Ukraine's National Higher Education System



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Ukraine's National Higher Education System



 

 

In Ukraine, as in other developed countries, higher education is considered to be one of the main human values. Ukraine has inherited from the past a well-developed and multifunctional system of higher education.

The higher education consist of higher educational establishments, scientific and methodological facilities under federal and municipal governments and self-governing bodies in charge of education. The higher education structure includes also the post-graduate and Ph. D. Programs and self-education. The higher education includes two major educational levels, namely basic higher education and full higher education. The educational level is trait of higher education by the level of gained quality which provides comprehensive development of an individual and which will do to get an appropriate qualification. The legislation sets the following educational and qualification levels - junior specialist, bachelor, specialist, master, as well as scientific degrees of candidate of sciences (assistant professor) and doctor of sciences (Ph. D.).

 

The Ukraine's State Higher Education System includes 940 higher educational institutions (HEI), out of which 806 are public and 134 are of other forms of property ownership. Non-public HEIs are mandatory and legally acknowledged and controlled by the state through the educational activity's licensing mechanism and accreditation. HEIs in Ukraine are comprised of vocational schools, colleges, institutes, conservatories, academies, universities .

 

 

Currently, Ukraine's higher educational system comprises of 327 technical vocational schools, 216 vocational schools, 117 colleges, 149 institutes: 2 conservatories, 48 academies and 81 universities.

 

The first and the second accreditation levels constitute 660 technical schools, vocational schools, colleges, of which 606 are public, the third and the fourth levels constitute 280 HEIs, of which 202 are public.

 

The total number of HEI students in Ukraine ( 2005/2006 years) is 2 709 100 including 1 862 000 students of public HEIs. 505 300 students attend the first and second accreditation levels' HEIs ( 57.3 per cent of which are female students ), while the remaining 2 203 800 students attend the third and fourth accreditation levels' HEIs ( 50.8 per cent of which are female students ).

 

HEIs' graduates are given state standard diploma after they complete education under respective EPPs based on the results of state attestation. The following educational and qualification levels granted to the experts exist in Ukrainian system of higher education: junior specialist, bachelor, specialist and master.

 

Normative periods of training under different educational and qualification levels are set listed bellow:

3 years for junior specialist ( on the basis of full comprehensive secondary education );

4 years for bachelor ( on the basis of full comprehensive secondary education );

1 year for specialist ( on the basis of first degree );

1 year for master ( on the basis of first degree ).

 

One of the particular features of high school in the Soviet period was that priority was given to preparation of technical engineers and machine building complex specialists - first of all for military complex. Most of technical higher educational institutions were concentrated in districts with well-developed industry. Currently, the need of specialists of that kind decreased dramatically: from 54 per cent in 1990 to 42 per cent in 1996 at the expense of increasing of humanitarian, economic and management profile specialists' need. This process is expected to go on and set in for nearest future in Ukraine at the basis of analysis of job market employer's requirements and graduates competition. Preparation of engineers on the basis of old-dated standards leads to the fact that 40 per cent of graduates remain unemployed.

 

New Ukrainian educational laws and democratic state policy give certain autonomy to the higher educational institutions in their activities and classical academic liberties in self-government.

Ukraine's higher educational system fulfills important social functions creating intellectual potential of Ukraine as a new independent state entering the world community.

Higher education supplies all spheres of national economy with qualified professionals and looks for the better ways of development and perfection.

The system of higher education in our country has flexible structure, corresponds to modern

trends and tendencies to those in

advanced countries recognized by UNESCO, UN Organization and many other international organization.

Graduates of higher educational institutions who have outstanding inclinations for scientific-research work have an opportunity to

continue their studies at the post-graduate and doctorate course.

New Ukrainian educational laws, state policy give certain autonomy to the higher educational institutions in their activities classical

academic liberties in the self-government.

Ukraine has entered into the world educational system, and its higher education system fulfils important social functions creating the intellectual potential of Ukraine which is inseparable part of the world civilization. Higher education supplies all spheres of national economy with highly-qualified professionals, it looks for better ways of development, leading the humanity to the XXIst century.

