Once the book has been sold to the stores - and usually well before that - the publicity department begins working (together with other members of the publishing house, when necessary) to do everything possible to see that the books move out of the stores and into the readers' homes.

Ideally, the publicity director should be intelligent, with an attractive personality and a deep interest in books. A publicity director should have contacts with newspaper, magazine, and television people, and should preferably be on good terms with book reviewers. It is very often impossible to explain why one book sells and another doesn't, but publicity directors must draw on all their skills and imagination to call attention to the publication - and merits • of each book.

There are a few basic steps essential to the publicizing of any book, and these, with a brief look at others, are worth describing.

The most important tool in publicizing a book is the book itself. This is desirable, and a book should at least be skimmed even if not carefully read. In this way, the publicity department is better able to generate interest in the book out of its own genuine enthusiasm.

There are basically two areas of book publicity. The first is through reviews and book news columns in newspapers and magazines; the second, popularly called "off the book page", is anything other than book reviews or book news. Procedures for this method of publicizing a book are pretty much standard. A book might first be announced by means of a press release: a short statement is sent to magazines and newspapers - most importantly PUBLUISHERS WEEKLY, the industry's weekly magazine - saying that a certain book by a certain author dealing with a certain subject will be published by a certain publisher at a certain date.

Formally, publicity work can begin with the arrival of the galleys. As a matter of routine, specially bound, easy-to-read sets of those proofs are sent to those magazines whose opin­ions book-sellers and librarians will consider when buying books. These periodicals whose reviews will be printed well before the book is published, can be most influential in launching a book. The next step begins with the arrival of finished books. Each house has a list of reviewers and literary, editors of newspapers and magazines to whom books are sent for review. Usually, a catalogue is sent to these people weeks or months before publication. The publicity department makes use of lists of influential people who might, because of the nature of the book, be especially interested in the subject, as well as of experts in certain fields, friends and colleagues of he author who might be useful in promoting the book.

Along with the book itself, it is common to enclose a news release and a photograph. The release will briefly describe the book and its author; the photograph - to be used in a newspaper or magazine - will be of the author, the subject of the book (if appropriate), the book's jacket, or possibly of an illustration from the book.

Because of the huge number of books published each year and the strictly limited amount of review space available, merely sending out galleys or books and releases and photographs is not enough. Reviewers and editors are flooded with books, and have the difficult task of choosing which ones to review. The reviewer or book editor can use help in selecting books for review, and this can be provided by the publicity department. If it is at all possible, the publicity director should personally see the book editor, frankly and honestly discussing the list and pointing out the highlights. A competent publicity director knows that not every reviewer can review every book and knows, which book will be more interesting for people.



After a great deal of work, long periods of hope, and often longer periods of despair, the writer has finished writing the book. The manuscript having been neatly typed and double-spaced is ready to be submitted for publication. It is at this point that many new writers feel helpless. It's obviously not enough to write the book - it must be read. And the words set down on manuscript paper by the writer cannot be read by a number of people until they are put into the form of a book and thus made suitable for reading. A publisher and only a publisher will do this.

But there are many publishers, and it is necessary to find the right one. A few writers may know someone in publishing and eagerly submit their manuscripts to their friends or ac­quaintances. Others may know of guides to publishing houses such as Literary Market Place or Writer's Market and select a potential publisher from among the many listed there.

Any of these methods may help, but at this stage the writer may want professional help, and one way he or she can obtain that help is from a literary agent. Literary agents are scouts for talented writers and often helpful and perceptive editors. They are also in business, and the success or failure in handling the affairs of a client will determine the success or failure of the literary agency. The agent is often in the best position to know not only what is salable and what is not, but also which publisher would be best suited to publish a particular work. There are all kinds and sizes of agencies - large ones with staffs o fifty and small ones with a staff of one.

