МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ ТА НАУКИ



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МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ ТА НАУКИ



МІНІСТЕРСТВО ОСВІТИ ТА НАУКИ

Київський державний інститут декоративно- прикладного мистецтва та дизайну

ім. М.Бойчука

 

Методичне видання:

 

Мінімум лексичних одиниць та тем

мистецького спрямування

для студентів

мистецьких вузів

 

 

Київ

 

 

Автор: ст.викладач кафедри гуманітарних та соціально-економічних дисциплін Дем’янів Н.Б.

Матеріал посібника адресується студентам другого та третього курсів денної та заочної форми навчання.Посібник містить найнеобхідніші лексичні одиниці та теми мистецького спрямування: відомості про театр,кіно, видатних композиторів,письменників та художників.Мета написання посібника- зібрання лінгвістичного матеріалу на мистецьку тематику в єдине видання в адаптованій формі для оптимізації його засвоєння студентами на практичних заняттях та розширення їх кругозору по темах мистецтва.

Посібник складається з дев’яти уроків, до яких входять тексти та вправи, спрямовані на аналіз,перевірку та закріплення вивченого.Для полегшення перекладу з англійської на українську та кращого сприйняття текстів подається невеликий словник після кожної теми.

В поданих текстах містяться біографічні дані про ту чи іншу особистість,риси її творчості, опис творів.

 

 

Рецензенти: старший науковий співробітник управління вищої освіти ІВО АПН України, кандидат педагогічних наук, доцент І.М.Мельникова;

Старший науковий співробітник відділу теорії та методології гуманітарної освіти ІВО АПН України, кандидат педагогічних наук Дівінська Н.О.

 

 

Затверджено на засіданні кафедри

Протокол № 8 від 26 червня 2009 р.

 

Рекомендовано до друку Вченою радою

Протокол №3 від 23 листопада 2009 р.

 

ЗМІСТ CONTENTS

 

 

1. Театр. 1.Theatre.

2. Кіно. 2.Cinema.

3. П.Чайковський. 3. P.Chaikovsky.

4. Ш.Бронте. 4.C.Bronte.

5. Л.Українка. 5.L.Ukrainka.

6. Леонардо да Вінчі. 6.Leonardo da Vinci.

7. Рембрандт. 7.Rembrandt.

8. Т.Гейнсборо. 8.T.Gainsborough.

9. В.Хогарт. 9.W.Hogarth

 

THEATRE.

Read, translate and retell the text:

 

To begin with I would like to say that I can”t call myself a regular theatre-goer, though I like to go to the theatre much.It is a well-known fact that theatre plays an important role in human life.It can help in educating people as well as in cultivating moral qualities.The problems of good and evil, truth and lie, love and hatred, life and death are the major ones to be raised in the theatre.These problems exist in our life too.

As I know there are different kinds of theatres: Drama Theatres, Music Comedy Theatres, Puppet Theatres,Opera and Ballet Houses.It would be relevant to tell a few words about theatre.It is a building where plays, operas and ballets are performed.Of course, it has a stage for the actors and an auditorium where the audience sits.The audience may be excited at what they see on the stage and burst into applause.The public occupy the stalls,boxes and dress-circles where the seats are most expensive.The seats in the balcony ,in the upper circle and in the gallery are comparatively cheaper.

I prefer to go to the Drama Theatre, where I enjoy seeing a superb playing of actors.Normally I read the play before seeing it on the stage.To buy tickets on the eve of the performance is not an easy task, that is why I am inclined to reserve a ticket or buy it in advance.One may visit a matinee or an evening performance, but as for me I preferably visit evening performances.They generally start at seven and last till eleven.Before the beginning of the performance I buy a theatre-programme to get aware of the contents of the play and its cast.

My last visit to Ivan Franko Ukrainian Drama Theatre made a deep impression on me.It was the performance of Kotlyarevsky”s novel “ Eneiyda”.I had never seen more wonderful.The scenery was superb.The cast was brilliant.The play kept the audience in suspense from beginning to end.Playing of actors was a great educational value.

There was no doubt that the performance appealled to the audience so much that many pieces were encored.It was obvious that the play was a great success.

 

Memorize the following words and word-combinations from the text:

performance- вистава

play-п”єса

theatre-goer- аматор театрy

Drama theatre- драматичний театр

Music Comedy theatre-театр музичного шоу

Puppet theatre- ляльковий театр

Opera house- оперний театр

Ballet house-театр балету

audience\ public-публіка

scenery-декорації

stage-сцена

stalls-партер

box-ложа

dress-circle-бельєтаж

pit-амфітеатр

gallery-гальорка

circle-ярус

cheap-дешевий

expensive-дорогий

matinee-ранкова вистава

evening performance-вечірня вистава

actor-актор

actress-актриса

cast-склад дійових осіб

theatre-programme-театральна програма

contents-зміст

brilliant-прекрасний

superb-неперевершений

 

 

to occupy seats-займати місця

to burst into applause-вибухати оплесками

to reserve a ticket in advance-замовити квиток заздалегідь

to make a deep impression on smb.-справити глибоке враження

to be a great educational value-мати виховну цінність

to keep the audience in suspense-тримати глядачів в напрузі

to appeal to the audience-подобатися публіці

to encore-приймати на біс

to be a great success-мати успіх

 

