Ситуація 1. Розгляньте наступні фрагменти. Спробуйте перефразувати їх як офіційні і лаконічні висловлювання стисліше: (Оцінюється в 3 бали)


Ситуація 1. Розгляньте наступні фрагменти. Спробуйте перефразувати їх як офіційні і лаконічні висловлювання стисліше: (Оцінюється в 3 бали)

accrue, sources, ability, estimation, rate, imputes, anomalies, convert, consume, income, measure


1. The family pays more than 50% of money that it earns from their jobs in rent.

2. Car sales are often seen as a way of calculating consumers’ confidence.

3. She has all mental power and skills to explain things clearly and concisely.

4. Statistics sometimes offer things that are different from what is usual can make it difficult to compare economic data from one year to the next.

5. Interest will increase over a period of time on the account at a rate of 7%.

6. Mainly because of their colder climates, the UK and France use more gas than Italy.

7. The report from agricultural department contains calculations of the value of higher pork production to come.

8. A falling dollar means that foreign-currency profits are higher when changed into dollars.

9. The Inland Revenue Service calculates a set amount of taxable income according to the size of a company car’s engine.

10. They earn their money in various activities.

11. What is your mortgage payment on a fixed or variable level of payment?


Ситуація 2. Текст із наступними висловлюваннями пошкоджений і вам необхідно його відтворити. Здогадайтесь, якого слова не вистачає. Уявіть, що матеріал в рамочці є ніби вашим пошуком варіантів. (Оцінюється в 3 бали)

taxpaying ability, found, labour income, individual’s taxable income, consumed, taxable income , to be reported, global income tax, “dual” systems, estimation, imposed, capital income, lumped, antishelter provisions, taxed, consistent, “accrued income”, money value, converted into cash, net worth

1. Whether income is an accurate measure of taxpaying ability depends on how income is defined.

2. The only definition that has been found to be completely consistent and free from anomalies and capricious result is “accrued income” which is the money value of the goods and services consumed by the tax payer plus or minus any change in net worth during a given period of time.

3. Many tax codes do not consider taxable income as those changes in net worth resulting from gifts, bequests and other gratuitous transfers.

4. Because of the difficulties of estimation most accretions to wealth are ordinarily not included in an individual’s taxable income until they are “realized” – that is, converted into cash or some easily valued form.

5. In some countries the individual income tax is imposed on the total income of an individual or family unit, whereas in others income from different sources is taxed under separate rules and often at somewhat different rates.

6. Schedular income taxes are today found in some South American and African countries.

7. In most industrialized countries, such as Great Britain, personal income tax has to be reported on one of a number of separate schedules, but assessable income is then lumped and only one tax is imposed.

8. The Scandinavian countries have recently adopted “dual” systems in which , labour income is subject to graduated rates, but capital income is subject to flat rates.

9. The United States has adopted antishelter provisions that have the effect of converting a nominallyglobal income tax into one having schedular features.


Ситуація 3. Перефразуйте наступні речення якомога більшими способами. (Оцінюється в 3,5 бали)

1. Perhaps they are at work.

They may/might/could be at work.

2. Perhaps he is waiting outside.

3. It is possible she will work late tonight.

4. It is likely he was driving too fast.

5. It is possible they made a mistake.

6. Perhaps he has missed the bus.

7. It is possible she has been playing in the snow.

8. It is likely we will be leaving tomorrow.

9. It is likely he will stay there.

10. Perhaps she had been trying to call you.

11. It is likely they had seen the film already.

12. It is possible he is studying in the library.

13. Do you mind if I open the window?

14. Emily managed to reach the top shelf, even though she didn’t have a ladder.

15. Why don’t we spend this evening at home?

16. I’m sure Helen didn’t know about her surprise party.


Рекомендована література

[1, 2, 3, 5]


Тема 8. Власність

План вивчення теми


1. Власність.

2. Модальне дієслово must.

Навчальні цілі

Засвоїти лексичні одиниці та оволодіти комунікативними компетенціями, які забезпечують адекватну мовленнєву поведінку в ситуаціях, пов’язаних з розумінням і наданням інформації стосовно власності у бізнесі, сформувати поняття про модальні дієслова, навчитись вживати модальне дієслово must.


Завдання та методичні рекомендації до вивчення теми


1.1. Прочитайте текст 1, намагаючись зрозуміти його якомога точніше та повніше.




Classification of “things”

Anglo-American law is generally less concerned with matters of definition than is the civil law. Except in the United States, where defining something as property automatically entitles it to constitutional protection, there is less discussion in the Anglo-American legal system of whether a given interest or a given thing should be classified as property. Nonetheless, Anglo-American law shows broadly the same characteristics as the civil law. Almost all tangible things are conceived of as being capable of supporting property interests, some intangibles are treated the same as tangibles, and some are not.


Water and land under and bordering on water are everywhere in the West treated differently from other kinds of property. Modern law in the West tends to give substantial power over water and land near water to the state. Beyond that the regimes vary substantially from jurisdiction to jurisdiction (see riparian rights; territorial waters).

The United States has a well-developed law concerning the taking of water from a navigable or nonnavigable stream. In the eastern part of the United States the right to take water from a stream is dependent on ownership of lands adjoining the stream. In the western part of the country the right to take water tends to depend on having first taken it (prior appropriation). In both parts of the country public regulation has increasingly come to the fore.

Other natural resources

Other natural resources have, in some Western legal systems, been removed from normal private ownership. The tendency on the Continent is to make all minerals subject to state ownership or at least to extensive state control. Historically in England, gold, silver, and lead were reserved to the crown. In the United States private ownership of minerals has been the rule, subject to considerable state regulation in the name of conservation. Just as the systems of private ownership with regard to water have tended to divide between those systems that award the water to the person who has it on his land and those that award it to the person who discovered or appropriated it, so too those Western systems that allow private ownership of minerals alternate between giving them to the landowner and giving them to the discoverer.


1.2. Для перевірки правильності розуміння прочитаного тексту виконайте наступні ситуаційні вправи:

Ситуація 1. Деяким людям до вподоби точні формулювання, у такому разі вони наступні вислови замінять на інші:


захист, відкривати, чергуватися, власність, присуджувати, судова система, резервувати, привласнення, цивільне право


1. ………… is the part of law that deals with disagreements between people rather than with crime.

2. The process of keeping someone or something save, or the condition of being kept save is…………

3. …………..means the set of laws of a particular country and the way that they are used.

4. The fact of owning something is known as ……..…………….

5. ……………..is the act of taking control of something, especially by a government, perhaps against the wishes of the owners.

6. To keep or restrict something so that it can be used only by a particular person or for a particular purpose means ………………..

7. ……………..is to make a legal decision to give someone the right to do something.

8. ……………. means to find a place, fact, or substance that no one knew about before.

9. …………….. means to happen or follow one after the other.


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