Страдательный залог (продолжение)




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Страдательный залог (продолжение)



Простое будущее время We will quote this price. We will not quote this price. This price will be quoted. This price will not be quoted.
Настоящее совершенное время We have already quoted this price. We have not quoted this price yet. This price has already been quoted. This price has not been quoted yet.
can We can quote a lower price. We cannot quote a lower price. A lower price can be quoted. A lower price cannot be quoted.

Ex. 14 Выберите правильный вариант:

1. Yesterday the price problem (has been discussed, was discussed).

2. Next year this model (has been advertized, will be advertized).

3. We are sending you our offer. Catalogues and price-lists (were en­closed, are enclosed).

4. We promise that these engines (will be tested, have been tested) in the presence of your representative.

5. These goods (were delivered, are delivered) last month.

6. We don’t know the results. The tests (haven’t been made, weren’t made) yet.

7. These raw materials (were delivered, have been delivered) last week.

Ex. 15 Переведите на русский язык:

1. Catalogues and price-lists are enclosed with this letter.

2. A 10% discount can be given for orders of over 1000 units.

3. Good results have been achieved in laboratory tests.

4. The quality of these tyres can be improved.

5. The price problem will be discussed tomorrow.

6. Our regular customers are given a discount.

7. This information can be found on page 7 of the Contract.

8. These models have never been manufactured at this factory.

9. This information was received last week.

10. The commercial documents will be sent immediately.

11. The machines will be inspected next month.

12. The contract can be signed tomorrow.

13. Models A-5 and A-6 have been sold at these prices.

14. This cheque was countersigned in the presence of the cashier.

15. The currency of payment has been confirmed.

Ex. 16 Переведите на английский язык:

1. Эти документы были посланы вчера.

2. Эти документы будут посланы незамедлительно.

3. Проблема цены будет обсуждена завтра.

4. испытания только что проведены.

5. Каталоги прилагаются к этому письму.

6. наш заказ может быть увеличен.

7. Этот вопрос изучен.

Ex. 17 Разыграйте следующие и составьте аналогичные диалоги:

1. - Your earphones are under your seat. A good film wi11 be shown.

- What film?

- A Western with good American actors.

2. - The engines have already been tested.

- Fine. I hope the results are good.

3. - These documents can be sent by post.

- That’s a good idea. It means that we’ll receive them next week.

Ex. 18 Составьте предложения:

The fist second third fourth lot can be delivered in May.

Ex. 19 Разыграйте следующие и составьте аналогичные диалоги:

1. - When can you deliver these two lots?

- The first can be delivered in June and the other - in January.

2. - The second lot has already been delivered.

- Fine. And what about the third lot?

- Only next month.

Revision

Ex.1 Выберите правильный вариант:

1. English (is said, is spoken) in many countries in the world.

2. Yesterday he (said, spoke) at the shareholders’ meeting.

3. High prices (are quoted, quoted) in this price-list.

4. They (are quoted, quote) very high prices in their catalogue.

5. The price problem (has been settled, has settled).

6. We (have been settled, have settled) the price problem.

7. The goods (were delivered, delivered) a few days ago.

8. We (were delivered, delivered) the goods a few days ago.

9. The terms of payment (will be discussed, will discuss) tomorrow.

10. We (will discuss, will be discussed) the terms of payment tomorrow.

11. He (is authorized, authorized) to sign all the documents on behalf of the company.

12. A lot of money (has invested, has been invested) in the tourist industry.

13. Our account (can open, can be opened) either with Lloyd’s or Barclay's.

Ex. 2 Напишите три формы глагола:

to grow, to increase, to read, to find, to cost, to draw, to get, to mean, to settle, to tell, to see, to accept, to refer, to say, to cash, to go, to think, to fill, to give, to miss, to despatch, to hold, to bring, to spend, to take.