Supplementary words and phrases to the topic:

 

gangway- прохід

interval- антракт

conductor- диригент

composer- композитор

company- трупа

producer- режисер

acting- гра

curtain- завіса

cloakroom- гардероб

wings- лаштунки

repertoire- репертуар

first night- прем”єра

to prefer smth to smth- надавати перевагу чомусь перед чимось

to book a ticket- замовляти квиток

to sell tickets- продавати квитки

at the booking office-в касі

“House Full”- квитки продані

extra ticket- зайвий квиток

the leading role- головна роль

to applaud- аплодувати

to be excited at- захоплюватися

the opening scene(boring,dramatic,tragic)- перша сцена(нудна,драматична,трагічна)

the final scene(unforgettable,touching,thrilling)- заключна сцена ( незабутня,зворушлива,захоплююча)

poor acting- погана гра

superb acting- неперевершена гра

Exercises:

№1.Translate the given sentences from Ukrainian into English:

 

1. Ми купили білети на прем”єру вистави „ Украдене щастя” І.Франка.

2. Скільки коштує білет у партер?

3. Залиште своє пальто в гардеробі.

4. Я замовив три квитки на ранкову виставу балету заздалегідь.

5. Є квитки на гальорку?

6. Богдан Бенюк грав провідну роль в цій виставі.

7. Ти взяв театральну програму?- Ні, зараз візьму.

8. Склад акторів опери дуже відомий.

9. Усі п”єси, поставлені цим режисером, нам сподобалися.

10. Я надаю перевагу комедії над оперою.

 

№2. Translate the following sentences from English into Ukrainian:

1.I was deeply impressed by what I saw on the stage.

2. The leading actor was top favourite.

3.When the curtain dropped, the audience burst into applause.

4.Where are our seats?- They are in the dress-circle.

5.At the entrance of the theatre we saw a notice “ House Full”.

6.I’d like to reserve two tickets for Sunday performance.

7.Lysenko’s opera “ Utoplena” was really a hit with a public.

8.These seats are rather expensive for us.Can you offer anything

cheaper?

9.The first night of Lesya Ukrainka’s drama “Mavka” will be held

next Friday.

10.May we exchange the tickets for another performance?

 

 

№ 3. Translate the following dialogue and be ready to act it out:

- У вас є два квитки на сьогодні?

- На жаль, на сьогодні всі квитки продані.Ви можете купити квитки тільки на післязавтра.Вам на ранковий чи на вечірній сеанс?

- На вечірній,будь-ласка.Два квитки в бельєтаж, десь по середині 2-го чи 3-го ряду.

- Я можу дати вам два квитки в бельєтажі,середина 4-го ряду.

- Дякую, добре,ці квитки нам підійдуть.

 

Words:

to sell out- розпродавати

to do well-підходити

 

№4. Compose a dialogue from the given parts:

 

To be on, at the theatre,Bronte’s “ Jane Eyre”,how much,tickets,balcony,

15 grivnyas,more expensive,stalls,each,to prefer,seats,40 grivnyas,to want, two tickets,10th row,in the middle, you,are,here,thank,you.

 

 

№5. Make up your own sentences with any vocabulary items.

 

СINEMA

 

 

Cinema is one of the aspects of art. There is no doubt that it plays a rather significant role in human life.Cinema is an inseparable part of our culture.Everyone agrees that it is one of the best opportunities of spending free time, a way of entertainment.Nobody can imagine his life without films.Cinema as an aspect of culture enriches our knowledge of the surrounding world and widens our horizons. It influences our personalities,outlooks and points of view.When seeing films, different emotions and feelings may arouse inside you: one may be gripped or depressed, interested or bored, feel sympathy or hatred.When you decide to go to the cinema, first of all, you want to distract yourself from daily routine and obtain unforgettable impressions.It depends on a person what film to choose.

There are different kinds of films:feature films,horror films,thriller films,popular science films,mystery films,documentaries and animated cartoons.Besides, they may be colour or black and white, full-length or short, sound or silent, dubbed in the mother tongue, wide-screen or ordinary screen, three-dimentional.

I go to the cinema very rarely because I always run short of time.But when such an opportunity occurs to me, I go there with a great pleasure.

I like seeing feature films or comedies.But at the same time I prefer to see true-to-life films describing trivial problems of the ordinary people.

Generally they show a newsreel before the beginning of the film.It has to do with current events.In my opinion it is worth seeing.

When in childhood I admired cartoons” Duck Tales”, “ Vinnie-the-Pooh”,” Chip and Dale”.Nowadays, I sometimes see “ Shrek” with my nephew or my younger sister.No doubt, these films are popular with both children and adults.

Various kinds of films whether they are shown in the cinema or on TV, may be entertaining,informative or educational.In this case, we talk about their positive influence on people.But nowadays we more and more get in touch we those ones, which show violence,murders, misconduct.Here, we may speak about their negative influence, especially on young generations.

