ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

The Past Indefinite Tense (простое прошедшее время)



Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
I opened the door.     You opened the door.     He (she) opened the door.     We opened the door.     You opened the door.     They opened the door. Did I open the door? - Yes, I did. - No, I did not (didn’t). Did you open the door? - Yes, you did. - No, you did not (didn’t). Did he (she) open the door? - Yes, he (she) did. - No, he (she) did not (didn’t). Did we open the door? - Yes, we did. - No, we did not (didn’t). Did you open the door? - Yes, you did. - No, you did not (didn’t). Did they open the door? - Yes, they did. - No, they did not (didn’t). I did not (didn’t) open …     You did not (didn’t) open …   He (she) did not (didn’t) open …   We did not (didn’t) open …   You did not (didn’t) open …   They did not (didn’t) open …  

4. Простое прошедшее время глагола to be

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
I was hungry.     You were hungry.   He (she) was hungry.   We were hungry.   You were hungry.   They were hungry.   Was I hungry? - Yes, I was. - No, I was not (wasn’t). Were you hungry? - Yes, you were. - No, you were not (weren’t). Was he (she) hungry? - Yes, he (she) was. - No, he (she) was not (wasn’t). Were we hungry? - Yes, we were. - No, we were not (weren’t). Were you hungry? - Yes, you were. - No, you were not (weren’t). Were they hungry? - Yes, they were. - No, they were not (weren’t). I was not (wasn’t) hungry.     You were not (weren’t) hungry.     He (she) was not (wasn’t) hungry.     We were not (weren’t) hungry.     You were not (weren’t) hungry.     They were not (weren’t) hungry.  

Три формы неправильных глаголов

Инфинитив Простое прошедшее время Причастие
To become To bring To buy (can) To come To drive To fly To get To give To go To have To hear To hold To keep To leave (may) To meet To put To read To see To sell To send To show To sit To speak To take To understand To write Became Brought Bought Could Came Drove Flew Got Gave Went Had Heard Held Kept Left Might Met Put Read Saw Sold Sent Showed Sat Spoke Took Understood Wrote Become Brought Bought - Come Driven Flown Got Given Gone Had Heard Held Kept Left - Met Put Read Seen Sold Sent Shown Sat Spoken Taken Understood Written

Ex. 6 Переведите на английский язык:

1. В среду утром Тони открыл глаза и посмотрел на настенные часы. Было очень рано, только шесть часов. Он умылся, побрился и оделся. На завтрак он приготовил яичницу и кофе с молоком. Завтрак ему понравился. В половине восьмого он позвонил своему другу.

2. Вчера (вчера - yesterday) в четверть восьмого кто-то постучал в дверь. Это был мой друг. Мы поговорили о нашей работе. В восемь часов мы включили радио и послушали новости.

Ex. 7 Расскажите о своем вчерашнем дне, предварительно ответив на вопросы:

1. What did you have for breakfast yesterday?

2. Did you enjoy your breakfast?

3. What did you do after breakfast?

4. Did you turn on the radio then?

5. What did you listen to?

6. Употребление many, much, a lot of, few, little, a few, a little

Many – много A lot of – много Few – мало A few – несколько Употребляются с исчисляемыми существительными Much – много A lot of – много Little – мало A little – немного Употребляются с неисчисляемыми существительными

 

Исчисляемые существительные Неисчисляемые существительные
Table Restaurant Bill Letter Briefcase Food Soup Wine Coffee Luggage

 

Many – a lot of – few – a few Much – a lot of – little – a little
He hasn’t got many friends. There are very many letters on the table. There are a lot of letters on the desk. There are a few letters on the desk. He hasn’t got much information. There is much wine in the bottle.   There is a lot of information in the little. There is a little wine in the bottle.

Ex. 8 Выберите правильный вариант:

1. There are very (many, much) people in the restaurant.

2. There isn’t (many, much) wine in the bottle.

3. Is there (many, much) coffee in the cup?

4. Give me (a few, a little) travellers’ cheques.

5. Give me (a few, a little) coffee.

6. There are very (many, much) visitors in Moscow now.

7. (A few, a little) passengers are going to the Departure Control.

8. He had (a little, a few) luggage with him.

9. Will you give me (a few, a little) beer, please?

10. There are very (few, little) restaurants in the street.

Ex. 9 Переведите на английский язык:

1. У него много багажа.

2. Много людей хотят сегодня зарегистрироваться в этой гостинице.

3. Вы должны оплатить несколько счетов.

