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Read the texts and match them with the headlines in the list.
Sound, Music, MIDI
CD-ROM is more than just heavy metal –
CD-ROM titles full of pictures, action and sound!
The potential of using multimedia
Until now multimedia applications have been used mainly in the fields of information, training and entertainment. For example, some museums, banks and estate agents have information kiosks that use multimedia. Several companies produce training programmes on optical, disks, and marketing managers use presentation packages (like Microsoft PowerPoint or Lotus Freelance Graphics for Windows) to make business presentations. All these people have found that moving images, sound and music involve viewers emotionally as well as inform them, and make their message more memorable.
Sound is an important component of the multi- media approach. The effective use of sound can be used Lo grab the attention of the participant, set the mood or underscore a point. The most popular way of delivering sound is the hardware sound board. Such boards offer two important capabilities. the first of these is a built-in stereo synthesizer complete with a built-in audio amplifier. Just connect a set of speakers and you’ve got instant sound, music and speech capabilities. The second capability is the Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI. This is a specialized serial interface that allows an electronic musical instrument to communicate with other MIDI-equipped instruments or PCs.
Between 80 and 90 per cent of all multimedia applications are distributed on CD-ROM, some just on CD, some on several media (as with Autodesk’s Multimedia Explorer, which comes with both a CD-ROM and diskettes). The reasons for CD-ROM’s popularity in multimedia is simple - a single CD can contain 660 MB of data. That’s over 500 floppy disks’ worth of programs, sound and graphics. The newest CD-ROM standard, CD-ROM XA (for eXtended Architecture) uses data compression to fit even more on these shiny discs. Many XA drives are also compatible with Kodak’s PhotoCI) technology, that digitizes photographs and places diem on a CD-ROM.
Electronic encyclopedias integrate text, pictures and sound, and usually have a video section with a full motion video window. The Compton’s Multimedia Encyclopedia enables you to read about whales, look at photos of whales, listen to whale songs and view an animated sequence showing whale movements through the occan. Similarly, die Gmtier Encyclopedia lets you read about birds, view pictures of birds, and listen to recordings of their songs.
Another interactive CD-R.OM is Cinemania from Microsoft. This has information on thousands of 'films and photographs, renews, biographies and even dialogues from films.
2. Виконання після текстових вправ
Ex.1 Read the texts again and correct these statements. There is a technical mistake in each of them.
1 Multimedia applications do not use huge amounts of data.
2 PCs usually include a built-in sound card/board, so you don’t need to add sound capabilities to run multimedia applications.
3 Most multimedia software is distributed on magnetic disks.
4 Kodak’s PhotoCD technology is not compatible with many CD-ROM drives.
5 Microsoft’s Cinemania is an electronic encyclopedia.
Ex.2 . Match these terms with the explanations (a) – (e)
Computer animations 4 CD-ROM player
Video computing 5 Multimedia system extension
a) An operating system designed for multimedia work
b) A code that describes musical information so that both computers and
musical instruments can understand the same instructions.
c) A drive used to handle CD-ROM disks
d) Manipulating and showing moving images
recorded with a video camera or captured from a TV or video recorder,
e) Moving images on the screen that have been collected and combined from many sources.
3. Робота над граматичним матеріалом «If-clauses»
Ex.1. Read the information in the box and look at these sentences. Identify the tenses used in the if-clause and in the main clause.
1 If you upgrade your PC, you’ll be able to run multimedia applications.
2 If the marketing manager had a multimedia system, she could make more effective presentations.
Ex.2 Conditional clauses
When you want to talk about a possible situation and its consequences, you use a conditional sentence. Here we examine two types of conditionals:
First conditional (possible situation)
If A happens B will happen,
present simple will + verb e.g. If you click on the speaker icon, you'll get a piece of dialogue from the movie.
In the main clause we can also have a modal (can), an imperative, or a present tense verb.
Second conditional (unlikely situation)
If A happened B would happen, past simple would + verb
e.g. If I had the money, I would (I'd) invest in a multimedia upgrade kit. Other modals (could, should, might) may appear in the main clause.
Ex.3 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1.If I (get) a sound card, I’ll be able to create my own music with a MIDI.