It would be relevant to mention that attending the cinema is not very cheap at present day.Another reason why modern people go to the cinema more seldom is the lack of time.Presence of modern TV sets, DVD- systems and computers oust the cinema.A person prefers sitting in a comfortable arm-chair with a cup of hot tea and see a favourite film, though may be inclined to see a new well-advertised film on the wide screen in the cinema.

 

Learn the words from the text:

 

inseparable part- невід”ємна частина

entertainment-розвага

gripped-захоплений

depressed-пригнічений

sympathy-співчуття

hatred-ненависть

daily routine-щоденна рутина

unforgettable-незабутній

to depend-залежати

to distract-відволікатися

to enrich knowledge-збагачувати знання

surrounding world-навколишній світ

to widen horizons-розширювати кругозір

to influence- впливати

feature film-художній фільм

horror film- фільм жахів

thriller film-бойовик

popular science film-науково-популярний фільм

documentarу-документальний фільм

mystery film-детектив

animated cartoon-мультфільм

colour-кольоровий

black and white-чорнобілий

full-length-повнометражний

short-короткометражний

sound-звуковий

silent-німий

dubbed-дубльований

three-dimentional film-стереофільм

wide screen-широкоформатний

true-to-life-реалістичний

trivial-повсякденний

ordinary-звичайний

newsreel-кінохроніка

to admire-захоплюватися

to be popular with-бути популярним серед

entertaining-розважальний

informative-пізнавальний

educational-освітній

to get in touch-мати справу,стикатися

violence-жорстокість

murder-вбивство

misconduct-неправильна поведінка

lack of time-нестача часу

to be inclined-бути схильним

well-advertised-добре розрекламований

 

 

Answer the following questions:

 

1. Do you consider yourself a regular cinema-goer? How often do you go to the cinema?

2. What kinds of films do you prefer seeing?

3. What feelings do mystery films arouse in you?

4. What do you think is the aim of showing a newsreel before a film in the cinema?

5. How long does the show of the full-length motion picture last?

6. What animated cartoons were your favourite ones when you were a child?

7. Do you agree to the thought that DVD-films are ousting those shown in the cinema?

8. What was the film you last saw in the cinema?

9. Did it fulfil any functions? What were they?

10. What new picture would you advise us to see? Where is it on?

 

 

Supplemenary words and phrases to the topic:

 

cinema-goer- шанувальник кіно

film-star- зірка кіно

actor- актор

actress- актриса

spectator-глядач

producer-режисер

director-режисер-постановник

camera-man-оператор

scriptwriter-сценарист

art-director-художник-постановник

poster-афіша

review-огляд, рецензія

advertisement-реклама

announcement-оголошення

shot-кадр

close-up-кадр великим планом

 

adventure film-пригодницький фільм

war film- фільм про війну

melodrama-мелодрама

cinerama-панорамне кіно

exciting-захоплюючий

thrilling-хвилюючий

fascinating-чудовий

boring-нудний

interesting-цікавий

amazing-чудовий

funny-смішний

astonishing-дивовижний

incredible-неймовірний

sad- сумний

sentimental-сентиментальний

to shoot a film- знімати фільм

to produce a film-створювати фільм

to advertise a film-рекламувати фільм

to release a film-випускати фільм

to screen a novel-екранізувати роман

screening- екранізація

to come out( about film)-виходити(про фільм)

the first show- перший сеанс

to stand in a line-стояти в черзі

 

Exercises:

№ 1. Read and translate the sentences. Use them in your own dialogues.

 

1. We shall have to wait in a line.

2. Next week there will be a screen version of Franko’s novel” The stolen happiness” in the cinema “ Rus’”.

3. When does the second performance start? It starts at 1 o’clock.

4. Do you know who the scriptwriter of this feature film is?

5. Recentlty I have seen the advertisement of the film “ Millennium”.

6. The mystery film “X-files” came out long ago, but it appeals to me very much.

7. I think this film is worth seeing.Let’s buy tickets for Friday.

8. What is the cast of the film? Sadra Bullock plays the leading role.

9. What’s the film like? It is based on real life. I’m sure, you’ll like it.

10. How did you like the film? It made a great impression on me.

 

Exercise №2. Translate Ukrainian sentences into English:

 

1.Ти бачила екранізацію роману Конан Дойла „ Шерлок Холмс”?

2.Мені дуже подобаються фільми з участю Чапліна. Вони цікаві та смішні.

3.Тепер на телебаченні все більше розважальних та менше освітніх та пізнавальних програм.

4.Він коли-небудь бачив фільми з участю голлівудської зірки Демі Мур?

5.Я не любитель ходити в кіно, але коли фільм показують вперше, то завжди ходжу.

6.Хто головний герой цього фільму? Головна героїня- дівчина, яка страждає на невиліковну хворобу та приречена на смерть.

7.Мій брат отримує велике задоволення від перегляду документальних фільмів каналу „ Діскавері”.

8.Цей широкоекранний фільм дуже хвилюючий та виховний водночас.

 

Exercise №3. Compose your own dialogues with the following words and phrases and be ready to act them out:

 

1) to buy tickets, 5th row, to like, horror films,to stay at home, amusing,to have fun, frightening.

2) to be on , in the cinema, to consult the newspapers, a splendid idea,a French film, an American film,to think of the film, acting, superb, action, to develop slowly, to agree,excellent, camera work, plot, interesting.

