What is the main protective coating?

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What is the main protective coating?



Contract of employment.

It is a sort of document between the Company or the Owner and the sea­man. It shall bet signed by the master of the ship on behalf of the Shipping Company and the seaman. The Contract consists of several points and as a rule the number of which extend to 15.

Firstly the seaman is required to state his date and place of birth, national­ity, and passport number. Seaman's book number, home address, next of kin are to be indicated as well. The position of his being engaged the name and type of the ship form a part of the document. The essential item is duration of employment. It may last from six up to nine "months plus / minds 1-2 at Owner's option. But the contract can be extended further subject to mutual consent of the parties to this agreement.

The second item is wages. Payment starts upon departure and ends upon s/off-disembarkation from the vessel. Breakdown of total monthly wages in­clude basic wages, S.W.A., leave pay, fixed overtime for all in hours. It is further more explained that overtime apply only to ratings, officers' wages are inclusive everything.

The next one is hours of work. The normal work week consists of. forty hours as determined and prescribed by the Master, always in conformity with international maritime standards and practices. The seaman, however, will also work during such hours and at such times as may be ordered by the mas­ter, but always in accordance with the seaman's duties and position on board. It is also stated in the contract that the holidays are: New Year's Day (January 1-st), Easter (Good Friday, Easter Monday), Labour Day (May 1-st), Christ­mas Day (December 25-th), Second Day of Christmas (December 26-th). But the seaman will not be given extra compensation for any hours of duty neces­sitated by an emergency affecting the safety of the vessel, the passengers, the crew or the cargo; or in fire, boat, or emergency drill or work required to give assistance to other vessels or persons in immediate peril.

The item "Payment" explains that the seaman will be paid up 80 % of his total monthly earnings either by way of allotment to, his bank or family or by shipboard advances. The rest 20% will be paid to the seaman by the Mas­ter/Company upon completion of his contract.

Probationary period implies two months during which the company re­serves the right to dismiss the seaman if the Master is not satisfied with his

services. In such a case this crew member is repatriated at his own expenses. If the seaman decides to terminate his engagement before the expiration of the contract period, he shall give the Master a thirty day notice in writing and pay his repatriation expenses.

Sometimes the Company can terminate the seaman's Contract, sign off and repatriate the seaman within-the first eight months of the contract paying him at the same time a severance; pay of two weeks' basic wages if a ship has been wrecked, sold laid-up or abandoned or the voyage undertaken can not be continued because of war, warlike activities, embargo or blockade. .

One of the Contract items is war and war-like operation. The seaman will be entitled to a bonus of 100% of his basic wages for the period during which the ship is within the so declared war or war-like zone.

The Contract also includes the item named accident - illness / insurance. The Company undertakes to keep the crew covered at all times with a reputa­ble P +1 Club. If during the contract period the seaman suffers an accident or becomes ill, but not because of his own wilful act, default or misbehaviour, and must be repatriated according to doctor's orders, he is to receive for as long аг his treatment ashore lasts (but more than three months) a payment equal to 100 % of his monthly basis wages, effective from the date of his dis­embarkation. The medical care provided to the seaman shall be in compliance with the vessel's P+I Club insurance. Other possible cases of the seaman's disability and injuries are also described in detail. .

Two more items are given in the Contract. They are "Jurisdiction" and "Contribution to Union".

They explain where the seaman can address in the event of any dispute or disagreement between him and the Company and his agreement for monthly deduction from his wages as contribution to Seaman's Union.

The Contract of employment is dated and signed by the Seaman and Com­pany/Master. The place is stated as well as witness to the contract (his signature).


1 What shall be signed by the master of the ship on behalf of the Shipping Company and the seaman?

2 When does the payment start?

3 What is the second item of employment contract?


Safety Methods While:


1 Preparing of the pilot ladder is provided on the side required; 2.Prepairing of the life-buoy.


1. In dependence of the type of the hatch covers act accordingly. 2. Before closing the hold hatchets sweep off the comings.


1 .Get ready the anchors;

-eliminate foam off the fairleads;

-remove fairlead sacks;

-remove(retake) clothing.

2.Remove brake lockers & dog stoppers, to keep the anchor chain only by band locker(breaker)

Switch on hydraulic pumps(motors) of the windlass.

Disengage anchor chain to be paid off the gear (or both).

5. On boatswain's (officer's) order to disengage band locker & pay out indicated number of shackles.

6. On boatswain's order to fix band locker

7. Having been assured that the vessel is brought up you may leave the forecastle.

8. To indicate the vessel been brought up,

day time at the forecastle - black ball is exhibited;

night time- anchor lights all round the forecastle & stern are exhibited.



1. Before every towing to all components of the towing arrangement particular attention should be paid to the towing hooks & winches state.

2. It is prohibited components of towing appliance not accordingly used.

3. When towing the vessels are prohibited to stay close to the towing hook, winch and at the tension line of towing hawser.

4. While paying out the towing hawser from forecastle and bollards it is prohibited to stay close to & ahead of the hook & bollards.


1.Before letting go & heaving up the anchors it is necessary to assure in absence of persons in the chain locker & near by the fairleads;

& when being in port - also in persons absence in navigating craft under the fairleads.

2.When operating anchor gear, boatswain is prohibited

a) to leave the windlass control position when it is operating

b) to disengage chain drums against windlass gears not having assured in reliable fixing of anchor chain by band lockers.

3. It is prohibited to stay at the chain line ahead & back of the windlass while it is operating .

4. It is prohibited when staying in ports to leave the anchor chains fixed only by band lockers.



According to UK Club research, a quarter of all major claims are for cargo liabilities.

Many claims occur because of the different interests of shippers, receivers, cargo handlers, charterers and shipowners.

