Дифференциация между Прошедшим неопределенным и



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Дифференциация между Прошедшим неопределенным и



Настоящим совершенным временем.

 

Задание 8. Прочтите утверждения в левой колонке и укажите номер того из них, продолжением которого служит фраза из правой колонки.

e.g. A. 1. He discovered a new chemical element. 2. He has discovered a new chemical element. It was the beginning of his long and successful career.
  B. 1. I put the kettle on and sat down in an armchair. 2. I have just put the kettle on. I can’t leave the kitchen at the moment.
  A – 1; B – 2.

 

A. 1. The nature of matter has interested men since ancient times. 2. The nature of matter interested men many centuries ago.   The result is chemistry.
B. 1. The Frenchman Antoine Augustin Parmentier invented twenty different ways of cooking potatoes. 2. The Frenchman Antoine Augustin Parmentier has invented twenty different ways of cooking potatoes.     He was one of the pioneers in the cooking potatoes.
C. 1. The word “sandwich” has appeared in all South European languages. 2. The word “sandwich” appeared in all South European languages.   It is also used in the Arabic and Turkish languages.
D. 1.The fisher folk of Norway, Greenland have used the liver oil of cods as a medicine. 2. The fisher folk of Norway, Greenland used the liver oil of cods as a medicine. Now the liver oil of cods and other fishes is given to babies in many countries besides Norway and Greenland.
E. 1. The egg has been a symbol of fertility. 2. The egg was a symbol of fertility. The ancient Persians worshiped it.
F. 1. Zero degrees centigrade has been adopted as the standard temperature for reporting gas volumes. 2. Zero degrees centigrade was adopted as the standard temperature for reporting gas volumes.   So the standard conditions are now 760 mm and 0º C.
G. 1. New classes of freeze-dried products, such as meat salads, have been developed for space feeding. 3. New classes of freeze-dried products, such as meat salads, were developed for space feeding.   These foods solved many problems of the first manned space flights.
H. 1. The cans have been sterilized. 2. The cans were sterilized. But we could not put them into boxes yesterday.

 

Задание 9. Напишите следующие утверждения, вставляя глагол в нужной форме.

e.g. At the end of the 18th century Appert (discovered, has discovered) the principle of canning food. – At the end of the 18th century Appert discovered the principle of canning food.

 

1. Now the potato (became, has become) a staple food in Britain, Northern Europe, parts of America, and Australia.

2. The potato (was unknown, has been unknown) in Europe until the second half of the 16th century.

3. Alchemy (interested, has interested) many learned men in the 12th and 13th centuries.

4. Since the middle of the 19th century two new and very important branches of chemistry (grew up, have grown up): these are organic chemistry and physical chemistry.

5. In the 19th century the science of chemistry (grew up, has grown up) very rapidly with the development of the atomic theory.

6. The closed sandwiches (steadily increased, have steadily increased) in popularity since the 18th century.

7. Scandinavia, Germany and East European countries (invented, have invented) their own open sandwiches which they call “butter breads”.

8. For centuries eggs (were, have been) the subject of legends and myths.

 

Дифференциация между сказуемым в Прошедшем неопределенном времени и определением, выраженным страдательным причастием.

 

Задание 10. Вторая и третья форма глаголов, оканчивающаяся на –ed, а также ряда неправильных глаголов одинаковы, поэтому если слово с данными признаками следует непосредственно за существительным, оно может быть либо сказуемым в прошедшем неопределенном времени, либо определением, выраженным страдательным причастием.

а) Прочитайте следующие утверждения и против номера каждого предложения отметьте, является ли подчеркнутая форма глагола сказуемым или определением. Для этого отбросьте мысленно всю подчеркнутую группу слов, относящихся к данному слову. Если остаток является законченным осмысленным утверждением, то данная глагольная форма является определением, а если нет, то сказуемым.

e.g. 1. The yeast added to the dough helps it rise. (Attribute) 2. The pepper added flavour to the meat, but made it spicy. (Predicate)

1. The centigrade scale used now in many countries was devised by Anders Celsius.

2. The earlier thermometers used alcohol coloured with a dye as the liquid in the tube.

3. The inert gases needed further investigation.

4. The amount of protein needed by the body varies with the age, sex, size, work and health.

5. The periodic table made the discovery of the unknown elements easier.

6. Bread made of barley flour is heavy.

7.Less than 30 years ago, hens consumed almost nine pounds of feed to produce a dozen eggs.

8.Today the amount of feed consumed by the hen is twice as little for the same number (a dozen) of eggs.

 

б) Прочитайте следующие утверждения и против номера каждого предложения отметьте, является ли подчеркнутое слово сказуемым или определением.

1. 1.The thermometer devised by Reameur is now seldom used.

2. Anders Celsius devised the centigrade thermometer.

3. The lack of vitamin A caused many diseases last century.

4. Nightblindness caused by the lack of vitamin A can be prevented by taking cod-liver oil.

5. Bread made with yeast is light and tender.

6. Ancient man made first beer quite by chance.

7. The amount of vitamin required by the body depends on many factors.

8. The problems of space feeding required further consideration.

 

Задание 11. Передайте письменно суть утверждений, переписывая их полностью, если подчеркнутое слово является сказуемым, и опуская уточняющую информацию, выраженную подчеркнутым словом и относящимися к нему словами, если оно является определением.

e.g. The cans properly filled and sealed are sterilized very carefully. – The cans are sterilized very carefully.