 

 

СHAIKOVSKY

( 1840-1893)

 

To begin with, it will be relevant to say that there are different aspects of art: cinema, theatre,literature,painting and music. Each educated person must be aware of all of them.

There is no doubt that we get in touch with music more frequentlythan with any other aspect of art.We can hear music everywhere: sitting on the sofa on TV, listening to the radio,driving a car and even in the café.

It’s common knowledge that there are various kinds of music.Classical music, jazz,rock and pop- music are only some of its kinds.

Today we’ll focus our attention on a very outstanding personality,the representative of Russian classical music- Petro Chaikovsky.

He was born in the Urals. His father was a mining engineer by profession.When in childhood,Chaikovsky liked music, but he didn’t want to connect his life with it.His dream was to become a lawyer.He had already started studying law, when at the age of 21 he made up his mind to get involved in music- he entered the conservatoire at St. Petersburg.After graduating from the conservatoire, he was made a professor at the Moscow Conservatoire.At that time Chaikovsky wrote many pieces of music, as well as taught much.

Petro Chaikovsky wrote music of various kinds- ballets, operas, songs, symphonies and piano concerts.

There is hardly a person who didn’t hear his “ Swan Lake”. This composition is well known among both adults and children.It helps to detach yourself from problems, contributes to good mood.

Almost everybody knows his “ Nutcracker Suite”, “ Dance with the Sugar Plum Fairy”, “Waltz of Flowers”.

Apart from the mentioned compositions, we can call the ballet “ Sleeping Beauty”, the overture “Romeo and Juliet, operas “Eugene Onegin”, “Mazzeppa”,” The Queen of Spades” and the symphony “Pathetique”.

Chaikovsky produced not only gay music, some of his works are sad. But most of his compositions are rather tuneful.

It’s a very suprising fact , that at the beginning of the career, his compositions were failures.And now, Chaikovsky’s music remains extant: it is being played all around the world.Everyone finds his music charming and valuable.

 

 

Learn unfamiliar words:

 

to be aware- бути обізнаним

frequently- часто

mining engineer- гірничий інженер

lawyer- адвокат

to make up one’s mind to do smth-вирішити, наважитися зробити щось

to get involved- займатися

to detach oneself from- відволікатися

to contribute-сприяти

tuneful- мелодійний

failure- невдача

extant-існуючий,збережений

“Nutckracker Suite”-„ Лускунчик”

“ Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy”- „ Танець феї драже”

 

 

Answer the following questions:

1. What aspects of art can you enumerate?

2. Where do we get in touch with music and how often?

3. Is Petro Chaikovsky a Russian or Ukrainian composer?

4. What was his father?

5. Why Chaikovsky didn’t think of connecting his life with music?

6. When did he decide to take up music as his career?

7. Where did he study?

8. What kinds of music did Chaikovsky write?

9. Which composition do you think is the most popular? Why?

10. What operas did he produce? Have you ever heard any?

11. How can you characterize Chaikovsky’s music?

 

 

Exercise №1. Translate the sentences into English :

1. Чайковський був першим російським композитором, який здобув всесвітню популярність.

2. Саме він змінив мистецтво балету.

3. Виразну мову танцю ми можемо спостерігати в „ Сплячій красуні” та „ Лебединому озері”.

4. Твори Чайковського включають 10 опер,3 балети, 6 симфоній,4 концерти для фортепіано, романси, пісні та інструментальні твори.

5. Він був знаменитим як диригент,викладач та критик.

 

CHARLOTTE BRONTE (1816-1855)

Charlotte Bronte was the daughter of the curate. Her mother died in 1821, leaving five daughters and a son.Four of the daughters were sent to a boarding- school.In 1831-32 Charlotte Bronte stayed at another boarding – school, from which she returned with a teacher’s licence.She became a governess and in 1842 went with her sister Emily to study the French language at a school in Brussels, where she was employed as a teacher of English.

Charlotte’s first novel was “The Professor”. It wasn’t published until 1857, after her death. Her second novel “ Jane Eyre” was published in 1847 achieved success.In 1848 her brother died till the end of the same year her sisters Emily and Ann died because of tuberculosis.Charlotte alone survived of the six children.She went on writing.She produced “ Shirley” and “ Villete” despite her sorrows.All her works appeared under the pen- name of Currer Bell.

“Jane Eyre” was Charlotte Bronte’s most popular novel.There is an atmosphere of harsh realism about the pictures of everyday life.

Her novels are marked by psychological realism as well. In her novel “ Shirley” she managed to describe an important stage in provincial English middle-class life.

Charlotte Bronte’s last work is “Emma”, a fragment of which was published after her death.

She married in 1854 and died in 1855 at the age of 39.

 

Answer the following guestions:

 

1. How many children were there in Bronte’s family except for her?

2. What profession did Charlotte acquire after finishing the boarding school in 1832?

3. What was her first novel? When was it published?

4. Could you innumerate all Bronte’s novels? Which of them is the most popular?

5. Whom did Charlotte depict in her novel “ Shirley”?

6. What was her pen-name?

7. How can you characterize Bronte’s works? In what style are they written?

8. Have you ever read her works? What character did you like most?

 

 

Exercise № 1. Translate the next sentences into English:

1.Шарлотта Бронте- відома англійська новелістка 19-го століття.

