Как видно из изложенного выше материала, каждый член предложения и рассматриваемые формы с “-ed” выполняют определенную функцию в зависимости от занимаемого в предложении места. 





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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Как видно из изложенного выше материала, каждый член предложения и рассматриваемые формы с “-ed” выполняют определенную функцию в зависимости от занимаемого в предложении места.



Часть I

В английском языке мало грамматических окончаний (суффиксов), поэтому широко развито такое явление как омонимия.

Слово, оканчивающееся на “ed”, может быть:

1. существительным

2. прилагательным

3. субстантивированным прилагательным

4. II формой глагола (глаголом в простом прошедшем времени)

5. III формой глагола (причастием II)

 

 

Задание 1

Проверьте себя, насколько хорошо вы можете дифференцировать “ed’-forms. Соотнесите структурно-строевые признаки этих форм с названиями частей речи. ##

структурно-строевые признаки части речи
1. обозначает действие в прошлом; в предложении стоит на 2-ом грамматическом месте после существительного или местоимения - носителей действия 1. существительное
2. обозначает не действие, а качество, состояние предмета; стоит перед определяемым существительным 2.cубстантивированное прилагательное
3. обозначает группу людей; используется только с определенным артиклем (the); стоит перед глаголом в личной форме   3. прилагательное
4. обозначает абстрактное понятие; стоит до или после глагола в личной форме   4. II форма глагола (глагол в простом прошедшем времени
5. имеет страдательное значение действия (сделанный); в предложении может находиться
  • перед определяемым существительным
  • после определяемого слова
  • на 0-ом или 4-ом месте с предлогом или без него
  • в составе сложной формы глагола после
вспомогательных “to be, to have” или глаголов-связок
  • в составе трехчленной конструкции после
вводящих глаголов- глаголов восприятия  
5. III форма глагола (причастие II )

 

 

Задание 2

Найдите слова с “-ed”. Определите по формально-строевым признакам их функцию. Предложения переведите. ##

Например: Birds have a four-chambered heart.
four-chambered прилагательное, т.к. обозначает качество предмета, стоит перед определяемым существительным (heart).
Перевод: У птиц четырёхкамерное сердце.

1. We have recently obtained some data which confirm our view.

2. These data were obtained from studies performed in our laboratory.

3. The obtained data are of purely theoretical interest.

4. The data obtained are of purely theoretical interest.

5. When heated, liquids expand.

6. The problem still remains unsolved.

7. Now we have obtained evidence that the processes are interrelated.

8. Biologists believe that small, two-legged, lizard-like reptiles (thecodonts) were the real ancestors of birds.

9. His hatred lasted for several years.

10. The ambulance arrived at the scene of the accident and took the injured to hospital.

 

 

Поскольку основные проблемы связаны с дифференциацией II и III форм глагола, вам предлагается изучить следующий материал, который представлен в виде образцов, и выполнить ряд упражнений для закрепления усвоенной информации.

 

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ I
1 2 3 The workers of the laboratory installed the new equipment

 

Если глагольная форма с суффиксом “-ed” занимает второе место в предложении и ей предшествует существительное или местоимение, способное выполнить действие, выраженное этой формой, то она является II формой глагола или сказуемым простого прошедшего времени. Перед этой формой не могут находиться вспомогательные глаголы, а после нее может следовать только прямое дополнение.

Перевод: Сотрудники лаборатории установили новое оборудование.

 

Упражнение I

Найдите слова с “-ed”, соответствующие образцу I. Текст переведите. ##

Модель: Thomas Hunt Morgan receivedthe Noble Prize in 1933.
received II форма глагола, сказуемое простого прошедшего времени, так как занимает второе место в предложении после существительного-носителя действия. Перед ней нет вспомогательного глагола, а после неё следует прямое дополнение.
Перевод: Томас Хант Морган получил Нобелевскую премию в 1933 году.

In 1910 the professor of Columbia University Thomas Hunt Morgan, working in his laboratory noticed in one of his bottles a fly with white eyes. All the other flies had red eyes. He continued his observations and noticed that the flies bred from his white-eyed fly had also white flies. Professor and his co-workers studied 15 million flies and made a new discovery that living things consist of genes which pass from one generation to another. Sometimes mutations may happen. Over many years mutations pile up and after a long period of time the offspring begins to have quite new genes, that are different from their ancestors.