4. В меню много закусок.

5. Я не хочу много супа. Я хочу совсем немного.

6. В бутылке мало лимонада.

7. Я хочу заказать несколько пирожных.

8. В этой пачке мало сигарет. (пачка – packet).

Ex. 10 Разыграйте следующие и составьте аналогичные диалоги:

1. - Give me a little coffee, please.

- Here you are ... Would you like some more?

- No, thank you.

2. - There are a lot of visitors in the bank today.

- Yes, it's a difficult day for the bank.

3. - I have got a lot of luggage. Can you help me?

- Yes, certainly. Let me carry these two cases.

- Thank you. It's very kind of you.

4. - There are a lot of people in this restaurant. We should go to the restaurant near the hotel.

- Good. There are usually very few people there.

5. - I have got very few business letters today.

- It's natural. Christmas is coming.

6. - I have got a few Christmas gifts for my friends.

- Very nice of you.

The Future Indefinite Tense (простое будущее время)

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
I will (I'll) learn French. You will (you'11) learn ...   He (she) will (he'll, she'll) learn ... We will (we'11) learn ...   You will (you'11) learn ...   They will (they'll) learn ... Will I learn ...? Will you learn …?   Will he (she) learn ...?   Will we learn ...?   Will you learn ...?   Will they learn ...? I will not (won't) learn … You will not (won't) learn ... He (she) will not (won't) learn ... We will not (won't) learn ... You will not (won't) learn ... They will not (won't) learn ...

Ex. 11 Переведите на английский язык:

1. Она будет учить французский язык.

2. Они будут обедать в ресторане.

3. Когда он узнает название гостиницы?

4. Он не будет читать эту книгу.

5. Я думаю, что завтра он не приедет.

Ex. 12 Составьте диалоги по образцу, используя приведенные ниже названия городов и стран, например:

- I'm going to London in May.

- Will you work there?

- Yes, I will (No, I won't).

 

New York, Paris, Brussels, Lisbon, Bern, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, Holland, France, Belgium.

8. Модальный глагол may

May I have the bill, please? Можно получить счет?

Ex. 13 Переведите на русский язык:

1. May I come in?

2. May I see the menu, please?

3. May I take your earphones?

4. May I wait here?

5. May I listen to the song once more?

6. May I have my passport back, please?

7. May I join you?

8. May I cash the cheque here?

Ex. 14 разыграйте следующий и составьте аналогичные диалоги:

- May I have my ticket back please?

- Yes, certainly, here you are.

- Thank you.

Выражение просьбы

Глаголы Примеры
Can May Will Bring my bill, please. Can you bring my bill, please? May I have my bill, please? Will you bring, my bill, please?

Ex. 14 Переведите на английский язык в нескольких вариантах и объясните разницу:

1. Дайте, пожалуйста, Ваш паспорт.

2. Подпишите, пожалуйста, этот чек.

3. Поставьте здесь свою контрольную подпись.

4. Заполните этот бланк.

5. Следуйте за мной, пожалуйста.

Ex. 15 Прочитайте и разыграйте диалог:

- Good morning, sir. Would you like to sit here?

- May I see the menu, please?

- Certainly, sir. Would you like a starter?

- Yes, I'd like to have some crab salad.

- Would you like some fish?

- No, thank you. I'd like to have steak.

- Will you have any vegetables with it, sir?

- Yes, please. And will you bring me some wine, please?

- Of course, sir. Red or white?

- Red, please. Can you bring me some cigarettes?

- Certainly.

10. Модальный глагол must

I must drive tonight. I must go home now. Я должен вести машину сегодня. Я должен сейчас идти домой.

Ex. 16 Переведите на английский язык:

1. Я должен работать сегодня вечером.

2. Мы должны учить английский язык.

3. Нам нужно получить дорожные чеки.

4. Я должен отправить письмо с подтверждением.

5. Я должна заполнить эту форму.

6. Я должен поставить контрольную подпись на чеке.

7. Я должен оплатить тот счет.

Сравните: must – should

must     should I must read this book. Я должен обязательно прочитать эту книгу. You should read this book. Вы должны (я Вам советую) прочитать эту книгу.

Ex. 17 разыграйте следующие и составьте аналогичные диалоги:

1. - I must work tonight.

- Oh, you should not work so much.

2. - I must have a few travellers’ cheques.

- Then you should go to the bank today. The bank doesn't work tomorrow.

3. - Mr. Carlotti is arriving on Wednesday. And I must have a hotel reservation for him.