Ex. 3 Прочитайте:

1. On the 31st January...

2. Your enquiry dated 2nd August 1992...

3. Our letter of 12th November 1992...

4. Your offer of March 1st 1991...

5. On the 24th February...

6. Your enquiry of 23rd May...

7. Your letter of confirmation of 28th July...

8. On June 19th...

Ex. 4 Произнесите по-английски следующие годы:

1989, 1975, 1986, 1990, 1993, 1984, 1985, 1948, 1860, 1978, 1972, 1964, 1968, 1971, 1976, 1981, 2000.

Ex. 5 Переведите на английский язык и прочитайте:

315 брошюр, 15600 фунтов стерлингов, 210000 канадских долларов, 1250 ковров, 3590 американских долларов, 875 калькуляторов, 20540 рублей (Roubles).

Ex. 6 Выберите правильный вариант:

1. I haven’t (many, much) cash on me.

2. How (many, much) will it cost?

3. How (many, much) leaflets have you sent to the firm?

4. These publicity materials don’t give (much, many) information on the new model.

5. There weren’t (many, much) people there.

6. Don’t put (many, much) sugar into my tea. I want just (a few, a little).

7. Don’t buy (many, much) postcards here. I know a better shop.

8. Will you have (a few, a little) more marmalade?

9. Very (many, much) securities are traded at the Stock Exchange.

Ex. 7 Прочитайте текст и подчеркните придаточные предложения одной чертой, сказуемые в придаточных предложениях – двумя чертами.

London and finance

London, the capital of the United Kingdom, is a political, cultural, commercial, industrial and financial centre of the country. At the same time London is one of the world’s financial capitals. The business centre of London is the City, where numerous banks, various exchanges, insurance offices, shipping and other companies have their head offices.

At the heart of the City is the London Stock Exchange where millions of shares and securities are traded daily. There are also exchanges in several other cities of the United Kingdom but the London Stock Exchange is the most important. Here through the Exchange members the investor can buy or sell shares in any of the thousands of companies which are quoted on the Exchange and many more companies which are quoted on recognized exchanges overseas. The London Stock Exchange offers the largest range and number of securities quoted on any Stock Exchange in the world. In volume of business it ranks third to New York and Tokyo.

London is also the headquarters of many prominent international banking and insurance concerns which deal in foreign shares, insurance and bonds and handle English investments in other countries.

The central feature of government finance is the Bank of England, founded under a royal charter as a private company in 1694 to provide loans to the Government and nationalized in 1946 by Act of Parliament. The Bank of England is the country's national bank, it carries out govern­ment monetary policies and acts as the “banker’s bank” for privately owned banks and other Commonwealth nations.

Most domestic banking operations of the United Kingdom are carried on by the commercial clearing banks. The main commercial banks are Lloyds Bank, Barclays Bank, Midland Bank and National Westminster Bank, often referred to as “the Big Four”.

Контрольные работы

1 вариант

1. Поставьте глаголы, стоящие в скобках, в нужную форму, в зависимости от смысла в Past Simple или Present Perfect. Запишите полученные предложения. Переведите их на русский язык.

1) I (not, to see) this film yet, but I (to hear) a lot about it.

2) He isn’t here, he just (to go) out.

3) Last winter I (to spend) a lot of time in the library.

4) (To arrive) the train? – No, it hasn’t.

5) I (to meet) him yesterday.

 

2. Поставьте предложение в Past Simple и Future Simple, обращая внимание на наречия времени.

1) I help my wife about the house.

2) They do their shopping every day.

3) She gets to work by train every day.

4) He starts his work at 8.15 a.m.

5) I always have a lot of work to do.

 

3. Прочитайте текст. Задайте вопросы, используя вопросительные слова, данные в скобках.

Gotlif Daimler and Charles Benz were two inventors. They lived in Germany (where?). They were both interested in car production (what?). At the end of the 19th century each of them designed a car (when?). At the same time they organized two independent firms to produce them (what?). All the cars produced by the firm of Daimler were called “Mercedes” (what?). Mercedes was a daughter’s name of one of the stock-holders of the firm who saved the firm of Daimler from the financial crisis (who?). But after the World War I the firm of Daimler had to join the firm of Benz (when?). And so the cars which were produced by the firm “Daimler-Benz” were called “Mercedes-Benz”.

