ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Some of the generalizing reflections.



Real art always has ethical nature. Return of aristocratism in journalism, in particular in publics, presupposes: firstly, gentility of the motivation of publications; secondly, formation of authority to fruitful ideas; thirdly, a wish to detect the truth not only to justify own convictions; fourthly, aspiration not to enslave by the word, but to release, raise hopes (ontological optimism), at last — assistance in mutual understanding between people and peoples on the principles of a near-by to a near-by, not as a producer and a user. Saving transparency of the truth is being created by eminence of the spirit, non-prejudiced investigation of all human traditions — to get powerful moral force, able to exterminate a fear, malignant stereotypes, that is to find out a part of absolute truth. As well as — traditions, ideas of the epoch — in order to take possession of a part of relative truth. At the same time it is necessary to emphasize on an honest discussion, that cannot occur in spiritual emptiness, selection of words, that are able to arouse hidden in us moral forces, to prepare consciousness for accepting the truth, to teach to live, not only to react to the life. We don’t have enough a deep thought, able to enrich our intellect, we don’t have enough a word, able to affect the soul, there is no dyna­mics, which any education cannot give, but the energy of good will present it. Every nation has to realize its mission and first of all to serve the spiritual progress. We must extol a man over a cold advantage of egoism. In such a way acted nations’ great messengers, who were brilliant publicists, scientists. Such masters of thought aren’t in want nowadays.Many scientific efforts are needed for our journalism, above all world-outlook publics, to get reliable key basis. Published in the collection articles give grounds for thinking of perspectives of a thought, which is always casual. Though controversy of different opinions, even diametrically opposite approaches to evaluation of journalist events, authors realize that we cannot “move” in the sphere of guesses, improvisations, uncritical imitation of positivistic metho­dology, which turned out to be an erroneous criterion.History and religion are the principles of being of every nation. History determines, what the people were and are (our publics is invaluable treasury, which we have to comprehend), religion is what the people aim to. We must make maximum efforts not to allow the political migration of Ukrainian people onto strange lands of civilization. Long ago it was proved that every nation grows and developed accordingly to its national genius and created its own civilization. It also completely regards to both science and mass media. They are necessary, like in the kniaz’s (prince’s) age and later, to be moral and cultural guide, but not to go along the guiding lines of absentmindedness, better to say of medial telecracy. Don’t we see that a new form of cult of intellect weakens vivifying background of the nation? That misinformation entered into a dangerous phase of the development, and in consumer-hedonistic model of mass society the pseudo reality is capturing the greater part of spiritual activity of people? When a figure replaces reflection, and mode of life seemed to be more interesting than the life itself, when techniques prevail over the contents, the masses adapt themselves to incomprehensible mechanisms of technology and market. Man, hidden in informational stream, gradually loses transcendent measurement. Our vital duty is to find in beds of our own history the values, which would fasten but not weaken spirit of the nation. As Olena Teliha said: to find out not the spilled ordinariness, but true depths and heights of Ukrainian spirituality and formation for them harmonious and non-annihilable form, which wouldn’t remind a house that it may ruin in any minute.

And one more thing: aren’t we taught by the last presidential election in the USA? After all, it is not just another political soup opera, but failure of the methodology of modern mass media. Transformation of information into goods, inflation of word, modern means of “occupation” of conscientiousness via neuro linguistic programming are causing destruction of those bearings, which enable to keep to stable values in unstable world. We must look for effective means for neutralization of negative influence of commercialization of information and medialization of policy that gives unlimited possibilities for manipulation of human consciousness.

Included in the collection articles induce to searching organic reference points of national journalism. Therefore, axiological aspect training of journalists becomes the primary duty of the Higher School, social institutions, and editors. The course “Deontology of journalism” is very necessary at corresponding faculties and departments. At the same time we have to synthesize the best examples of specific forms of education, which for the last hundred years have dominated in the circle of European culture: literary, political, social, sociological, commercial, and psychological. Let’s remember: the Higher School is the forge of world-view thoughts. It means that we cannot separate ourselves from the spiritual process, consonant and commensurable with Europe, otherwise we’ll found ourselves on the scientific neighborhood. Science has to become the determinant for publicist’s search secrets of common history of the human spirit, not just the method of the description of facts.