- Oh, you should do it today. I can help you and phone the hotel.

A Business Letter

Dear Sir,

We would like to inform you that Mr. Petrov is arriving in Little Rock on the 14th February to begin talks with you.

Please make the necessary hotel reservation for him and let us know the name of the hotel.

Thank you for your cooperation.

Yours faithfully,

Words

1. dear [diə] Dear Sirs …     2. to inform [in΄fo:m] To inform … of   Please, inform us of the name of the hotel. 3. February [΄februəri] In February He is coming to Moscow in February. 4. to begin [bi΄gin] 5. talks [to:ks] He is having talks now. 6. to make [meik] To make a reservation at the hotel 7. let us know … 8. necessary [΄nesisəri] 9. cooperation [˛koupə΄rei∫n] Thank you for your cooperation. 10. yours [jo:z]   11. faithfully [feiθfuli] Yours faithfully, …   дорогой Уважаемые господа … (вежливая форма обращения в начале делового письма) сообщать сообщать кому-либо о чем-либо (в официальных документах) просим сообщить нам название гостиницы. февраль в феврале Он приезжает в Москву в феврале. начинать переговоры Он сейчас на переговорах. делать забронировать номер в гостинице Дайте нам знать … Сообщите нам … необходимый сотрудничество Благодарим Вас за помощь. ваш, ваша, ваши (употребляется без последующего существительного) верно, преданно С уважением … (заключительная фраза в деловых письмах)

Ex. 18 Прочитайте письмо и найдите английские эквиваленты:

1. Г-н Петров прибывает в Литл-Рок, чтобы начать переговоры.

2. Зарегистрируйте для него гостиницу.

3. Сообщите нам название гостиницы.

4. Благодарим за сотрудничество.

Ex. 19 Выпишите из текста письма:

1. Предложение с придаточным дополнительным (отвечающим на вопрос «что?»);

2. Повелительное предложение.

Ex. 20 Проверьте, помните ли Вы:

1. When is Mr. Petrov arriving in Little Rock?

2. Why is he coming to Little Rock?

3. What information do the Russian businessmen want to have?

4. For what do they thank the company?

Ex. 21 Переведите и перепишите письмо.

 

Ex. 22 Вставьте, где необходимо, артикли и перепишите письмо:

Dear Sirs,

Mr. Smith is arriving in Kiev on ... 20th February. Please, make ... ne­cessary hotel reservation for him for five days and let us know... name of... hotel.

On 25th February Mr. Smith will leave Kiev to visit his friend in Odessa.

Thank you for your cooperation. Yours faithfully,

Ex. 23 Вставьте, где необходимо, предлоги:

1. Mr. Black is arriving... Omsk... the 2nd February.

2. Please meet Mr. Snow... the airport.

3. Then he is flying... London.

4. He is visiting us... February.

5. Please, let us know... the name... the hotel.

6. Please inform us... the name... the airport.

7. Please make a reservation... the hotel.

8. Thank you... your cooperation.

Ex. 24 Переведите на английский язык:

1. два месяца

2. второе февраля

3. третье марта

4. двадцать второе февраля

5. Он прибывает в Москву 15 марта.

6. Он уезжает из Москвы 12 апреля.

Ex. 25 Прочитайте по-английски:

1939, 1921, 1917, 1929, 1949

Ex. 26 Дополните следующие письмо:

Dear Sirs,

We would like to inform you that Mr.... is arriving in... He will leave... on...

Please make the necessary hotel reservation for ... for ... days and let us

know the name...

We thank you...

Yours...

 

A reply

Dear Sirs,

We regret to inform you that we cannot reserve the hotel accommoda­tion for Mr. Petrov for the week of the 14th February. Our three hotels are completely booked up for the week. They have no rooms available because the National Word Processors Association will be holding their convention in Little Rock during the week of the 14th February. As you will surely understand they have to reserve as many rooms as possible for the members of the Association.

We propose to postpone your visit for a week. We can safely book a room for Mr. Petrov for the 21st February. We hope this will suit you and we look forward to hearing from you soon.