 

4. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в форму Present simple или Present Continuous.

1) This car (make) a very strange noise. You (think) it is all right? – Oh, that noise (not matter). It always (make) a noise like that.

2) You (recognize) that man? I (think) I have seen him before but I (not remember) his name.

3) Look at that crowd: what they (wait) for?

 

5. Спишите, подчеркните сказуемое. Определите залог глагола. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) He was much spoken to.

2) He studies at our Institute.

3) When I saw him he was going home.

4) He has decided to sing this contract.

5) I am often asked at the seminars.

 

6. Прочитайте текст и выполните задания к нему:

What is business?

Business is a word which is commonly used in many different languages. But exactly what does it mean? Traditionally business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed.

Today it has more technical definition. One definition of business is the production, distribution and sale of goods and services for a profit. We will look at its various parts.

Production is the creation of the services or the changing of the materials into products (e.g. conversion of iron ore into metal car parts). Then these products need to be moved from the factory to the marketplace. This is known as distribution. A car is moved from a factory in Detroit to a car dealership in Miami. Third is the sale of goods and services. Sale is the exchange of the product or service for money. A car is sold to someone in exchange for money. Goods are products which people either need or want. Cars can be classified as goods. Services, on the other hand, are activities which a person or group performs for another person or organization. For instance, an auto mechanic performs a service when he repairs a car.

Business, then, is a combination of all these activities: production, distribution and sale. However, there is another important factor. This factor is the creation of profit or economic surplus. Profit is the money that remains after all the expenses are paid. Creating an economic surplus or profit is, therefore, a primary goal of business activity.

1) Выпишите из текста предложения, в которых сказуемое поставлено в пассивном залоге.

2) Выпишите предложения, в которых есть придаточные предложения.

3) Выпишите все вводные слова.

 

2 вариант

1. Употребите глагол, стоящий в скобках в форме Present Simple. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) Ann’s parents (not to live) in Perm.

2) We (to read) newspapers every day.

3) Winter (to begin) in December and (to end) in February.

4) My son (not to like) oranges.

5) Where … you (to work)?

6) When … Kate (to get up)?

7) I (to like to walk) in the forest.

8) His sister (to play) tennis well.

 

2. Переведите предложение ан английский язык:

1) Куда они ездят летом?

2) Кто живет в этой комнате?

3) Они любят помогать своим друзьям.

4) Мне не нравится эта книга.

5) Вы изучаете английский в школе?

6) Твоя дочь хочет стать экономистом или учителем математики?

7) Что твои родители делают вечерами?

8) Том не выращивает черную смородину в своем саду.

 

3. Употребите соответствующие неопределенные местоимения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) She wanted to buy (немного) rice and (несколько) apples.

2) My sister eats (много) sugar.

3) Ann has (мало) friends.

4) She does (много) but talks (мало).

5) We have (мало) knowledge of the subject.

 

4. Составьте предложения из следующих слов, переведите предложения на русский язык.

1) This, is, bag, mine, not.

2) Son’s, is, name, her, Tom.

3) They, the, are, garden, in?

4) Old, daughter, is, how, your.

5) Never, brother, late, is, my.

6) Are, we, from, not, Perm.

 

5. Выберите правильное притяжательное местоимение.

1) Is this (your/yours) book?

2) It’s (their/theirs) problem, not (our/ours).

3) Are these (your/yours) shoes?

4) That’s not (my/mine) umbrella. (My/mine) is yellow.

5) They know (our/ours) address but we don’t know (their/theirs).

6) (My/mine) room is bigger than (her/hers), but (her/hers) is nicer.

 

6. Прочитайте текст и выпишите предложения, которые по своему содержанию совпадают с вашей биографией. Переведите эти предложения.