1. Three men devised thermometers at about the same time.

2. Scurvy caused by the lack of vitamin C can be prevented by taking foods rich in ascorbic acid.

3. Designing space foods involved more than developing acceptable nutritious foods.

4. Milk or cream used for such dairy products as butter, cheese, and icecream are subjected to heat treatment.

5. Most of the wines produced in the world are beverage wines of ordinary quality.

6. Flour from wheat made a light-brown bread.

7. The mixture of malts used and different treatment applied throughout the course of brewing are the main factors determining the various kinds of beer.

8. The inert gases made each period of the periodic law one element longer.

 

Задание 12. Прочитайте начало следующих утверждений, найдите конец каждого из них и прочитайте их вслух целиком. Время ограничено.

 

e.g. 1. The cans, properly filled and sealed, 2. The cans were properly filled and sealed, 3. After the cans were properly filled and sealed, and then sterilized. (1) they were sterilized. (2) were then sterilized. (3)
  1 – 3; 2 – 1; 3 – 2

 

A. 1. Bread was made of barley flour, 2. Bread, made of barley flour, 3. When bread was made of barley flour, was heavy. (1) it was heavy. (2) so it was heavy. (3)
B. 1. The thermometer used in the 16th century 2. In the 16th century the thermometer used alcohol 3. The thermometer was used as the liquid in the tube. (1) as early as the 16th century. (2)   contained alcohol as the liquid in the tube. (3)
C. 1. Some physical properties expressed quantitatively 2. Some physical properties were expressed quantitatively 3. As some physical properties were expressed quantitatively and were used by chemists to identify substances. (1) were used by chemists to identify substances. (2) they were used by chemists to identify substances. (3)
D.1. The decimal system of weights and measures proposed in France 2. The decimal system of weights and measures was proposed in France 3. When the decimal system of weights and measures was proposed in France it was named the metric system. (1)   was named the metric system. (2)   and was named the metric system. (3)
E. 1. Alchemy was studied widely in Europe in the 12th century 2. Alchemy studied widely in Europe in the 12th century 3. As alchemy was studied widely in the 12th century attracted the attention of many learned men. (1) and attracted the attention of many learned men. (2) it attracted the attention of many learned men. (3)
F. 1. The alchemists were doomed to failure in their efforts to make gold, 2. The alchemists doomed to failure in their efforts to make gold 3. Though the alchemists were doomed to failure in their efforts to make gold were none the less learned men. (1)   they were none the less learned men. (2)   but they were none the less learned men. (3)
G. 1. Different methods used for making beer 2. Different methods were used for making beer 3. As different methods were used to make beer they affected its taste. (1) affected its taste. (2)   and affected its taste. (3)

 

Задание 13. Прочитайте тексты и ответьте на вопросы после них

«Yes» или «No» (время ограничено).

 

1. Since Mendeleev formulated the principles of classifying chemical elements and published his periodic table chemists have begun looking for new elements. Many elements have already been discovered and this process is going on. But the last natural element was introduced into the table many years ago. The elements discovered in recent years are never found in nature. They are received in laboratories and are very short–lived.

1. Have all the elements been discovered already?

2. Are chemists trying to formulate the principles of classifying chemical elements?

3. Were all the natural elements discovered many years ago?

 

2. Until the end of the 19th century there was no satisfactory way of shaping loaves by machinery: all the machines devised had treated the dough too severely and upset its rather delicate stability.

A successful machine invented at the beginning of the 20th century has now been improved upon, and there are few large bakeries where loaves are still shaped by hand. In fact, most processes in the industry are now fully mechanized. And as the next step engineers are trying to introduce automatic lines into bakeries.

1. Have engineers already mechanized the process of shaping loaves?

2. Were the attempts to invent a good machine for shaping loaves in the 19th century successful?

3. Are engineers working now at mechanizing operations in the baking industry?

 

3. Pasteur’s theoretics were applied to many problems in the food industry, during his lifetime and later. Pasteurization is heating food to the point and only to the point where spoilage organisms and enzymes are partially destroyed. It has long been applied to stabilizing wine and beer. Pasteurized milk has revolutionized the fresh milk industry during the 20th century and it is also used to extend the shelf-life of cheese, ice-cream, eggs, vinegar, caviar and a number of other products.

1. Are Pasteur’s discoveries still important in the food industry?

2. Has milk been the only product pasteurized since pasteurization came into use?

3. Is pasteurization the process of complete destruction of microorganisms by heat treatment?

 

4. The preservation of foodstuffs by the application of heat has probably been practiced by man as long as fire has been known.