Yours faithfully,

Words

1. to regret [ri΄gret] I regret to say … 2. to reserve [ri΄zə:v] 3. accommodation [ə˛komə΄dei∫n] to reserve (hotel) accommodation for somebody 4. to book (up) We are booked up. 5. available [ə΄veiləbl]   This book is not available. 6. national [΄næ∫ənl] 7. processor [prə΄sesə] word processor 8. association [ə˛sousi΄ei∫ən] 9. to hold [hould]   10. convention [kən΄ven∫ən] 11. during [΄djuəriŋ] during the revolution during the interval 12 surely [΄∫uəli]   As you will surely understand … 13. They have to reserve … 14. possible [΄posibl] as many rooms as possible as soon as possible 15. member [΄membə] a member of Parliament 16. to propose [prə΄pouz] We propose to discuss this problem. 17. to postpone [poust΄poun] 18. safely [΄seifli] safe 19. to hope [houp] 20. to suit [sju:t] We hope this will suit you. 21. to look forward to … 22. to hear from somebody   23. We look forward to hearing from you. сожалеть К сожалению, должен сказать … резервировать, бронировать помещение, жилье бронировать номер в гостинице для кого-либо резервировать, принимать заказ Все места забронированы. доступный, имеющийся в распоряжении, наличный Эту книгу нельзя достать. национальный процессор текстовый процессор общество, ассоциация проводить (собрание, совещание, митинг) собрание, съезд в течение, в продолжение, во время во время революции во время перерыва конечно, непременно (американского разговорное) Как Вы, конечно, понимаете … Они вынуждены бронировать … возможный, вероятный столько комнат, сколько возможно как можно скорее член член парламента предлагать Мы предлагаем обсудить этот вопрос. откладывать надежно, с уверенностью невредимый, сохранный надеяться устаивать, подходить Надеемся, Вам это пройдет. с интересом ждать … получать известия, письмо от кого-либо С нетерпением ждем (от Вас) ответа.

Revision

Ex. 1 выберите правильный вариант:

1. Yesterday I (checked in, have checked in) at the Bristol Hotel.

2. I (looked through, have looked through) the catalogues. The prices are very high.

3. We (bought, have bought) these machines at a good price last year.

4. We (sent, have sent) you our catalogues and price-lists. We expect you to send us a letter.

5. I (signed, have signed) the cheque. You can give it to Mr. Smith.

6. I (have spoken, spoke) with the Sales Manager. He can meet the order of 2000 desks.

7. Yesterday he (has joined, joined) us for lunch.

8. He (has travelled, travelled) a lot. He (has been, was) to Australia and New Zealand lately.

9. When he was young he (has travelled, travelled) a lot.

10. We (reserved, have reserved) accommodation at the Tavistock Hotel the day before yesterday.

11. There are very (few, little) passengers at the Departure Control.

12. There is very (few, little) milk in the bottle.

13. There is very (many, much) food on the tray.

14. Can you give me (a few, a little) marmalade?

15. There is very (little, few) tea in the pot.

16. He didn't have (many, much) luggage.

17. There were very (many, much) appetizers on the menu.

18. Don't order (many, much) wine. I want just (a few, a little).

19. I haven't looked through (many, much) price-lists but I think your prices are high.

20. I'd like to buy (a few, a little) postcards.

21. He showed very (little, few) interest in the project.

22. He has made very (many, much) money.

23. I didn't go to the enquiry office (too, either).

24. I made an appointment for 11 o'clock (too, either).

25. Mr. Smith isn't here. Mr. Black isn't available (either, too).

26. He countersigned the travellers' cheques (too, either).

27. Look! It (is raining, rains).

28. It never (is raining, rains) here in December.

29. What (is, are) the news?

30. (The, __) news is not very good.

31. The goods (is, are) in S.-Petersburg now.

32. The goods (has, have) not arrived yet.

33. Please inform us where the goods (is, are) at the moment.

34. We haven't received (the, __) money yet.

Ex. 2 Напишите во множественном числе существительные:

businessman, Englishman, catalogue, colleague, company, enquiry, city, secretary, child, man, woman, specimen, house, cheque, traveller, manu­facturer.

Ex. 3 Напишите три формы глаголов:

to bring, to keep, to open, to ask, to put, to import, to leave, to see, to send, to sit, to show, to drive, to come, to arrive, to post, to fly, to give, to go, to hear, to meet, to take, to speak, to sign, to hold, to call, to notice, to deserve, to try.

Ex. 4 Вставьте, где необходимо, артикли и перескажите текст:

On Monday morning Richard got up early. He looked at his watch. It was... quarter to seven. At 9 o'clock he had ... appointment with Mr. Smith, ... Sales Manager of Jackson and Co.

He washed, shaved and dressed. Then he went to ... restaurant. He sat down at ... table in ... corner. For breakfast he ordered ... cornflakes with milk,... omelette,... piece of toast and jam.... waiter brought him... pot of... coffee.