The agent must always be on the lookout for new talent and be able to recognize the potentiali­ties of young, unknown authors. At the same time agents should be willing to encourage and promote an established author's work through guidance and constructive suggestions. The agent must also be in touch with publishers, must know what is being published by each house, and the taste of each editor. In many ways, a good agent acts as a clearinghouse for a publisher, eliminating the hopelessly bad and encouraging the good. It is for this reason that manuscripts submitted by careful agents, known for their taste and knowledge of the market, may often receive more careful attention than will a manuscript submitted by either an unknown authors or an irresponsible agent.

Many writers who fed they could use the services of an agent in marketing manuscript are with good reason puzzled u to how to find this agent. There are, however, various ways of finding a list of reputable, welt-established agents: through Literary Market Place or Writer's Market; through The Authors Guide, which is an association of writers; or by consulting a list provided by an organization called the Society of Authors' Representatives. With any of these lists on hand, the author should choose and write to one or even several agents, describ­ing the work he wishes to submit, perhaps enclosing an outline, synopsis, or sample chapters, giving • resume of his background and experience, and. of course, mentioning any previously published work.

Once the agent has shown interest, in a work, he or she will read that work without charging the author a fee. There are some agents, however, who do charge a reading fee for each manuscript submitted and others who charge what they call an editorial fee.

Once the writer has found an agent who is willing to submit the manuscript to a publisher, the relationship between writer and agent car, be very close. It is of course, best that the writer understand just what can and cannot be expected of the agent.

The agent reads and evaluates the manuscript to the publisher, who in the agent's judgment is best suited to publish it.



News is everything that adds information to what we know already. However, not every addition of what we Know already is news.

EXAMPLE: the fact that the KLM plane has landed at the airport, according to schedule, does indeed add information but it is not news. Because that sort of information is usual and it is to be expected. It would be news when the KLM plane has landed at the airport after having been kidnapped. Because that is UNUSUAL.

News is therefore UNUSUAL. News is about a current event or development. News is about conflict, strife, competition. New is about disaster and war. News, however, is also a memorable peaceful event 9like the inauguration of President Mandela on May 10, 1994) and peaceful developments like elections in. That's news.

Another important aspect of news can be PROXIMITY and INVOLVEMENT: a natural disaster in Holland wilt interest the Dutch listeners more than a horrendous flood in Bangladesh. A plane crash in Europe will hardly interest the listeners in Southern Africa when a British Airways plane is involved. It will be hot news when the crashed plane belongs to Air Namib and was carrying the South African soccer team.

This is obviously true, but on the other hand it is not necessarily true that "distance breeds indifference". For instance, we are interested in the presidential elections I the US. The US is tar away, but such development is also of importance for us. An event far away thus captures people's attention when' it has tar-reaching consequences: the release of Nelson Mandela was world news, which in many countries was broadcast live.

The editor of the newsroom must ensure that major events of the day are covered. The editor prepares a diary for the day; convenes an editorial meeting; assigns stories to the journalists/reporters; ensures the smooth operation of the newsroom and coordinates the work of the editorial team.

News journalists/Reporters should keep a diary with contacts and telephone numbers; note down ideas and follow up leads; have a nose for news; have ideas for stories; keep in touch with sources of news, should show initiative, should get background information of the event or topic.

News Journalists/Reporters should identify themselves as News Journalists/Reporters.

News Journalists/Reporters should be patient when covering meetings, rallies and press conferences, but they should also be inquisitive, should not take yes/no for an answer and verify the Information. Should listen and observe attentively. Should give both sides of a story. Should observe the surroundings of an event to give colour to the story. Should understand the community and its politics, culture and behaviour. Should see to it that they are trusted by the community. should reflect the society as they see it in the field should keep contact with the radio station. should know how to handle the recording machines. should be able to edit and voice their stories. check the equipment before leaving the radio station: tape recorder, microphone, batteries, etc.

News Journalists/Reporters should NOT infringe on people's privacy, politics, culture and religious values.

News Journalists/Reporters should NOT force people to be interviewed.

News Journalists/Reporters should be careful in dangerous situations.