.

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ II
1 2 The obtaineddata are of great importance.

 

Если глагольная форма с “-ed” стоит перед существительным и обозначает действие, выполненное кем-то, то она является III формой глагола или адъективным причастием в функции левого определения.На русский язык оно переводится страдательным причастием.

Перевод: Полученные данные имеют большое значение.

От причастия II в функции левого определения надо отличать совпадающее с ним по форме прилагательное. (см. Задание 2)

Примеры: a cold-blooded animal – холоднокровное животное

a white-nosed monkey – белоносая мартышка

four-eyed fishes - четырёхглазковые рыбы

 

 

Упражнение 2

Найдите слова с “-ed”, соответствующие образцу II. Определите их функцию. Предложения переведите. ##

Модель: The described method is the most accurate.
described III форма глагола или адъективное причастие в функции левого определения, так как стоит слева от определяемого существительного и имеет страдательное значение действия.
Перевод: Описанный метод самый точный.

1. The installed equipment is rather efficient.

2. The above mentioned problem demands further investigation.

3. The obtained results were published in the last issue of the journal.

4. The growth of all cultivated plants depends on the fertility of the soil.

5. Denervated taste buds may remain intact for many months.

6. The inserted genes helped the patients resist infection and lead a normal life.

7. The observed changes will be dealt with in the next chapter of the book.

8. We used the corrected program.

9. The adopted solution was acceptable.

10. The fresh waters of lakes and streams contain sparse amounts of dissolved chemicals.

 

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ III
1 2 The data obtained are of great importance.

 

Если за существительным или словом его замещающим, следует глагольная форма с “-ed”, не занимающая в предложении второго места, и за ней не следует прямое дополнение, то она является III формой глагола или причастием II в функции правого определения.На русский язык оно переводится страдательным причастием.

Перевод: Полученныеданные имеют большое значение.

В этой функции причастие II может принимать предложное дополнение с предлогами by, with. Тогда мы имеем дело с определительным причастным оборотом. Переводить его следует страдательным причастием русского языка или придаточным предложением.

Пример: The data collected by the workers of the Research Instituteare of great importance.

Перевод: Данные, собранные сотрудниками НИИ, имеют большое значение.

Примечание: Причастие II от глаголов to involve, to concern, стоящeе после существительного и не сопровождающееся предлогом, переводится на русский язык как данный, рассматриваемый, о котором идет речь.

Примеры: 1. The changes involved took place not long ago.

Данные изменения произошли не так давно.

2. The changes involved in this process were discussed at the conference.

Изменения, связанные с этим процессом, обсуждались на конференции.

Упражнение 3

Найдите слова с “-ed”, соответствующие образцу III. Определите их функцию. Предложения переведите. ##

Модель: The method used is the most accurate.
used III форма глагола или причастие II в функции правого определения, так как стоит справа от определяемого существительного и имеет страдательное значение действия.
Перевод: Используемый метод самый точный.

1. We can use the method suggested by Corner.

2. The rate of a reaction depends on the specific nature of the substances involved.

3. The compounds formed are difficult to decompose.

4. The plants affected by unfavourable conditions underwent a thorough treatment.

5. The experiment performed dealt with immunological problems.

6. Some substances secreted by the adrenal caused potassium excretion.

7. The substance obtained was thoroughly investigated.

8. The properties of the substances involved are as yet not clearly understood.

9. The phenomenon is rather complicated and the processes involved are not yet clear.

10. The method concerned is used in many branches of science and engineering.

11. The results obtained may be summed in one simple statement.

12. The nature of the mutations involved is unknown.

13. The mechanisms involved are worth investigating.

14. The nature of the cells concerned has not been determined.

15. The specificity of the enzymes concerned has not yet been determined.

 

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ IV
0 1 2 1. Considered from this point of view the question will be of great interest. 0 1 2 2.When heated to 100 degrees Celciuswater boils.

 

Слово с суффиксом “-ed” , занимающее нулевое или четвертое место в предложении, является III формой глагола или причастием II в функции обстоятельства времени, условия, причины.Вместе с относящимися к нему словами, оно образует обстоятельственный причастный оборот, который характеризует сказуемое, отвечает на вопросы когда?, зачем?, почему?, как? и переводится на русский язык:

а) придаточным предложением с союзами: если, когда, поскольку, так как;

б) отглагольным существительным с предлогом “при”;

в) деепричастным оборотом.