 

The judicial system of Ukraine consists of four levels of courts of general jurisdiction, as follows:

Local courts of general jurisdiction (combining criminal and civil jurisdiction) consisting of:

district, urban district and town courts;

regional courts;

city courts in Kiev and Sevastopol;

administrative local courts.

Appeals courts, consisting of:

appeals court of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea;

regional appeals courts;

appeals courts of the cities of Kiev and Sevastopol;

regional military appeals courts;

economic appeals courts (known also as arbitration courts);

administrative appeals courts

The Appeals Court of Ukraine (currently not existed)

High courts with specialized jurisdiction:

The High Administrative Court of Ukraine, covering administrative cases;

The High Arbitration Court of Ukraine, covering economic and commercial cases

The Supreme Court, covering all cases.

The Constitutional Courtof Ukraine is a special body with authority to assess whether legislative acts of the Parliament, President, Cabinet or Crimean Parliament are in line with the Constitution of Ukraine. This Court also gives commentaries to certain norms of the Constitution or laws of Ukraine (superior acts of Parliament).

Beside everything above-mentioned there also is the Supreme Council of Justice which was legalized on January 15, 1998.[1] This council "is a collective independent body that is responsible for formation of the high-profile judge corpus capable of qualified, honest and impartial exercise of justice on a professional basis; and for making decisions regarding violations by judges and procurators of the requirements concerning their incompatibility and within the scope of their competence of their disciplinary responsibility". Three members of the council are automatically assigned for holding the following positions: Chairman of the Supreme Court, Minister of Justice, and Prosecutor General. The other 17 members are elected for a period of six years. The council consists of 20 members.

 

 

Surveillance is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting. Surveillance is therefore an ambiguous practice, sometimes creating positive effects, at other times negative.

It is sometimes done in a surreptitious manner.

Cameras

 

Digital cameras continue to offer ever-increasing capability in smaller packages for lower cost. Coupled with the greater ease with which digital imagery may be analyzed and manipulated, this has led to the steady decline of analog cameras for most purposes. Microelectronics allows these devices to built very small for easy concealment. There is an inverse relationship between small size and resolution, but this kind of surveillance equipment usually offers adequate capability when used close to the target(s). Software can be used to collate and evaluate footage, but has only a limited ability to identify specific individuals or objects. Cameras which provide imagery outside the visible light spectrum are also available, but are more expensive. Infra-red imaging is the most common, but models which provide imaging using other kinds of electromagnetic emissions (for example, x-rays or gamma rays) can also be had.

Audio Surveillance Equipment

 

Most frequently, small and easily concealed microphones are used for intercepting conversations. Parabolic microphones are designed to receive sound from only one direction, and are valuable in crowds with a lot of background noise. Laser microphones bounce a laser off a hard surface; vibrations in the surface caused by sound waves change the way the laser light is reflected back to the transmitter, allowing sound recording. The mouthpiece within phones can also be remotely activated and used to record noise even when the phone is "off."

 

Signals Tracking

 

Tiny radio frequency ID tags, costing a few cents each, can be placed on objects or individuals and read from several meters away. Each tag can transmit a unique identifying signal, allowing scanners to identify the tagged subject. Larger transmitters, like GPS units, use satellite networks to achieve much greater range and are often employed for discreetly tracking vehicles. Scientists may also use GPS tagging to track wildlife migrations.

Signal Interception

 

Signal surveillance equipment can also be used to intercept electronic/radio communications. Electronic bugs can be physically attached to telephone lines and switchboxes, allowing calls to be rerouted or monitored as desired. Radio equipment can also be used to listen to conversations transmitted over the airwaves. However, this approach can have variable results depending on atmospheric conditions, whether the transmission is unidirectional or dispersed, and whether the conversation is conducted in code.

 

Computer Surveillance

 

Software embedded on a computer's hard drive (frequently as a virus) can record that system's activities including internet traffic and data storage. Specialized equipment can also detect electromagnetic emissions from a computer's monitor and keyboard, making inferences about what is being displayed on screen or being typed.

 

Numerous civil rights groups and privacy groups oppose surveillance as a violation of people's right to privacy. Such groups include: Electronic Privacy Information Center, Electronic Frontier Foundation, American Civil Liberties Union

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