Pasteurization derives its name from the prominent French scientist, Louis Pasteur, who, during his studies in the years 1860 – 1870, found that heating liquids, especially wines, to a temperature such as 140ºF improved their keeping qualities. Pasteurization came into use on a commercial scale in Denmark and in Germany shortly after 1880. In 1883 Jacobi in New York heated milk for babies momentarily to 212ºF. About the same time, pasteurizing equipment imported from Germany began to be used in commercial pasteurizing tests. In the beginning there was much opposition to heat treatment of milk but the greatly improved health of children resulted in general acceptance of the process. And pasteurization has become a widely used process of milk preservation. Now scientists are working at new techniques of pasteurization, such as electrical pasteurization and so on.

1. Was milk the first food pasteurized?

2. Have scientists already developed all methods of pasteurization?

3. Does pasteurization improve the keeping qualities of foods?

 

Задание 14. Прочитайте текст и суммируйте, под влиянием каких факторов может устанавливаться режим приема пищи.

 

MEALS

 

To break bread with a man and to share his salt were once actual ceremonies that established friendship. Meals are more than the occasions for consuming food. They are social events and symbols of hospitality. By custom special meals celebrate family events, such as a coming-of-age or marriage, and State events.

Meals have often been the means of showing the generosity and wealth of their donor. Largesse in the form of a splendid meal was once expected of men in important position and they, in response, risked ruin in their desire to impress. When Archbishop Nevill was installed at York in 1467 he gave a feast to all who could come. Among the fare were: 330 tuns (large casks) of ale and 100 of wine, 104 oxen, 6 wild bulls, 1,000 sheep, 2,000 geese, 13,500 miscellaneous small birds, 1,500 dishes of jelly. The great feasts of the 12th to the 16th centuries were popular not only for the food but as great occasions of social intercourse and entertainment.

The nature of meals varies between town and country, for the rhythm of farm life imposes its own meal times. Among town-dwellers part of England waits for dinner while the rest is eating high tea. Meal times vary from country to country and have also changed from period to period. The following is an account of the changing fashions of meal times among well-to-do English people.

Dinner, the main meal of the day, was at 11 a.m. in the 16th century, but towards the end of the century it was beginning to take place rather later. In an article in the Taller in 1710, Steele noted that “in my own memory the dinner has crept by degrees from twelve o’clock to three”. By the late 18th century it had moved on to 5 p.m., though many families clung to an earlier hour. By 1800, 7 p.m. was fashionable, but the hour remained a matter of wide choice, some dining at 5, others perhaps at 7.30 p.m. By the 1850s, 7-8 p.m. became a more standard hour, and dinner has remained so ever since.

In the 16th century supper was taken at 5.30 p.m. and was a lighter form of dinner. In the 18th century, when dinner was at 4 p.m., supper retreated to 10-11 p.m., and consisted of cold meats, sweets, fruit and wine – to which hot dishes might be added if there was company. But by the 19th century when a full late dinner was served, supper disappeared. As it vanished, luncheon appeared on the time-table to fill in the long gap between breakfast and the late dinner. In Doctor Johnson’s Dictionary of 1755 “Nunchin” is defined as “a piece of victuals eaten between meals” and “Lunch” as “as much food as one’s hand can hold”. It was then, in fact, no more than a mid-day snack, but as breakfast became earlier and dinner later, lunch became a larger meal, slowly taking the place of breakfast as the meal second only to dinner for ceremony and leisurely ease. During the first half of the 19th century it was fixed at 1 p.m. and was adopted by more and more people, though in 1853 the middle-class householder was warned that this meal is admissible only when either the interval between the breakfast and dinner is very prolonged, or when the quantity or food taken at breakfast is very small, and as late as the turn of the century, lunch in the City tended to consist of no more than biscuits and a glass of wine.

A 16th century breakfast was a casual snack with no fixed menu or social importance; but by the 18th century it was established as a weighty, lengthy meal, to which guests were regularly invited and which might last from 10 a.m. till 1 p.m. Such social breakfasts survived in Oxford and Cambridge into the present century, but in the world at large breakfast tended to become earlier, and to shrink into a purely family affair. Between 1800 and 1850 it gradually got as early as 8 or 8.15 a.m., and acquired a menu of its own, different from that of any other meal.

Afternoon tea did not become habitual until the 1860s, when the price of tea dropped sharply, and when improved transport made it easier to get about London. (London led the provinces in this as in all matters of polite behavior). By the 1880s it usually took place about 5 p.m., and was primarily for ladies. The habit spread rapidly from the wealthy to the poorer. The 18th century working day ended with dinner at 3 p.m., but the Victorian business man had two periods equally devoted to work, 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. and 2 p.m. to 6 p.m. The desire to secure a long working day was the main factor that affected the time-table of meals. Other factors may affect it. In Spain, for example, the heat of summer afternoons makes it convenient to have a long break in the middle of the day and to work much later in the evening. The mid-day meal, therefore, is about 1.30 p.m. or 2 p.m., and the evening meal as late as 9 p.m. or 10 p.m. The wide use of sandwiches and portable snacks, the shortage of domestic help, and the rapid growth of facilities for eating out, have all affected the times and nature of meals. Very many families have a late meat tea when working hours are over, and a snack for supper. But the basic pattern of four meals a day remains as it was set by the 1890s, although we probably eat no more then our 16th century ancestors did in their two meals.

Комплекс 2

 



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