В этом положении может иметь перед собой союзы: if, when, while.

Перевод: 1.а) Если вопрос рассматривать с этой точки зрения, он представит

большой интерес (он окажется весьма интересным).

б) При рассмотрении с этой точки зрения вопрос представит большой

интерес.

в) Будучи рассмотрен с этой точки зрения, вопрос представит большой

интерес (окажется весьма интересным).

2.а) Когда воду нагревают до 100 градусов, она кипит.

б) При нагревании до 100 градусов вода кипит.

в) Будучи нагрета до 100 градусов, вода кипит.

Упражнение 4

Найдите слова с “-ed” , соответствующие образцу IV. Определите их функцию. Предложения переведите. ##

Модель: When heated, liquids expand.
(when) heated III форма глагола или причастие II в функции обстоятельства, так как занимает нулевое место в предложении, характеризует сказуемое и отвечает на вопрос “ когда?”.
Перевод: а) Когда жидкости нагревают, они расширяются. б) При нагревании жидкости расширяются. в) Будучи нагреты, жидкости расширяются.

 

1. When cultivated in vitro these cells develop gradually.

2. When heated to 100 degrees Celcius water boils.

3. Unless heated this substance does not melt.

4. Stated in a simple form the hypothesis runs as follows.

5. Seen in this context, the ranges of applicability and reliability of the method may be assessed.

6. If arranged according to their atomic weights, the elements exhibit an evident periodicity of properties.

7. Highly magnified, the powder is seen to consist of single spherical cells or group of cells.

8. Displaced into the adrenal body some of the embryonic cells become differentiated into ganglion cells.

9. When viewed with a scanning electron microscope, one of the chromosomes looks like a tangled mass of threads. One of the threads, when magnified, looks like a coil of discs.

10. Biofores (молекулы живого вещества) take the form of proteins when subjected to chemical analysis.

 

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ V
1. He has described the method as the most accurate.
2. The method is referred to as the most accurate.
3. The problem still remains unsolved.

 

Глагольная форма с “-ed” является III формой глагола или причастием II в функции части сказуемого, если она стоит в составе сложной формы глагола после вспомогательных глаголов to be, to have или глаголов-связок.

Перевод: 1. Он описал метод как самый точный.

2. На этот метод ссылаются как на самый точный.

3. Проблема все еще остается нерешенной.

 

Упражнение 5

Найдите слова с “-ed”, соответствующие образцу V. Определите их функцию. Предложения переведите. ##

Модель: The scientists were offered new themes for research.
offered III форма глагола или причастие II в функции части сказуемого, так как стоит на втором месте в составе сложной формы глагола после вспомогательного глагола to be.
Перевод: Ученым предложили новые темы для научной работы.

 

 

1. The rate of a reaction is influenced by many factors.

2. This method was followed by a number of others.

3. Sixteen species of marine algae were used in the study.

4. Biologists have applied their knowledge of the natural world to help fight disease, create pest-resistant crops and sustain productive eco-systems.

5. Worms are collected from local streams which carry a high organic load.

6. People have always recognized that like begets like. It is obvious at some family reunions, for instance, that red hair, a big nose, or short stature has been passed along for several generations.

7. The term tropism is seldom used in describing the behavour of higher animals, since it refers to mere mechanical reactions.

8. Algae are classified into a number of groups according to their colour.

9. Each protein’s role is determined by its structure, and this, in turn, is dictated by its amino acid sequence.

10. Already, researches have engineered a herbicide-resistant plant.

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ VI
1 2 3 The problem considered needed some more discussion.

 

При наличии двух следующих друг за другом форм на “-ed” (если это не однородные члены), сказуемым является второе слово, а первое определением к предшествующему ему существительному.

Перевод: Рассматриваемая проблема требовала дополнительного обсуждения.

