Спряжение глаголов в страдательном залоге.



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Спряжение глаголов в страдательном залоге.



В страдательном залоге употребляются времена группы Simple, Present и Past Progressive, Perfect. Формы Future Progressive заменяется на Future Simple, а времена группы Perfect Progrressive заменяется на времена группы Perfect.

 

Tense Person Number  
    Singular Plural
Present Simple     I am written You are written He She is written It   We are written You are written   They are written
Past Simple I was written You were written He She was written It   We were written You were written   They were written
Future Simple I shall be written You will be written He She will be written It   We shall be written You will be written   They will be written
Present Progressive   I am being written You are being written He She is being written It   We are being written You are being written   They are being written
Past Progressive I was being written You were being written He She was being written It   We were being written You were being written   They were being written
Present Perfect   I have been written You have been written He She has been written It   We have been written You have been written   They have been written
Past Perfect I had been written You had been written He She had been written It   We had been written You had been written   They had been written
Future Perfect I shall have been written You will have been written He She will have been written It   We shall have been written You will have been written   They will have been written

 

Употребление страдательного залога.

Употребление времен в страдательном залоге соответствует употреблению времен в активном залоге.

Страдательный залог употребляется:

1. Когда исполнитель действия неизвестен.

An agreement was signed yesterday.

2. Когда исполнитель действия известен, но намеренно не упоминается говорящим.

You were rung up 2 minutes ago.

На русский язык пассив переводится:

а) при помощи глагола на – ся;

б) при помощи глагола быть и краткой формы причастия;

в) при помощи неопределенно-личного предложения.

 

Изучите примеры и их перевод на русский язык:

а) Books are not sold here, only newspapers Книги здесь не продаются,

and magazines.(простое настоящее продаются только газеты и журналы.

время в пассиве)

б) The contract was signed Контракт был подписан

by the president of the company. президентом компании.

(простое прошедшее в пассиве)

 

The prices will be settled Цены будут урегулированы

by both parties. обеими сторонами.

(простое будущее в пассиве)

 

 

в) He was told to wait. Ему сказали подождать.

Is English spoken in Во многих странах говорят

many countries? по-английски?

Will the book be Книгу переведут на

translated into English? английский язык?

 

Предложения, содержащие прямое и косвенное дополнение, имеют две соответствующих конструкции в пассиве:

I gave him a book.

косвенное прямое

дополнение дополнение

 

A book was given to him.

He was given a book. Ему дали книгу.

 

 

They showed me a picture.

 
 


A picture was shown to me.

I was shown a picture. Мне показали картину.

 

Следующие глаголы могут принимать прямое и косвенное дополнение: to tell, to show, to offer, to give, to promise («обещать»), to advise.

 

Упражнение.

Сделайте упражнения на подстановку по образцу:

Model 1:

A. A lot of business letters are received at your office, aren’t they?

B. Right. We do business with many countries. Mail is sent and received every day.

negotiations/to be held regularly; business matters/to be considered; documents/to be typed; enquiries/to be studied

to hold (held, held) проводить

 

Model 2:

A. A contract was signed at your office yesterday, wasn’t it?

B. Yes, we had a hard day. Finally all the problems were settled.

a protocol/to be signed; an agreement/to be negotiated; prices/to be discussed; delivery dates/ to be considered; terms of shipment/to be settled; terms of delivery/to be discussed

Model 3:

A. Will the new equipment be delivered by the end of the year?

B. Definitely. We have made all necessary arrangements.

the new project/to be built; several engineers/to be sent abroad; some modern equipment/to be bought; the new joint-stock company/to be set up

 

 

Model 4:

A. The letter wasn’t signed yesterday, was it?

B. No, it wasn’t. As far as I know, it will be signed tomorrow.

business delegation/to be met; sightseeing programme/to be discussed; delivery date/to be negotiated; amendment/to be made; agreement/to be concluded

Model 5:

A. When will the contract be signed?

B. We’ve signed it already, if I’m not mistaken.

A. When was it signed?

B. Let me see. It was signed the day before yesterday.

delivery/to be made; equipment/to be delivered; joint venture/to be set up; delivery period/to be reduced

 



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