Bear in mind for which target group you are making your programme. It does make a difference for your text and for your presentation whether your programme is a news-programme, or a documentary, or a programme for women or for school-children or for trade unions.

It does take a difference whether you are preparing a programme for broadcasting in the morning, or in the evening. Likewise it does make a difference whether your programme is broadcast during the working hours of a week day or during Sundays.

Remember that you cannot possibly be objective, however much you try to present the truth. It will always be the truth as you see. It. Because It is you who selects the facts. It is you who presents the facts in a certain order.

At the same time the listener is not objective either. Your listener is, in fact, even less objective, as he/she can simply reject your message if that does not fit in with his/her beliefs or opinions.

EXAMPLE: you are a Palestinian journalist and make a programme aimed at American Jews about the Palestinian fight for freedom. Y_fiu speak of "freedom lighters" and yau mean the guerrillas of the liberation movement. They have learned to think o! them in terms of "terror­ists" and for them "freedom fighters" are their own militants. You speak of the Israeli government as "the Jerusalem regime".Thsy. think of it as "the government, democratically elected".

That does not mean that you should adapt your texts to suit the listener, but you should be aware if its possibly misunderstanding. In that case it might be advisable to explain why you use the term "freedom lighters* and why they are not "terrorists".

Why do you want to communicate to inform; to bring news; to expose; to tell the truth about lies or propaganda; to convince; to forward arguments for your opinion; to mobilize; to use persuasion to make the listener do certain things

Now that you know what you want to communicate, to whom, and why, you will have to decide on the form. It may be a news-item, a news report, a documentary, an interview or a commentary. Whichever form is decided upon, it will always have to do with: SOUND. In radio-journalism, that sound will, for a large part of your programme, consist of the SPOKEN WORD. If is the HUMAN VOICe that you, a* a radio-journalist, communicate.

• In a news item you always begin with the news and then you explain what the problem is. This is only so in pure news broadcasts. In News Reports, etc. it may be different.

News Report: this is a follow-up of the news item in the news-bulletin. Your news-report need not begin with the news again: Suppose you were present at the Inauguration of your country's president. You do not have to bring the news that is done from the studio, either in the preceding news-bulletin or in the presenter's text. You may therefore start with general noise of the surroundings and then give your impression of the general atmosphere, gradually building up to your interview with some important persons.

What you have to say should be understandable at first hearing. The listener cannot ask questions. The listener cannot turn back to the first sentence if that has not been understood. You should at the same time also avoid the conversational talk of the disco, the classroom or the cafe. Because in such conversations you often not even finish your sentence, because somebody else asks a question or gives his/her own opinion.

The first sentence must capture CURIOSITY. It must be intriguing, unusual. EXAMPLE: "It was a day I will never forget..." the second sentence must the EXPLAIN and INFORM:


What is Text?

Understanding What Computers See as "Text" is Important in Web Development

When you start out writing HTML, most training classes, books, and Web pages will tell you you need a "text" editor. But what exactly is a text editor? Many people assume that if you can read letters on your computer, that means that you are reading text. For the purposes of writing HTML, this is not always the case.

Types of Computer Text
Text on a computer can be formatted in many different ways, some of the best known types of text are:

· Notepad or Simpletext files

· Word documents

· Acrobat files (PDF)

· Graphics (that include text)

· Web pages (or HTML)

Notepad or Simpletext Files

Notepad (for Windows) and Simpletext (for Macintosh) are programs that write standard text that the computer sees as text. These programs are not terribly complicated, with few features. You can't change the look and feel of your text with these programs.

You are writing, essentially, ASCII text, which is unformatted letters that the computer reads. You can use Notepad or Simpletext to write your Web pages. On the PC, Notepad files are written with the .TXT extension. On the Mac, Simpletext files have the Simpletext icon and can have the .TXT extension.

Word Documents

Word documents and documents written by other word processors are more complicated. You have the option to change the look and feel of your text, such as the font color and face, the leading of the lines, paragraph and line breaks, and much more. You can even embed graphics into Word documents.