 

 

Упражнение 6

Найдите слова с “-ed”, соответствующие образцу VI. Определите их функцию. Предложения переведите. ##

Модель: The substance isolated possessed different properties.
possessed isolated - II форма глагола, сказуемое простого прошедшего времени, так как занимает второе место в предложении. Дополнительный признак: наличие прямого дополнения. - III форма глагола или причастие II в функции правого определения, так как стоит после определяемого существительного. Имеет страдательное значение действия.
Перевод: Изолированное вещество обладало другими свойствами.

1. The data obtained confirmed the above statement.

2. The lecturer invited mentioned the same problem.

3. The data obtained required some analysis.

4. The data presented confirmed our view.

5. The theory evolved contributed to the solution of a large number of scientific and technical problems.

6. The concept developed helped to solve the problem.

7. The hypothesis accepted explained the origin of the Baikal.

8. The substance obtained contained some impurities.

9. The species collected varied in their characters.

10. The complexity of the technique involved increased considerably.

 

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ VII
A B C 1. They watch the experiment carried out.
A B С 2. They have the device tested.

 

Если за глаголами, выражающими желание (to wish, to want), физическое восприятие (to hear,to see, to watch, to observe etc.), мышления (to know, to think to consider), или глаголом to have , идет существительное в общем или местоимение в объектном падеже и глагольная форма с “-ed” , то они образуют трехчленную конструкцию (A,B,C), в которой слово с “-ed” является причастием II.

Синтаксически существительное (местоимение) с причастием II образует сложное дополнение.

Конструкция переводится дополнительным придаточным предложением с союзами что, чтобы, как.

Во втором предложении глагол to have имеет значение «заставлять», «сделать так, чтобы». Чтобы лучше понять суть такой конструкции, можно сравнить ее с формой Perfect:

We have tested the device (сказуемое в форме ). – Мы (сами) испытали прибор.

Но:

We have the device tested(оборот «дополнение с причастием»). – Нам испытали прибор. (Мы добились, чтобы нам испытали прибор).

Перевод: 1. Они наблюдают, как проходит эксперимент.

2. Нам испытали прибор.

 

 

Упражнение 7

Найдите слова с “-ed”, соответствующие образцу VII. Определите их функцию. Предложения переведите. ##

Модель: They had the new equipment installed.
installed III форма глагола или причастие II в составе трехчленной конструкции, содержащей глагол to have и существительное в общем падеже. Синтаксически installed входит в состав сложного дополнения.
Перевод: Имустановили новое оборудование.

1. We have the device repaired.

2. We heard him asked.

3. The teacher wants the test data explained.

4. The students had the new equation explained.

5. The scientists found ozone created by the separation and recombination of oxygen molecule in different forms.

6. He saw all his plans destroyed.

7. I went again to have my watch repaired.

8. Where did you have your article printed?

9. I heard his name called.

10. Elizabeth I had Mary, Queen of Scotts, beheaded.

 

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ VIII
The article corrected, the editor signed it.

 

Если перед глагольной формой с ”-ed” стоит существительное в общем падеже и весь оборот отделен от главной части предложения запятой, то они образуют независимый причастный оборотилиабсолютную причастную конструкцию, в которой слово с суффиксом “-ed” является причастием II.

Абсолютный причастный оборот может вводиться предлогом with, который на русский язык не переводится.

Если оборот стоит в начале предложения, то на русский язык переводится придаточным предложением с союзами: поскольку, после того как, когда, если, так как.

Перевод: Когда статью исправили,редактор подписал ее.

Упражнение 8

Найдите слова с “-ed”, соответствующие образцу VIII. Определите их функцию. Предложения переведите. ##

 

Модель: (With) the project abandoned, the leadership in this field passed to another institute.
abandoned III форма глагола или причастие II в составе абсолютной причастной конструкции, содержащей существительное в общем падеже и отделяющейся от главной части предложения запятой.
Перевод: Так как проект был оставлен, руководство в этой области перешло к другому институту.

 

1. All the equipment removed, the explorers stopped working.

2. Radioactivity discovered, we made great progress in atomic physics.

3. With the model reconstructed, we may start rethinking of the whole process.

4. All factors considered, we believe that the mechanism is the most likely.

5. A law prohibiting construction of any nuclear plants passed, the issue of nuclear-wastes will be settled.

 

 

ОБРАЗЕЦ IX
The session was over, (with) many aspects of the problem unsolved.