2. If the system (have) a. SuperVGA card, we would obtain a better resolution.
3. You won’t be able to play CD-ROM disks if you (not have) a CD-ROM drive.
4. If you (come) lo the annual computer exhibition, you could see the new Audiovisual Macs.
5. If the computer (have) a built-in microphone, you can include voice annotations in your documents.
6. If I could afford it, I (buy) a Multimedia PC.
1. Барановська Т.В. Граматика англійської мови. Збірник вправ: Навч. посібник. Видання друге, виправлене та доповненею – Мова англ., укр. – Київ: ТОВ “ВП Логос-М», 2007. – 384с.
2. Л.В. Мисик, А.Л. Арцишевська, Л.Р. Кузнєцова, Л.Л. Поплавська. Англійська мова. Комунікативний аспект. / За ред. доц. Мисик Л.В. – Підручник. – К.: Атіка, 2000. – 368с.
3. Гужва Т. М. Англійська мова: Розмовні теми: Навч. посіб. Для студентів фак. Інозем. Філології, університетів, ліцеїв, гімназій та коледжів. – Харків: Фоліо, 2005. – 414с.
4. Бессонова І. В. Англійська мова (за професійним спрямуванням). Навчальний посібник для дистанційного навчання. – К.: Університет «Україна», 2005. – 263с.
5. Infotech. English for computer users: Santiago Remacha Estras. – HI Cambridge university press, 2007. – 162 c.
Практичне заняття № 6
Тема: Program design
1. Підготовка до роботи над текстом за темою заняття. Виконання вправ
Ex.1 Complete the following definitions with the words and phrases in the list.
the various parts of the program
may occur in programs
a given problem
1algorithm. The step-by-step specification of how to reach the solution to……………………..
2 flowchart. A diagram representing the logical sequence between…………………………..
3coding. The translation of the logical steps into a programming……………………………..
4machine code. The basic instructions understood by computers. The processor operates on codes which consist of..............................................................................................
5 debugging. The techniques of detecting, diagnosing and correcting errors (also known as ‘bugs’) which
Робота з текстом. Читання, переклад, обговорення.
Ex.1 Read the text and find answers to these questions.
1 Do computers understand human languages?
2 What are the differences between low-level and high-level languages?
3 What is an assembler?
4 What is the function of compilers?
5 What do you understand by the terms source program and object program?
6 What do you infer from the text about the possibility of programming a computer in Spanish, French or Japanese?
Unfortunately, computers cannot understand ordinary spoken English or any other natural language. The only language they can understand directly is called machine code: central processors operate on codes which consist of a series of binary digits (Is and Os). In this form, the instructions are said to be in machine code.
However, machine code as a means of communication is very difficult to write. For this reason, we use symbolic languages that are easier to understand. Then, by using a special program, these languages can be translated into machine code. For example, the so-called assembly languages use abbreviations such as ADD, SUB. MPY to represent instructions. These mnemonic codes are like labels easily associated with the items to which they refer.
Basic languages, where the program is similar to the machine code version, are known as low- level languages. In these languages, each instruction is equivalent to a single machine code instruction, and the program is converted into machine code by a special program called an assembler. These languages are still quite complex and restricted to particular machines.
To make the programs easier to write and to overcome the problem of intercommunication between different types of machines, higher-level languages were designed such as BASK;, COBOL, FORTRAN or PASCAL. These languages are all problem-oriented rather than machine-oriented and can all be converted into the machine codes of different types of computers. Programs written in one of these languages (known as source programs) are converted info a lower-level language by means of a compiler (generating the object program). On compilation, each statement in a high-level language is generally translated into many machine code instructions.
People communicate instructipns to the computer in symbolic languages and the easier this communication can be made the wider the application of computers will be. Scientists are already working on Artificial Intelligence and the next generation of computers may be able to understand human languages.
2. Робота над граматичним матеріалом
Ex.1 Look at the groups of words and decide what part of speech each word is. Then complete the sentences with the correct word.
compile, compiler, compilation
1 Programs written in a high-level language require..................... , or translation into machine code.
2 A............................. generates several low-level instructions for each source language statement.
3 Programmers usually.......................... their programs to create an object program and diagnose possible errors.
program programmers programming programmable
4 Most computer........................... make a plan of the program before they write it. This plan is called a flowchart.
5 A computer............................ is a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do.
6 C lonverting an algorithm into a. sequence of instructions in a programming language is called
bug debug debugger debugging
7 New programs need.......................... to make them work properly.
8 Any error or malfunction of a computer program is known as a ………………..
9 The best compilers usually include an integrated................... …….which detects syntax errors.
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