2.Коли Шарлотті було 5 років, померла її мама.

3. Хоча Ш.Бронте отримала професію вчителя, вона надавала перевагу

написанню новел.

4.Її сестри Емілі та Анна померли від туберкульозу.

5.Шарлотта була єдиною дитиною в сім”ї, яка вижила.

6.Бронте написала кілька романів, з яких „ Джейн Ейр”-найвідоміший.

7.Усі її романи – реалістичні,де вона зображає буденне життя

провінційних людей того часу.

8.При написанні своїх творів вона проникала в людську психологію.

 

 

Exercise №2. Put questions to the following sentences:

 

1. Charlotte Bronte’s novel “ Jane Eyre” brought her fame.

2. In Brussels Charlotte was employed as a teacher of English.

3. She wrote her works under the pen-name Currer Bell.

4. Bronte’s first novel was published only after her death.

 

 

LESYA UKRAINKA

We can’t overvaluethe role of Lesya Ukrainka in Ukrainian literature, who together with Ivan Franko and Taras Shevchenko are considered luminaries of it.

She was born on February 25,1871 in Novgorod-Volynsky in the family of educated people. Lesya’s father was a lawyer,but he was pretty well awareof literature and her mother was a Ukrainian writer, known as Olena Pchilka.There were six children in the Kossaches’ family.One of her sisters was married to M.Drahomanov, a scientist and public figure, who played a significant role in Lesya’s life.

Apart from Drahomanov, a lot of other outstanding people gathered in their family.Among them were the composer Lysenko, theplaywright M.Staritsky and the poet I.Franko. Lesya was growing up under the influence of such distinguished public.These cultural figures contributed much to her becoming a poet.

Lesya was a very apt child: at the age of four she learned to read, at nine she wrote her first poem “ Hope”, at 13 – her first poem was published in Lviv magazine “ Zorya”(“ Lily of the Valley”).

As we know, all her works were written under the pen-name Lesya Ukrainka,but her real name was Larisa Kosach.

Though she had a marked inclination for studying, Lesya obtained education at home because of poor health.Her first steps in writing coincided with the first symptoms of disease she suffered from- tuberculosis of bones.For this reason, Lesya Ukrainka visited Vienna,Crimea,Georgia,Italy,

,Egypt in order to be treated.

In 1883 she was undergone the operation.At that time she was plungedin reading, studying literature,art,geography as well as foreign languages.

Due to her books of verse “On Wings of Songs”, “Responses”, “Thoughts and dreams”, Lesya Ukrainka became one of the leading poets of the 19th century.Alongside with writing poems, she turned to playwriting.When at school we admired reading her “Forest Song” and “ Stone Host”.

Taking into account the fact that Lesya had a good command of at least 5 foreign languages, she wrote both poetry and prose in these languages.

She was fond of the revolutionary ideas of Shevchenko’s poems and continued developing them in her poetry.Lesya Ukrainka wanted to express in bright images the idea and main tendencies of her time.

The illness progressed, she spent most of her time in hospitals and on August 1,1913 Lesya Ukrainka died.But she will stay immortal in the hearts of the Ukrainian people, the belonging to whom she showed in her works.

 

 

Unfamiliar words:

to overvalue- переоцінювати

luminary- корифей

to aware –знати, бути обізнаним

public figure-громадський діяч

significant- важливий, значущий

playwright- драматург

to contribute- сприяти

apt-здібний

marked inclination- помітна схильність

to obtain-отримувати

to coincide-співпадати

to undergo- зазнавати

to be plunged- занурюватися

playwriting- драматургія

immortal-безсмертний, невмирущий

 

Answer the following questions:

1. Where and when was Lesya Ukrainka born?

2. What did her parents do?

3. Who influenced her formation as a poet?

4. She wrote her first poem at the age of 5, didn’t she?

5. What is the title of her first published poem?

6. Why didn’t Lesya go to school?

7. What disease did she suffer from? Was it curable or not?

8. Where did Lesya travel when she was ill?

9. Did the operation help her to get rid of the illness?

10. What are Ukrainka’s most known books of verse?

11. Did she write any plays?

12. Who was an example for her to follow in poetry?

13. When did Lesya Ukrainka die?

14. Do you agree to the thought that Lesya Ukrainka and Charlotte Bronte have much in co

 

Exercise №1. Translate the next sentences into English:

1. Леся Українка народилася в сім”ї освічених людей.

2. На становлення Лесі Українки як поетеси вплинуло багато відомих людей того часу та середовище, в якому вона росла.

3. Значну роль в її житті відіграв Драгоманов.

4. Леся була надзвичайно обдарованою дитиною та не ходила до школи через хворобу та відсутність викладання українською мовою.

5. Справжнє ім”я Лесі Українки- Лариса Косач.

6. Дівчина писала твори під псевдонімом Леся Українка,щоб показати свою приналежність до українського народу.

7. Першим віршем, якого Леся написала в 9 років був вірш „ Надія”.