 

Если перед глагольной формой с ”-ed” стоит существительное в общем падеже и весь оборот отделен от главной части предложения запятой, то они образуют независимый причастный оборотилиабсолютную причастную конструкцию, в которой слово с суффиксом “-ed” является причастием II.

Абсолютный причастный оборот может вводиться предлогом with, который на русский язык не переводится.

Если оборот стоит в конце предложения, то на русский язык переводится придаточным предложением с союзами: причем, а, но, и.

Перевод:Заседание закончилось, но многие вопросы не были решены.

Упражнение 9

Найдите слова с “-ed”, соответствующие образцу IX. Определите их функцию. Предложения переведите. ##

Модель: The changes observed will be treated in two works, (with) the latter included in the present volume.
included III форма глагола или причастие II в составе абсолютной причастной конструкции, содержащей существительное в общем падеже и отделяющейся от главной части предложения запятой.
Перевод: Наблюдаемые изменения будут обсуждаться в двух работах, причем последняя (работа) будет включена в данную книгу.

1. At this stage innovation becomes a group and not an individual activity, with both a sophisticated body of information and a sophisticated technology involved.

2. The idea of biosphere was introduced a century ago, this used in the discussion of the various envelopes of the earth.

3. The branches of the dwarf birch spread widely, with their bases buried in accumulating moss remains.

4. One common way to produce electrical charges is converting chemical energy into electrical energy, the process used in battery.

5. In some tissues the centrosome disappears at the close of mitosis, a new one formed just before the next mitosis.

 

 

Часть II

Контрольное задание №1

По строевым признакам определите функцию слов с суффиксом“-ed” в следующих предложениях. Предложения переведите. ##

1. Already, researchers have engineered a herbicide-resistant plant. When sprayed on a field, the herbicide will kill weeds but not the desired plant, and thus the crop can grow luxuriantly without competition from the weeds.

2. Specific genes, inherited from parents, determine whether a person has blue, green, brown or hazel eyes.

3. The project presented had many advantages.

4. All matter is composed of a limited number of elements.

5. We wish the installation adjusted properly.

6. The obtained results were published in the last issue of the journal.

7. The changes observed will be treated in two works.

8. Based on physical evidence, most paleontologists agree that the dinosaurs and probably 70 per cent of the other plant and animal species on earth died out about 65 million years ago.

9. The hypothesis proposed agreed with the experimental observation.

10. We think them provided with all necessary things.

 

Контрольное задание №2

Сравните следующие предложения. Переведите только те, которые содержат абсолютный причастный оборот. ##

1. a) The Institute is divided into nine “laboratories”, administered by its own head-and-chief

scientist.

b) The Institute is divided into nine laboratories, each administered by its own head-and-chief

scientist.

2. a) The era of isolated men of genius has become a thing of the past, replaced by an era of labs

filled with young research enthusiasts.

b) The era of isolated men of genius has become a thing of the past, the era replaced by that of

labs filled with young research enthusiasts.

3. a) At this stage a new theory was advanced, with a revolutionary change in our understanding

of the process produced.

b) At this stage a new theory was advanced, followed by a revolutionary change in our

understanding of the process.

4. a) Two techniques have been developed, used in electrometallurgy and electrochemistry.

b) Two techniques have been developed, the former used in electrometallurgy, the latter

applied in electrochemistry.

Контрольное задание №3

Выберите адекватный перевод слов, выделенных курсивом, из предложенных вариантов. ##

1. The Protozoa are mostly one-celled animals of microscopic size.

A) одна клетка

B) одноклеточный

 

 

2. He celled for a couple of years with old Darbsey.

A) сидел в одной камере

B) клеточный

 

3. The plant cell is a highly organized entity.

A) организовал

B) организованный

 

4. They organized a meeting between the teachers and students.

A) организовали

B) организованный

 

5. I’ll get you organized in no time.

A) организовал

B) организованный

C) приведу тебя в порядок

 

6. The book is based on the author’s life work.

A) будучи основана

B) основана

C) основанная

 

7. The book based on the author’s life work will be of great value to researchers and students in the field of anatomy, physiology and embryology.

A) будучи основана

B) основана

C) основанная

 

8. Based on the author’s life work, the book will be of great value to researchers and students in the field of anatomy, physiology and embryology.