This video focuses on bulk carriers, identifying frequent causes of cargo claims and ways to avoid them.

UK Club statistics show that:

nearly half of all major claims on UK Club bulk carriers stem from cargo damage

Dry bulk accounts for half of these, followed by steel and bagged bulk

Water causes most damage, often from leaking hatch covers

structural failure is much more prevalent in bulk carriers than in any other ships

Taking care of business saves lives and money.




Being aware that contamination causes many claims.

Preparing holds appropriately.

The importance of asking for written instructions.

Difficulties in carrying out instructions because of sea conditions, port labour restrictions and regulations prohibiting discharge of cargo residues.

Safely clearing residues from the hold.

Persuading stevedores to leave a grab for residues.

Washing holds during the ballast voyage only when safe.

Being aware that many contamination claims are caused by cargo residues, loose scale and insects.

Realising that water does most damage to cargo.

Checking manhole covers are sealed and sounding pipes are clear.

Remembering that leaking hatch covers cause 50% of claims.

The importance of checking hatch covers by:

careful visual inspection

hose testing

chalk testing

ultrasonic testing

and logging the results.

Rinsing holds with fresh water.

Checking clean holds for signs of structural damage.

UK Club statistics showing two thirds of structural failure claims involve ships between 14 and 21 years old.

The importance of acting on early warnings of failure.

Drying holds and checking ventilators.

Disinfecting the bilges and burlapping gratings.

Limewashing to prevent corrosion.

Checking with cargo interests before painting.

Taking photographic and video records.

Passing pre-loading surveys first time - helped by

checking the charterer's particular requirements before arrival.


Being aware that damage to cargo before loading results in one in ten major claims.

Taking care to establish the cargo's "apparent order and condition" - protecting lives as well as dollars.

Responsibilities of the ship's officers for spotting

obvious defects like mouldy grain, contaminated ores and unsuitably packed cargoes such as chemicals.

Appreciating the condition of steel varies so much that P&l Clubs have issued standard clauses for use on Bills of Lading.

Protecting the ship's interests by good record keeping.

Considering the effect one cargo can have on others, such as problems of taint, infestation or dangerous cargo.

Understanding the chemical hazards of bulk cargoes with the help of IMO publications.

Being aware of major problems from loading wet cargoes:

wet steel rusting dry steel

ore with excess moisture upsetting the ship's stability

Responsibility of the shipper to provide details of a

cargo's characteristics including any chemical hazards and both its permitted and actual moisture limits.

Checking for excess moisture using particular methods explained in the IMO Code of Safe Practice.

Realising that one in ten major cargo claims could have been prevented by spotting the cargo's poor condition before loading.

Insisting on information from the shipper and contacting the Club for advice

CARGO HANDLING AND STOWAGECargo Handling and Stowage

Being aware that defective cargo handling equipment can cause injury or death as easily as damage.

Knowing that most countries have strict rules about the condition of this equipment enforced by inspections.

Maintaining gear properly before arrivals:

keeping safe working loads clearly visible

checking all controls and safety features

lubricating moving parts

freeing wires and seizing shackle pins

safe access to control positions

alerting onshore specialists if needed to await arrival

Loading cargo after establishing its apparent good order and condition.

Responsibility of the master for the actions of

stevedores - how their different interests help explain why improper loading or poor stowage cause one in five cargo claims.

Avoiding problems with stevedores by telling them:

when to segregate cargo

to keep bags clean

not to use untreated dunnage

correct use of slings

Master's legal obligation to stop or protest any practices that threaten seaworthiness.

Loading problems caused by:

overfilled grabs

dropping high density cargoes on unprotected tank tops

fewer high tonnage pours

jump loading

-loading to a ship's mark to eliminate sag
- loading in the rain

- taking short cuts

Overcoming challenges posed by the most common bulk cargoes including:

Grain - applying the IMO Grain Rules on filling and trimming holds

- sampling cargo regularly to detect sprouting,
mould, infestation and dampness

Ores - preventing excess moisture from liquifying cargo

Coal -the hazards of exceeding the Transportable Moisture Limit

- stopping loading in the rain

- seeking expert advice if heating is suspected
Steel - never letting cold rolled steel get wet

taking special care to remove water if loading hot rolled steel in moderate rain

avoiding the overloading of slings, landing coils too heavily, and stowing with moisture releasing cargoes

following detailed guidance on securing cargoes




Servicing hatch covers, removing cargo residues and temporary drain plugs.

Consulting the hatch cover manufacturer's manual. Logging the action taken.

Realising that cargo deteriation during voyages leads to claims against the shipowner.


Using the ship's own records as evidence.

Daily checking during the voyage of:

hatch covers

hold access points


hold temperatures


air and sea temperatures and dewpoints

Logging the steps taken.

Observing carriage instructions for cargo and recording if adverse weather prevents ventilation.

Responsibility of the master alone for course and speed, whatever voyage instructions say.

Informing interested parties of any changes to course and speed for reasons of safety.


Being vigilant during discharging.

Opening hatch covers only when safe.

Guarding against water penetration.

Inspecting cargo and reporting damage to the owner.

Establishing the quantity of cargo discharged.

Supervising stevedores' unloading practices.

Taking care of cargo left on board.

Shipowner's responsibility for cargo ashore.

Protecting the ship's interest if discharged cargo is at risk.

Insisting that breakbulk cargoes are handled correctly.

Discharging bulk cargoes safely and paying special attention to the problems posed by grabs:

excessive leakage

impact on hold linings

deliberate striking of the hold to dislodge residues

Trimming residues while within easy reach.


This video can only be an introduction to cargo loss prevention.

Helping to win the war against claims by:

doing your homework

asking for instructions

insisting on information

checking cargo condition and quantity

recording your actions

communicating with third parties

thinking ahead

End credits



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