8. Вірш „Конвалія” був надрукований в львівській газеті „Зоря”, коли Лесі було тільки 13 років.

9. Через свою хворобу Леся побувала в багатьох місцях: в Криму, Грузії,Італії,Австрії.

10. Леся Українка займалася не тільки поезією, а й драматургією.

11. Її „ Лісову пісню” знають всі.

12. Леся Українка була багатогранною особистістю-писала літературні твори, займалася музикою, була поліглотом.

 

 

Exercise №2. Put questions to the following sentences:

 

1.Drahomanov, Staritsky,Lysenko,Franko contributed a lot to Ukrainka’s formation as a poet.

2.Her most popular books of verse are “ Thoughts and dreams”, “ On wings of songs”, “ Responses”.

3.Lesya suffered from an incurable disease- tuberculosis of bones.

4.She knew Spanish,Enlish,German,Italian,French and wrote literary works

in these languages.

5.In many of her verses she went on describing the revolutionary ideas of Shevchenko.

 

 

REMBRANDT ( 1608-1669)

Rembrandt was born in Leiden in 1608. He was the Netherlands’ greatest artist. Rembrand’s output of works of art was tremendous. Some scholars credit him with about 600 paintings, 300 etchings and 1400 drawings. His masterpieces are kept in all the big museums of the world. There are 26 paintings of his at the Hermitage too.

When talking about his early works, they are small pictures of Biblical and historical subjects. In general, the range of Rembrandt’s subjects is extraordinary.His works depict stories inspired not only by the Bible and mythology(“ Holy family”, “Abraham’s sacrifice”, “John the Baptist preaching”,”Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen”), but he also painted portraits, landscapes, nudes and scenes of everyday life. Throughout his career, Rembrandt made about 100 known self-portraits,where he portrayed himself in various roles and contexts.

In 1632 he moved to Amsterdam, where he painted portraits of wealthy middle-class patrons.He started painting in thebaroque style.He was influenced by Caravaggio’s contrasts of light and dark and by Rubens’s compositions.

In 1634 he married Saskia van Uylenburgh.In these years Rembrandt got a reputation as the most fashionable portrait-painter in Amsterdam. He became wealthy and collected works of art.

One of his most famous pictures is “ The Return of the Prodigal Son”. In this canvas the artist used the subject of an ancient legend.The picture portrays the meeting of an old father with his son, who has been away for a long period of time. Rembrandt uses the light so skilfully that he manages to emphasize the old man’s face.The father is touching his son, who is kneeling before him.His son has just returned home and is asking his father for help.Judging by the clothes, the son is dressed in, his appearance, one may see that he has survived a lot of troubles. He has lost faith in life and future, but his father is ready to help him.

This painting was produced at the peak of Christian spirituality and reflects the relationship of the Self to the Eternity.

No doubt, in this painting Rembrandt emphasized the humanistic idea of closeness of people, their readiness to help in time of need.The picture was painted at the end of great master’s life and summed up all his creative life.Besides, it remains a brilliant example of Baroque painting.

The mature Rembrandt didn’t enjoy the wide popularity he had as a young painter, especially after his wife’s death. Though he ranked as one of the country’s leading artists, he ran short of money. During his last years he painted more and more for himself. Light seemed to glow from within his works.The shadows became more intense and vibrant.Remrandt reduced his pallete to warm colours such as brown and orange.

When a great master of art died in 1669, he left his relatives a fairly large inheritance.

 

Learn the following vocabulary items:

 

tremendous-грандіозний

credit smb with smth-приписувати комусь щось

etching-гравюра

extraordinary-надзвичайний,дивовижний

to inspire-надихати

“Holy family”-„Свята родина”

“Abraham’s sacrifice”-„Жертвоприношення Авраама”

“John the Baptist preaching”-„Проповідь Іоанна Хрестителя”

“Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen”-„Поява Христа перед Марією Магдалиною”

self-portrait- автопортрет

patron-прихильник

baroque-барокко

“The Return of the Prodigal Son”-„Повернення блудного сина”

skilfully-майстерно

to emphasize-наголошувати, підкреслювати

to kneel-ставати навколішки

to survive-переживати

spirituality-духовність

to reflect-відображати

to sum up- підсумовувати

to enjoy wide popularity-користуватися популярністю

to rank-посідати певне місце

to glow-виблискувати

intense-надмірний,інтенсивний,насичений

vibrant-живий,вібруючий

to reduce-обмежити,зменшити

inheritance-спадок

 

 

Answer the following questions:

1. How many works of art did Rembrandt create?

2. Where are his paintings displayed?

3. Is the range of Rembrand’s pictures rich? What are the main subjects portrayed?

4. What do you think inspired him to execute his works?

5. Was Rembrandt the author of portraiture?

6. Can you enumerate any pictures dedicated to the Bible stories?

7. When did Rembrandt start painting in the Baroque style?

8. Did he like etching?

9. What was his wife’s name?

10. Is that true that Rembrandt collected works of art?

11. What influenced Rembrandt to execute “ The Return of the Prodigal Son”?

12. What is the general idea of this painting?

13. When was it produced? What is reflected in this picture?

14. How can you characterize the use of light and shadow in Rembrandt’s mature works?

15. Was he rich or poor at the end of his life?

 

 

Exercise №1. Give Ukrainian equivalents of the following words and phrases; make sure you know them:

a work of art ; a self-portrait; to execute a painting; the baroque style; to produce etchings; to portray the subjects; a portrait-painter; a landscape-painter; spirituality of art; a canvas; a palette; early works; a masterpiece.