My biography

My name is Alia. I am Russian. I was born on May 5, 1977 in Perm. Two years ago our family moved to Moscow where I live now together with my parents. My father is a doctor, he works at a hospital. My mother is a housewife. She has much work to do about the house. We are five in the family. I have sister and brother. Lucy is in the fifth form and Boris is a pupil of the ninth form. Our family is very united. Some years ago I finished school № 11 in Perm. I always did well at school and studied with great interest. I also took an active part in social life, attended sport sections and subject circles. My favourite subject at school was Literature. My teacher of Literature was a well-educated man with broad outlook and deep knowledge of the subject. He taught us to understand Russian classics, to appreciate the language and the style. He acquainted us with modern authors, helped to understand modern history and life better. He also encouraged me in my desire to become a teacher of Literature. My dream became true. I graduated from Moscow University and now I work al school.

 

7. Прочитайте текст. Выпишите предложения, в которых сказуемое употреблено в пассивном залоге. Переведите предложение на русский язык.

Market

Traditionally a market is a place where people buy and sell things. An example is a farmers’ market where you can buy vegetables directly from farmers. But for economists the word “market” means something slightly different. It refers lo the actions of buying and selling, not just to the place where things are bought and sold. A market can exist even if the buyers and sellers never meet - foe example, mail-order business. A market is made up of people and actions. The people in a market are all the buyers and sellers of a product or service. The action of a market is buying and selling, that is, exchanging a product or service for money.

The idea of a market economy started about 200 years ago, during the Industrial Revolution in England in the 18th century. This was the lime when goods began to be made in factories with large machines powered by steam or water instead of being made by hand. As individual inventors, industrialists and entrepreneurs became wealthy they also became more powerful in government. They were not satisfied with an economic system that was designed to benefit the nobles, kings and landowners. They wanted an economic system to benefit them.

Economic decisions in a pure market economy are made by buyers and sellers in the marketplace. Land and capital goods - factories, tools, etc. - are privately owned.

 

3 вариант

1. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. Are there (any) children in your family?

2. There are many people in the street.

3. Is there a (any) park in the city?

4. There is nothing in my table.

5. There is a cup and three glasses there.

6. There are books on Economics on this shelf.

7. What is there on the table?

8. There is not your cup on the table.

9. How many mistakes are there in my test?

10. There is no tea in the cup.

 

2. Переведите данные предложения на английский язык:

1. Ее английский очень плох, она должна много заниматься.

2. Может кто-нибудь объяснить это правило?

3. Я не смог написать тест, он был слишком трудным для меня.

4. Можно открыть окно?

5. Лена не умеет плавать.

6. Ученики не должны разговаривать во время урока.

7. На скольких языках вы говорите?

8. Поезд, возможно, опоздает на несколько минут.

 

3. Поставьте глаголы в Past Simple и Future Simple. Запишите полученные предложения и переведите их на русский язык:

1. They often make mistakes.

2. We go to the Institute by bus.

3. She saves money to go abroad.

4. He works as an economist.

5. The postman brings us the newspapers in the morning.

 

4. Поставьте притяжательные местоимения:

1. I like __ job.

2. Do you like __ job?

3. Sally is married. __husband works in a bank.

4. I know Mr. Petrov but I don’t know __ wife.

5. Put on __coat when you go out. It’s very cold.

6. __ favourite sport is tennis. I play a lot in summer.

7. We usually stay at a very nice hotel. __ rooms are very comfortable.

 

5. Прочитайте текст и выпишите предложения:

а) с модальными глаголами

b) со сказуемыми в пассивном залоге.

Market Economy

A market economy depends on a specialized industrialized society in which:

- Most individuals cannot meet their own material needs.

- People must work because they need money.

- People meet most of their material needs by buying goods and services with money.

- Buyers and sellers compete in the market place, each working for his or her own best interests.

A market economy is really made up of two markets: a resource market and a product market. In each of these two markets something is exchanged between producers and individuals. In the resource market, the resources that producers need (labour, land, capital goods) are exchanged for money (wages, rent, interest and profits). Individuals provide resources to producers. Producers in turn provide money to individuals. Producers pay:

- wages in exchange for labour,

- rent in exchange for land,

- interest on borrowed money,

- profits or dividends to individuals who invest money and thus become part-owners of the business.

In the product market, products and services are exchanged for money. Producers provide products and services to individuals. Individuals in turn provide money to producers in payment for the products and services. The resource and product markets are related.