A) будучи основана

B) основана

C) основанная

 

9. I want this work finished quickly.

A) была закончена

B) законченный

C) закончил

 

10. I finished this work quickly.

A) была закончена

B) законченный

C) закончил

 

Контрольное задание №4

 

В следующих текстах найдите все слова, имеющие суффикс “ed”. Определите их функцию. Внесите в соответствующие графы таблицы количество омонимов на “ed”.##. Тексты переведите co словарем.

  текст 1 текст 2 текст 3 текст 4 текст 5 текст 6 текст 7 текст 8 текст 9 текст 10
существительное  
субстантив. прилагательное
прилагательное  
II форма глагола прост.прош.время
III форма глагола причастие II

Text 1

Caesar Experiments with RNA Synthesis.

Text 2

First Artificial Enzyme

With the goal of making synthetic biological components, researchers have crafted the first artificial enzyme – specifically, an enzyme that removes a proton from a carbon atom. The team, from the University of Washington, the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, used a computational model to devise potential enzymes constructed from 200 amino acids. After finding the enzyme that showed the most activity, the group further improved it by making it undergo evolution in a test tube. Seven rounds of evolution – the introduction of mutations – improved the enzyme’s efficiency 200-fold. “Nature” published the study online March 19.

( Scientific American, June 2008)

 

Text 3

Year in Review

Text 4

Year in Review 2004

Stem Cells

In February 2004 two researchers from Seoul National University announced that they had successfully cloned human embryos. Hwang Woo Suk, a specialist in veterinary medicine, and Moon Shin Yong, an obstetrician, harvested eggs from donors and developed cloned embryos. One of the embryos yielded stem cells – undifferentiated cells capable of developing into specific cell types. Scientists believed that stem cells might one day be used to treat illnesses resulting from damaged cells, including juvenile diabetes, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimer disease.

The announcement set off a new round of debates regarding the ethics of human cloning. Hwang and Moon voiced strong opposition to reproductive cloning and insisted that their research was continued solely for the purpose of therapeutic cloning – that is, for fighting disease. Opponents were not appeased. Some believed that the development opened the door to reproductive cloning. Many others continued to oppose stem-cell research of any kind on religious grounds.

Human cells had been cloned before, but the resulting fragile embryos died quickly. Hwang and Moon credited the success of their research to several factors. One was the large number of eggs they had available: 242. They were obtained from 16 female volunteer donors who underwent a rigorous screening process to ensure that they understood the implications of their participation. Another factor was the way in which material was extracted from eggs. Whereas past researchers had used suction, Hwang and Moon used a squeezing technique, which helped reduce damage to the eggs.

(Encyclopaedia Britannica 2006)

 

 

Text 5

 

Like Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace devised a theory of evolution by natural selection to explain what he saw in his travels (even choosing the term natural selection independently!). By 1858, Wallace had published four papers containing parts of a theory of evolution that included the mechanism of natural selection, the notion of descent with modification, and the idea of survival of the fittest. Wallace sent Darwin his fourth paper in 1858, and Darwin – realizing that his life’s work was being scooped – rushed to prepare an abstract. The following year, Darwin released his monumental and well-documented book “The Origin of Species”. The intellectual stimulation each scientist gave the other provided generations of biologists with the broadest conceptual framework for understanding the living world.

 

 

Text 6

 

Birds: Airborne Vertebrates

 

One might expect that the first flying vertebrates – the giant, leathery-winged pterosaurs – gave rise to the birds, but they didn’t; they died out when the dinosaurs did. Biologists believe instead that small, two-legged, lizard-like reptiles (thecodonts) were the real ancestors of birds, and they have important fossil evidence to prove it. Five skeletons of the oldest bird, the crow-sized Archaeopteryx, have been found at different sites in rocks 150 million years old. The fossil imprintsuggest that this animal was a true intermediate: It had scaly skin, curving claws, a long, jointed tail, and sharp teeth like a reptile, but it had feathered forelimbs and tail like a bird.

 

Text 7

Making Memories

This much is known, however: neuron No.28, say, fires an electrical signal, and in the synapse where one of 28’s connectors touches a receiver of neuron No 29, a chemical change triggers an electrical signal in 29. That signal gets passed on to neuron No 30, and on and on. if the connection between 28 and 29 is made often enough, the bond between the two neurons grows stronger. This crucial marriage seems to be the stuff that memory is made of.

