens who are selected not because they have any legal training but because they have "sound common sense" and understand their fellow human beings. They give up time voluntarily.
A small proportion of judges are not Magistrates. They are called "High Court Judges" and they deal with the most serious crimes, such as those for which the criminal might be sent to prison for more than a year. High Court Judges, unlike Magistrates, are paid salaries by the State and have considerable legal training.
Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and district. Nobody, not even the Magistrates themselves, knows who is on the special committee in their area. The committee tries to draw Magistrates from as wide a variety of professions and social classes as possible.
On this tape, a Magistrate describes the sort of people who come before him, gives examples of a few typical cases and finally talks about the difficulty of deciding between when to help a person and when to punish him.
1. What kind of people are Magistrates?
2. Why are they selected?
3. Who would judge a person who had committed a crime like murder?
4. Who selects Magistrates and what is unusual about the system?
Task 11. Read the text and answer the questions:
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