- Businesses use the resources that they buy from individuals to produce goods and services which they sell to individuals.

- Businesses use the money they receive in payments for these goods and services to pay individuals wages, rent, interest and profit.

- Individuals use the money they earn in wages, rent, interest and profits to buy more goods and services.

 

6. Заполните пропуски местоимениями many, much, little, few.

1. __ - was told but __ done.

2. Say __ and do __ .

3. He is a man of __ words.

4. __ is spoken about it, but __ believe it.

5. He has very __ knowledge of the matter.

 

4 вариант

1. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в форму Present Simple или Present Continuous; переведите предложение на русский язык:

1. Tom (walk) to work every day.

2. I can see Tom from my window. He is in the street now. He (walk) to work now.

3. (Tom, walk) to work every day?

4. Tom (walk, not) to work when the weather is cold. He (take) a bus.

5. Oh, look! Mary and Tony (walk) along the road.

 

2. Заполните пропуски, выбрав один правильный вариант из четырех предложенных:

1. We __ in the center of the city.

1) have lived

2) live

3) living

4) lives

2. My uncle __ at the automobile factory seventeen years ago.

1) work

2) has worked

3) is working

4) worked

3. We __ in class since nine o’clock this morning.

1) are

2) being

3) have been

4) was

4. I __ Ann at the party last week.

1) met

2) have met

3) was meeting

4) meet

5. Jane is working on her composition but she __ it yet.

1) didn’t finish

2) doesn’t finish

3) won’t finish

4) hasn’t finished

6. They __ the company two years ago.

1) started

2) have started

3) starts

4) were started

7. My car __ . I won’t be able to drive to the countryside at the weekend.

1) breaks down

2) broke down

3) has broken down

4) was breaking down

8. The taxi __ a few minutes ago.

1) arrives

2) is arriving

3) has arrived

4) arrived

9. The taxi __ . Hurry up!

1) arrived

2) has arrived

3) arriving

4) was arriving

 

3. Поставьте глагол в Present Perfect и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. I (meet) Ann’s husband. I met him at a party last week.

2. My parents and I came here two mouths.

3. Peter can go to bed now. (He, finish) his homework.

4. (I, finish) my work. I finished it two hours ago.

 

4. Выберите правильный ответ. Напишите правильный вариант. Переведите на русский язык.

1. The first Sputnik __ by the USSR in 1956.

1) launched

2) was launched

2. When __ Yuri Gagarin __ into cosmos?

1) did … fly

2) was … flown

3. What __ Greece __?

1) does … export

2) is … exported

4. Peter __ his car last week.

1) sold

2) was sold

5. English __ all over the world.

1) speak

2) is spoken

 

5. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопрос: какая информация, представленная в тексте, совпадает с Вашим рассказом о себе? Запишите эти предложения. Переведите их на русский язык.

Weekend in the Franklin Family

Every weekend is important in the Franklin family. During the week they don’t have very much time together, but they spend a lot of time together on the weekend.

Mr. Franklin works at the shoe department during the week, but he doesn’t work there on the weekend.

Mrs. Franklin works at the city hospital during the week, but she does not work there on the weekend.

Bobby and Sally Franklin go to the elementary school during the week but they don’t go there on the weekend.

And the Franklin dog Rover stays home along during the week, but he doesn’t stay home alone on the weekend.

On Saturdays and on Sundays the Franklins spend all their time together. On Saturday morning they clean the house together. On Saturday afternoon they work in the garden together. And on Saturday evening they sit in the living-room and watch TV together.

On Sunday morning they go to the church together. On Sunday afternoon they have a big dinner. And on Sunday evening they play musical instruments together.

 

6. Выберете активную или пассивную форму сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. The children (taught, were taught) Italian.