Many scientists believe new information is absorbed and then processed into memory in the hippocampus, a seahorse-shaped organ in the center of the brain. The memories are then stored in sometimes bizarre patterns in various parts of the brain. The names of natural things, such as plants and animals, are apparently lodged in one part of the brain; the names of chairs, machines and other man-made stuff are in another. Nouns seem to be separated from verbs.

While age affects our ability to remember, other factors also make a difference. Marilyn Albert, a researcher at Massachusetts General Hospital, notes that among elderly people she ahs been studying, those who are less educated, less active physically and less able to control their day-to day lives tend to experience greater memory loss than the better educated, who regard themselves as more in control.

(from “What we know about Memory” by Lee Smith)

 

 

Text 8

Chloroplast Reactions

 

Photosynthetic oxygen evolution outside the living cell was first observed clearly in 1937. Since then the preparative techniques have continuously improved and the number of photo-conversions studied in isolated chloroplasts has expanded greatly. The light-driven formation of ATP from ADP was first reported in chloroplasts in 1954. The reduction of CO2 has been achieved only with the rates that are vanishingly small compared to those observed in whole cells. Numerous other substances, however, are reduced at a rate comparable to that of complete photosynthesis. One of these benzoquinones, when simply added to a suspension of whole green algae stops most cellular activities including respiration, but in the light the quinine in reduced oxygen is evolved about as fast as photosynthesis. To observe Hill reaction activity with green algae and oxidant other than benzoquinone, the cells have to be disrupted. Active cell-free preparations have been obtained also from blue-green algae, the efficiency of their photo-conversions, however, has been rather poor.

Spinach has become a standard material from which to prepare chloroplasts. The initial preparation, grinding and washing is best carried out in a slightly alkaline, high osmotic sucrose or chloride containing medium in which activity is retained for many hours. Most Hill reactions then will proceed faster if in the actual measurement the material is suspended in osmotically dilute medium so that the particles are broken and substrate may diffuse more readily to the active sites. The effect of PH can be considered in some systems, especially photo-phosphorlyration, most phenomena discussed here are observed at PH values between 7 and 8. Chloride ion and intensely CO2 are required in small concentration for O2 evolution. Photo-phosphorlyration requires in addition magnesium ion. Aging of chloroplast preparation , even at 0-4 C results in a gradual loss of activity. The oxygen evolution step and noncyclic photo-phospholyration are first to disappear, in a few hours a day. PMS-mediated phospholyration and especially the ability to photo-oxidize electron donors other than water are relatively more stable and can survive several days of storage. Heat treatment, detergent, and mechanical disruption act in many respects like aging, annihilating first those processes that put the highest demand upon structural integrity.

 

 

Text 9

Drinking may be deadly

Based on new data showing that submersible pumps made with lead-based bronze can contaminate water, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advised people who get their water from wells with fairly new pumps to drink only bottled water until they have their wells tested for lead contamination. Even though the data show that the pumps are most likely to leach lead during the first year of operation, EPA has recommended that people with older pumps test their water too and drink only bottled water.

Ground water may also become contaminated when rainfall and surface run off pass through contaminated soil. Water dissolves many substances and carries particles and microorganisms with it into the ground water. Landfills, mining, improperly applied pesticides, leaking underground storage tanks, improperly installed or failing septic tanks and other surface activities can significantly alter ground water quality. Contamination often goes undefeated for many years.

 

 

Text 10

Eugenics in Action

 