Mission of a real journalist is to cure souls, to feel points of pain of the epoch, to maintain the highest values. This task has existed for ages and will last for ever and ever — that’s why numerical capitalism won’t abolish it. Means may not become the aim! Postulate “demand causes supply” is a cynic excuse of irresponsibility. Behind the front of feverish fuss, advertising farce, many-voices talking-shop, which imitates polemics, is hiding phenomenon, which unfortunately isn’t of great importance in our days of all-embracing stream of mass-media, — is a need of an apt word that makes clear and explains. All our dignity, Pascal wrote, consists in the thought. Let’s try to think beautifully: here is the beginning of morals. Why nowadays do we seldom ask the question: “How must one make the world better?”

The “Bolshevist” approach “Who — whom?” is prevailing. Separating facts and values, one causes a suicide of the journalism, equally as science.

Ideological publics as a “vanguard of the spirit” (Mykola Shlemkevych) disciplines the thought, introduces devout thinking into mass consciousness, helps to apprehend high ideals, to percept the world in the epical way, to leave the narrowed state of conscious. It is necessary to describe the present widely, instead of emotional complains about it, to learn and encourage others to see the future not only materialistically.

We found ourselves before the choice: either to take the decision on information society in a hurry (it has been ever existing, but saturation with informa­tion was different), or to see weak and strong points of given possibilities in proper perspective grounding on “the wisdom of our ancestors” (E. Berk). It is important not to forget the principle that only moral thinking can create a professional journalism; the spiritual state of the present epoch requires search for the positive world. Authentic person and nation (collective soul) cannot allow to be treated as a subject. It is important to raise personal freedom, existence and transcendentalism. Advice for journalists and scientists is to cherish the sense of ethic and creative responsibility for the Truth.

A Practical Theory Of Journalism

Unlike Shakespeare's seven, the journalist has three ages: learning, practising and managing. Any practical-theory of journalism must be about all three. It must be firmly based on the needs of journalism, not on some other discipline. Journalism is all about news and information. Journalists discover news and report it. Journalism consists of gathering facts, deciding how to assemble them, making important decisions about which facts to include, and which to omit. It is about talking to people, being curious, thinking clearly, and being able to translate difficult ideas into simple ones so that everyone can understand them. Journalism is about analysing and interpreting events; knowing how government, politics, business, industry and modern society work; and being able to make interesting stories out of all kinds of events. Journalism therefore consists of practical skills and a wide intellectual foundation which gives credibility to the reporting. But journalism is different from other disciplines because integration of the practical and the theoretical builds the discipline of journalism. The theoretical has to be seen always in conjunction with the practical skills. Law and ethics, for example, are not separate entities as far as journalists are concerned; they infuse all their news gathering, reporting and communicating. They are integrated with the practical skills. All the intellectual theory is integrated into, not separated from the journalism skills. Such a practical-theory will also help students enlarge their understanding, test various theories, work out their own solutions to problems in gathering and reporting news as well as developing their own creative skills. Students will also develop important transferable skills which will be useful throughout life, not just in journalism. These include communication, self-assertion and confidence, leadership, co-operation and teamwork; independence, autonomy, self-assessment. Other transferable skills include interpersonal ones of influencing others, listening and negotiation; organisational skills of time management and project management; problem solving and, of course, information technology. But again, none of this is in isolation.

Journalism education has eight vital aims. It must provide:

the ability to understand what makes a good story; find the best angle and communicate it with interest and enthusiasm to readers, listeners and viewers;

experience of the various theories involved in gathering, writing and reporting news, through modules on reporting and writing combined with practical workshops and the production of some kind of newspaper ( increasingly these days an electronic newspaper transmitted through the internet);

a critical understanding of journalism through an informed, analytical and creative approach to professional practice;

transferable skills through written, interpersonal and verbal activities within theoretical and practical frameworks;

the capacity for rational analysis and argument;

an understanding of the increasing sophistication and technological advance in the journalism profession;

a sense of social consciousness towards journalism and an ethical self-responsibility;

an awareness of the latest technology such as new computer newsroom technology and satellite communications.

These requirements can be further broken down into objectives for achievement by the end of each year. For example at the end of year one students should have the ability to:

understand the basic vocabulary of news and journalism;

understand contending theories in journalism studies;

acquire information from printed and electronic sources;

use concepts and theories to formulate arguments;

analyse problems and formulate responses to them;

present information and arguments orally, and to discuss fluently with others;

create information and arguments as well written, interesting and accurate news stories;

work in a team.

By the end, the learning objectives to be met are: a practical news writing and reporting ability; knowledge of the legal and ethical implications of news; knowledge of new technology and computer-assisted reporting; use of the latest editing and production techniques to create pleasing, interesting and inventive page layouts, news bulletins and programmes.





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