 

 

Exercise №2. Translate into English:

зображати себе в різних ролях; багатий діапазон творів; епізоди повсякденного життя; оголена постать; зображати Біблійні історії;представники середнього класу; надихати на створення образів;найвідоміший портретист; колекціонувати твори мистецтва;майстерно зображати світло та тінь;підкреслювати гуманістичну ідею; втрачати популярність.

 

 

Exercise №3.Translate the following sentences from Ukrainian into English:

1. Рембрандт-найвидатніший голландський художник та один з геніїв в історії мистецтва.

2. Він писав пейзажі, оголених постатей та портрети,релігійні епізоди.

3. Найкращими груповими портретами вважаються „ Урок анатомії лікаря Тулпа” (“ Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp”) та „Нічний нагляд”(“The Night Watch”).

4. Біблійна тематика була дуже важливою для Рембрандта.

5. У Амстердамі Рембрандт почав творити у стилі барокко.

6. Найвидатнішим його твором у стилі барокко є „Повернення блудного сина”.

7. Рембрандту вдалося розкрити складний внутрішній світ людини.

8. Окрім малювання картин він займався гравіюванням.

9. Ремрандт вивчав різні техніки гравіювання.

10. Він створив понад 290 офортів(гравюр).

11. Саме духовність у мистецтві відрізняє Рембрандта від його голландських сучасників.

 

 

LEONARDO DA VINCI

(1452-1519)

 

The Renaissance, an age of discoveries,presented the mankind with painters concerned with investigations.New meaning was given to the human figure, which became the main subject of all Renaissance paintings.

The early Renaissance gave the world such bright representatives as Giotto,Van Eyck and Botticelli.

When speaking about the most outstanding representatives of the High Renaissance, we bear in mind Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci.

The history of western civilization records no man as gifted as Leonardo da Vinci.He was a great painter,sculptor,musician,architect,engineer,scientist and philosopher.He was described as a real “ Renaissance man”, who was curiosand inventive. Everyone agrees that he was the most glitteringpersonality of the High Renaissance in Italy.

Leonardo was born in 1452 in Tuscany, near Florence.He was a son of a wealthy notaryand a peasantwoman.When a boy, he evinced an interest in painting and in 1466 his father sent him to an exellent teacher- Verrocchio.In Verroncchio’s workshop Leonardo was introduced to various activities,such as painting and even the creation of sculptural projets in marbleand bronze.In 1472 the teacher considered him to be his assistant.In Verrocchio’s “The Baptism of Christ”, a beautiful angel was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.According to the story of Giorgio Vasari,who learned in detail the biography of Leonardo da Vinci,we get to know that when Verrocchio saw Leonardo’s work, he was so amazed that he decided never to touch a brush again. Leonardo became an independent painter at 26. His first masterpiece is “The adoration of the Magi”. He started it in 1481, but he didn’t complete it.In this work Leonardo started with the moment of feeling, form came next.

Between 1482 and 1499 Leonardo spent in Milan.During these years he executed a lot of paintings,sculptures and drawings.Though he had projects of a lot of works, only a few of them were completed. These include “The Virgin of the Rocks” or “ “ The Madonna of the Rocks”, “ The Last Supper”, “ The Madonna and Child with St. Ann”.

“ The Madonna of the Rocks” is one of the earliest works of Leonardo da Vinci, where he displayed his superb technical skill, arranging the figures in geometric composition. He represented Mary in the midst of rock forms, where the sun seems never to appear and the plants are deprived of colour.

In all his works Leonardo used the most characteristic device of almost all High Renaissance artists-fitting the figures into a specific geometric pattern.

Leonardo’s genius as an artist can be clearly seen in his most famous works “The Mona Lisa” and “ The Last Supper”.

“ The Last supper” was painted on the walls of the refectory of Santa Maria Monastery in Milan in 1495. Christ announces his disciples that soon one of them will betray him.The Christ’s followers are divided into four groups of three each. By means of a skilful use of light and shadow Leonardo portrays the mixedemotions of surprise,horror ,innocence and guilt on disciples’ faces.

Unfortunately, he tried out new ideas with the paint and the picture began peeling off .The thing is , that ”The Last Supper” was painted not in true fresco but in experimental oil technique.

As for “Mona Lisa”,it is considered to be Leonardo’s greatest work.The personality of Mona Lisa makes a vivid impression on us.Most researchers are prone to think that Lisa de Gherardini del Giokondo, a wife of the merchant,Francesco del Giocondo is portrayed in this picture.At the foreground we can see a figure, who sits in a relaxed position with her hands crossed.There is a faint gentle smile on her face. At the backgroundone can observe a beautiful landscape.”The Mona Lisa” reflects Leonardo’s interest in moods of the human soul. There is something mysterious about Mona Lisa, that we can not grasp at first sight.He created a problem to which gives no answer.He makes a viewer reconsider it.” Mona Lisa” is a supreme example of Leonardo’s ability to create a masterpiece, showing a complex inner world of his figures.