2. The president (interviewed, was interviewed) at the conference.

3. The problem (will discuss, will be discussed) on French TV.

4. Walt Disney (created, was created) the cartoon.

5. He (treated, was treated) the girl very badly.

6. Milk (gives, is given) to my cat every day.

7. The teacher (put, was put) me a good mark.

8. Michael (will ask, will be asked) to help him.

9. The rooms (must air, must be aired) regularly.

10. They (water, are watered) the flowers.

 

7. Прочитайте текст. Задайте к предложениям вопросы, используя вопросительные слова, данные в скобках.

Charles Makintosh lived from 1766 to 1843 (when?). He lived in Scotland and was a chemist by profession (where? what?). He work in a textile industry (where?). In 1823 he developed a rubber solution (when?). This rubber solution was used for raincoat production (what … for?). Raincoat with this rubber solution didn’t allow water to penetrate. These raincoats were called mackintoshes (what?). Now people all over the world use them in spring and in autumn.

 

5 вариант

1. Поставьте глаголы в Past Simple и Future Simple, употребляя соответствующие наречия времени. Запишите полученные предложения и переведите их на русский язык.

1. They often make mistakes.

2. We go to the Institute by bus.

3. She saves money to go abroad.

4. He teaches English at the University.

5. We study different subjects at the Institute.

 

2. Поставьте глагол to be в соответствующей форме (is, are) и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. There __ some flowers in the vase.

2. There __ somebody in the garden.

3. There __ no mistakes in your test.

4. There __ no milk in the bottle.

5. __ there any new students in your group?

6. How many students __ there in your group?

 

3. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. На улице много народу.

2. На столе книги по экономике.

3. В чашке нет чая.

4. В зале есть пианино?

5. В саду есть яблоневые деревья?

6. В этой газете несколько интересных статей.

 

4. Запишите все предложения текста в Past Simple.

Mr. Harding’s taxi arrives at the air terminal. It’s ten past nine. He thanks the driver and pays the fare. The driver takes Mr. Harding’s luggage and puts it on the ground.

A porter takes the luggage to the air terminal. Mr. Harding looks at a clock. It’s a quarter past nine.

A stewardess takes Mr. Harding’s ticket and luggage. She keeps the luggage but gives the ticket back. Then she gives the luggage to the coach driver. The coach leaves at twenty past nine.

It’s half past nine now. The coach arrives at the airport. Mr. Harding goes to the Departure Control. An official looks at Mr. Harding’s passport. At a quarter to ten Mr. Harding follows a stewardess to the plane.

It’s ten o’clock, and the plane leaves on time.

 

5. Закончите предложения, указав время, данное в тексте, и переведите их на русский язык.

1. Mr. Harding’s taxi arrives at the air terminal at …

2. The porter takes the luggage to the air terminal at …

3. The coach leaves the air terminal at …

4. The coach arrives at the airport at …

5. Mr. Harding follows a stewardess to the plane at …

6. The plane leaves at …

 

6. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в пассивной форме. Напишите эти предложения.

1. Bread (to cut) every day.

2. The letter (to receive) yesterday.

3. Nick (to send) to Moscow next week.

4. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday.

5. I (to give) a very interesting book at the library last Friday.

6. Many houses (to build) in our city every year.

7. This work (to do) tomorrow.

8. This text (to translate) two days ago.

9. These trees (to plant) last autumn.

 

7. Прочитайте текст и выполните задание к нему:

Fairs and Exhibitions

Every day a lot of international, national and specialized exhibitions and fairs are held in different countries of the world. The number of countries and companies who take part in them is growing from year to year and the score of fairs and exhibitions is becoming larger.

The display during these exhibitions includes a wide range of exhibits which show the latest achievements in different fields of industry, science and agriculture of many countries.

Usually fairs and exhibitions are crowed with visitors, who show much interest in the exhibits on display.

At international and national exhibitions commercial centers are established where participants can negotiate the sale and purchase of different goods.

Every exhibition is an eye-opening experience and also a method to advertise products. Fairs and exhibitions are usually held under various mottoes: people and progress, peace and progress through economic cooperation and so on.

1) Выпишите все предложения, в которых сказуемые употреблены в пассивном залоге. Переведите их на русский язык.

2) Задайте по одному вопросу к каждому абзацу. Запишите эти вопросы.

 

 





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