When you write a Word document, you are writing text with code embedded in the document. These hidden codes tell the computer where you want your font to change color, how to embed the graphic, and what font face to use for the entire document. The only way to use Word to write your Web documents is to either save the document as text (and write out all the HTML) or use the built-in feature that Word now has to save as a Web page. This results in either HTML or XML depending upon your version of Word. On the PC, Word documents have the extension .DOC. On the Mac, Word documents use the Word icon, and may have the .DOC extension.

Acrobat Files

Adobe Acrobat files are written in several ways. You can use the Acrobat program to build your files directly, but the most common way is to layout your document in a layout program or word processor and then print the document to the Acrobat file. Acrobat is a proprietary document layout format. To the computer, the PDF files will seem like images. You can't do anything but look at them. Only if you have the editing program, Adobe Acrobat and Distiller, can you edit them.

The text in PDF files, for the computer's purposes, has been changed into something not text. The entire document is encoded into a PDF file that can be read by Acrobat Reader, and edited by Acrobat. You cannot write HTML files with Adobe Acrobat. PDF files have the .PDF extension and have the Acrobat icon.

Graphics that Include Text

Graphics can go on Web pages, and you can even make graphics that include (or are) text. But these are not Web pages. Graphics are built in a graphics program such as Photoshop or Paint Shop Pro. Once text is put in an image, the computer can no longer distiguish that text as text. It is only part of the image. There are many extensions that are graphic files, but the most common ones on the Web are .GIF and .JPG.

HTML Files

HTML files are, like Notepad and Simpletext files, straight ASCII text. The main difference between HTML and TXT files is that you add special HTML codes in < and > brackets to call them out to the computer. In a sense, you are writing a lot of the special codes and information that Word documents write, but the information is not hidden.

You can write HTML files with many different programs. There are programs that look like Word and hide all the HTML tags from you. There are other programs that leave them in, but color code them, and many different combinations. HTML is how you write your Web pages. An HTML file has the extension .HTML or .HTM and usually has a Web browser icon (IE or Netscape, generally).

To write HTML, you need to use either Notepad or Simpletext (text editors) or an HTML editor.

HTML and Text Editors

When you write a Web page, you have to use a text based editor. What you should really read this as is an editor that is meant to create either ASCII text or HTML. If you write your Web page in Word, Word will automatically save the document as a .DOC file, and this is not text as the computer sees it. This is, as I mentioned above, textual characters with special formatting codes hidden in the document to tell the computer how to print and display the page. (Note, Word now has an option to save files as Web pages, which puts them into either HTML or XML depending upon the version of Word you have.)

Choosing an HTML or Text Editor
How you choose your HTML or text editor for writing your Web pages depends upon several factors:

· Do you want to learn HTML?

· Do you have money to spend on a tool?

· Do you want assistance with your Web page writing?

I Want to Learn HTML
If you want to learn HTML, or already know it, then you might be interested in using a text-based HTML editor, or straight text editor (like Notepad and Simpletext). These tools offer a lot of flexibility, but can be difficult for the novice to understand, as you have to learn both the tool and HTML. HTML Text Editors. Some popular text editors are: for the PC - HomeSite, and for the Mac - BBEdit.

I Don't Have Money for a Tool
There are some free HTML editors available, the most popular is Arachnophilia. But if you don't have any money for a tool, the easiest way to get started is with Notepad or Simpletext. They come ready to use on your computer, and many people wrote their first and their hundred first pages on them. I use a standard text editor for my Web pages every day.

I Want or Need Assistance
There are now many HTML editors that act like word processors. You simply type in your document, choose the fonts and colors, and save and it comes out a Web page. This is called "what you see is what you get" or WYSIWYG ("why-see-wig"). These editors make it very easy to create your Web page, but some of them can be very expensive. WYSIWYG Editors. Some popular WYSIWYG editors are: Microsoft FrontPage and Macromedia Dreamweaver.

To learn more about HTML Editors, go to my HTML editors subject page.





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