After breakfast Richard went to ... City by ... tube. At 9 o'clock he was in ... offices of Brown and Co. on ... third floor of... tall grey building. Mr. Smith met him and showed him into... office.

Ex. 5 Составьте предложения, выражающие просьбу, по следующему образцу:

1. Bring me a coffee, please.

2. Can you bring me a coffee?

3. Will you bring me a coffee?

 

1. Bring me a coke (a lemonade, a whisky), please.

2. Give me the bill, please.

3. Make a reservation at the hotel, please.

Ex. 6 Переведите на английский язык:

1. Вы можете забронировать номер в гостинице?

2. Могу я задать вам вопрос?

3. Они могут прислать нам каталоги и прейскуранты.

4. Сможем ли мы продать машины по этой цене?

5. можно мне представить Вам своего коллегу?

6. Я смогу просмотреть эти документы завтра.

7. Я могу послать эти приглашения сегодня во второй половине дня.

8. Он не умеет водить машину.

9. Вы не принесете мне счет?

10. Я могу Вам помочь?

11. Вы можете подтвердить Вашу цену и условия платежа?

12. мы можем оплатить в долларах или фунтах стерлингов.

Ex. 7 Переведите на английский язык:

1. Завтра я должен рано встать.

2. Вам нужно забронировать номер в гостинице.

3. Я сегодня должен просмотреть эти каталоги.

4. Мне нужно уехать через несколько дней.

5. Нам нужно закончить эту работу в пятницу утром.

6. Я должен возвратиться во вторник во второй половине дня.

7. Нам нужно обсудить эту проблему сегодня.

8. Вам нужно поставить здесь контрольную подпись.

9. Я должен подтвердить цену сегодня.

10. Вам нужно заполнить эту анкету по-английски.

Ex. 8 Ответьте на вопросы:

1. Do you import or export goods?

2. Do you usually pay for collection or on credit?

3. Do you write letters or telexes to foreign firms?

4. Do you import goods in small or big quantities?

5. Is it easy or difficult for you to read documents in English?

Ex. 9 Переведите на английский язык:

1. Слишком много кофе нехорошо для Вас.

2. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, сахару.

3. На подносе было много еды.

4. Вы хотите джему?

5. Мы заинтересованы в качестве этого товара.

6. На эти изделия нет спроса.

7. Пиво мне вредно.

Ex. 10 Ответьте на вопросы и суммируйте ответы:

1. What country did you visit last year?
What cities did you see?

How long did you stay there?

2. What do you plan to do next?
Will you go on business?

Have you made a reservation in your name?

3. Have you travelled a lot this year?
What cities (countries) have you seen?
Which of them did you like?

Ex. 11 Прочитайте следующий образец и составьте аналогичные высказывания:

I cannot write this telex. I want you to do it for me.

 

1. I cannot make a reservation.

2. I cannot accompany Mr. Smith to the General Manager’s office.

3. I cannot go to the enquiry office.

4. I cannot meet Mr. Black at the airport.

Ex. 12 Напишите прописью по-английски следующие цифры в платежных документах:

27, 156, 400, 4000, 2348, 5247, 957, 493, 5657, 17926.

Ex. 13 Прочитайте, перепишите и переведите письмо:

Rusexport

Moscow, 22nd September, 1992

Russia.

 

Dear Sirs,

We have read, with interest, the information in your catalogue about "Easiwarm blankets".

We are looking for an exporter who could supply us with blankets on a regular basis. We are interested in blankets both double and single sizes.

Probably you could let us know your export prices and terms of pay­ment. As we usually place big orders we expect a quantity discount.

If your conditions are acceptable to us we can place regular large orders.

We look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,

W. Johnson

Sales Manager

Notes:

1. blanket [΄blænkit] – одеяло

2. acceptable [ək΄septəbl] – приемлемый

Ex. 14 Переведите на русский язык:

1. We have read, with interest, the information in your catalogues...

2. We are looking for an exporter who could supply us with blankets on a regular basis.

3. Probably you can let us know your export prices and terms of payment.

4. As we usually place big orders we expect a quantity discount.

5. If your conditions are acceptable to us we can place regular large orders.

Ex. 15 Дополните письмо по своему усмотрению:

Dear Sirs,

We have read, with interest, the information about your .... We are looking for... who could export...

We are interested in high-quality.... As we usually place big orders we expect a quantity....

Will you please inform us of your... of payment and other conditions.

Yours...,

Unit 3





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