  текст перевод
The term “eugenics” was coined in 1883 by Sir Francis был предложен
Galton, a British scientist and cousin of Charles Darwin.  
The word comes from Greek terms meaning “good in birth”  
or “noble in heredity.” Galton believed that humanity could  
be improved by selective breeding. Influenced by the  
writings of Darwin, he reasoned that it was time for humans  
to take control of their own evolution. During the early  
decades of the 20th century, Galton’s ideas became  
extremely popular among politicians, scientists, and  
academics, in both Europe and the United States. Reflecting  
the popular notions of his day, the leader of a powerful  
nation wrote: “Society has no business to permit degenerates  
to reproduce their kind. … Any group of farmers who  
permitted their best stock not to breed, and let all the  
increase come from the worst stock, would be treated as fit  
inmates for an asylum. … Some day we will realize that the  
prime duty of the good citizen of the right type is to leave his  
blood behind him in the world, and that we have no business  
to perpetuate citizens of the wrong type.” Those words were  
written by the 26th president of the United States, Theodore  
Roosevelt.  
In fairs and expositions in both Britain and America, the  
laws of genetic inheritance were depicted, often on a  
vertical board displaying an array of stuffed guinea pigs.  
They were arranged to show the inheritance of fur color  
from one generation to the next generation. The point  
of the exhibits was made clear by accompanying text. One  
chart stated:” Unfit human traits such as feeblemindedness,  
epilepsy, criminality, insanity, alcoholism, pauperism and  
many others run in families and are inherited in exactly the  
same way as color in guinea pigs.” Another exhibit placard  
asked: ”How long are we Americans to be so careful for the  
pedigree of our pigs and chickens and cattle – and then leave  
the ancestry of our children to chance?”  
These ideas were not merely intellectual exercises. Tens of  
thousands of “undesirables” were sterilized in both North  
America and Europe. Of course, the definition of who or  
what was undesirable depended largely on the views of those  
making the decisions to force sterilization. In the state of  
Missouri, U.S.A. , for example, legislation was proposed that  
called for the sterilization of those “convicted of murder,  
rape, highway robbery, chicken stealing, bombing, or theft  
of automobiles.” In its misguided effort to achieve a master  
race in one generation, Nazi Germany went a step further.  
After the forced sterilization of up to 225,000 people,  
millions of others – Jews, Romanies (Gypsies), the disabled,  
and other “undesirables” – were exterminated under the  
guise of eugenics.  
Because of the barbarism of the Nazi era, eugenics took on  
an ugly connotation, and many hoped that this field of study  
had been laid to rest, buried with the millions who died in its  
name. In the 1970’s, however, reports circulated of  
scientific advances in the fledgling field of molecular  
biology. Some feared that these advances might fuel a return  
to the ideas that had seduced Europe and North America  
earlier in the century. For example, in 1977 a prominent  
biologist warned his colleagues at a National Academy of  
Science forum on recombinant DNA: “This research is going  
to bring us one step closer to genetic engineering of people.  
That’s where they figure out how to have us produce  
children with ideal characteristics. … The last time the ideal  
children had blond hair, blue eyes and Aryan genes.”  
Many today would consider it ludicrous to compare the  
advances in genetic engineering with Hitler’s eugenic  
program. Seventy years ago, there were harsh demands for  
racial purity. Today people talk about improving health and  
the quality of life. The old eugenics was rooted in politics  
and fueled by bigotry and hatred. The new advances in  
genetic research are fueled by commercial interests and  
consumer desires for better health. But while there are major  
differences, the goal of shaping people to our own genetic  
prejudices may sound much like the old eugenics.  

 

Контрольное задание №6

Прочитайте текст, обращая особое внимание на перевод слов с суффиксом“-ed”. Укажите № строки, в которой встретился тот или иной омоним. ##

 

существительное  
субстантивированное прилагательное 2,
прилагательное  
II форма глагола (простое прошедшее время
III форма глагола (причастие II ) 1,

T 4 Program

текст перевод
T4 Program was framed as a euthanasia program была разработана
to kill incurably ill, physically or mentally disabled, с физическими и умственными отклонениями
emotionally distraught, and elderly people. Adolf Hitler  
initiated this program in 1939, and , while it was  
officially discontinued in 1941, killings continued  
covertly until the military defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945  
In October 1939, Adolf Hitler empowered his personal  
physician and the chief of the Chancellery of the Fuhrer  
to kill people considered unsuited to live. He backdated  
his order to September 1, 1939, the day World War II  
began, to give it the appearance of a wartime measure.  
In this directive, Dr. Karl Brandt and Chancellery chief  
Bouhler were charged with responsibility for expanding  
the authority of physicians … so that patients considered  
incurable can be granted a mercy killing.”  
Within a few months, the T4 Program – named for the  
Chancellery offices that directed it from the Berlin  
address Tiergartenstrasse 4 - involved virtually the entire  




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