All of the preserved Leonardo’s works are fascinating.

 

Learn presumably unfamiliar words:

 

discovery-винахід, відкриття

mankind-людство

to be concerned with- пов’язаний з;

investigation-дослідження

glittering- яскравий, блискучий

curious- допитливий

inventive-винахідливий

notary-нотаріус

peasant-селянський,сільський

workshop-майстерня

marble-мармур

amazed-дивовижний, вражаючий

brush-пензель

skill-майстерність

to arrange-розташовувати

to be deprived- бути позбавленим

device-прийом

refectory-трапезна(у монастирі)

disciples-1)учні,послідовники;2)апостоли

to betray-зраджувати

mixed-змішаний

innocence-невинність

guilt-провина

to peel off- лущитися; облізати

prone-схильний

foreground- передній план ( картини)

background-задній план (картини)

mysterious- загадковий; таємничий

grasp-вловлювати; сприймати

sight-погляд

reconsider-обдумувати;розмірковувати

fascinating-прекрасний,захоплюючий

 

 

THOMAS GAINSBOROUGH

(1727-1788)

Thomas Gainborough was the most influential English painter of the 18th century. He was born in Sudbury, Suffolk, in 1727. Thomas was a son of a cloth merchant.When he displayed a gift for drawing, his father sent him to London to study art. Thomas stayed there for 8 years working under the rococo portrait- engraver Gravelot and becoming familiar with the Flemish tradition of painting.

In 1750 he moved to Ipswich where his professional career began. He produced a great deal of small-sized portraits and landscapes. When in 1759 he moved to Bath, he succeededbrilliantly as a portrait – painter, depicting the aristocracy, wealthy merchants, artists and men of letters. Society appealled to him for portraits.He didn’t execute small paintings any longer and in the manner of Van Dyck turned to full-length, life-size portraits.

Gainsborough’s portraits of actors, actresses and his close friends are well-known. One of his best friends was the dramatist Richard Sheridan, whose portrait belongs to one of the greatest pictures of the painter.

Thomas Gainsborough is recognized as an excellent women painter.

His pictures of women are marked by elegance, delicacy and refinement. These include “ The Portrait of the Duchess de Befou”, “ Mrs. Siddons”, “Two Daughters”.

When looking at the picture “ The portrait of the Duchess de Befoe”, we can see a young noble woman. Her charming face is full of freshness and life. Her calm pose and the elegance of the gesture of her hand emphasize her nobility. The artist has a wonderful sense of colour ,line and composition. He skilfully combines light and shade. The painting is mostly executed in light tones with numerous blue shadows. The main idea shown is that of woman’s beauty. This work of art is exhibited in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg.

Gainsborough’s best works are painted in clear and transparent tones, where blue and green are predominant. One of the most particular discoveries of his is that the landscape is not put in the background, in most cases a man and nature form an entity. It can be observed in the portrait “ Robert Andrews and Mary, his wife”, where the beauty of the green English summer is communicated to the viewer through the sense of well-being and delight in the sitters. To the list of his most popular works we may add: “The Blue Boy”(1770), “Elizabeth and Mary Linley” (1772), “Mrs. Hamilton Nizbet”(1785),” The Morning Walk”(1785).

Thomas Gainsborough was the first English artist who painted his native land.His best landscapes include: “ The Watering place”, “ The Harvest Waggon”, “The Sunset”, “ The Market Cart”. He was country-born and in his works showed a great love for the countryside.

Gainsborough’s paintings had a considerable influence on the artists of the English school who followed him. The landscapes of his late years anticipated Constable and Turner. The output of Gainsborough’s works comprisesabout 8 hundred portraits and more than 2 hundred landscapes. His art was a forerunner of the romantic movement.

 

 

Memorize unknown words:

influential- впливовий

small-sized- малого розміру

to succeed- досягати успіхів

to appeal- звертатися

full-length (portraits)- на повний зріст

life-size (portraits)- природньої величини

delicacy- ніжність

refinement- вишуканість

nobility- шляхетність

transparent- прозорий

entity- цілісність

to be communicated- передаватися(тут)

well-being- добробут

delight- захоплення

considerable- значний

to anticipate-випереджати

to comprise- складати

forerunner- передвісник;передчуття

 

 

Answer the following questions:

 

1. What do you know about Gainsborough’s early years?

2. What kinds of portraits did he execute at the beginning of his professional career?

3. Why did Thomas succeed as a portrait-painter? Whom did he depict in his portraits?

4. Whose influence is felt in Gainsborough’s portraits?

5. Is Gainsborough a master of women portraits?

6. What is the main idea of “The Portrait of the Duchess de Befoe”?

7. How did Gainsborough depict the woman there?

8. Where is it displayed?

9. Can you enumerate his best women portraits?

10. Are the women in his portraits delicate and refined or rude and vulgar?

11. What colours predominate in Gainsborough’s palette?

12. What discovery in art did Gainsborough make?

13. What picture is an excellent example of unity of a man and landscape?

14. How many works of art did Gainsborough execute?

15. What art trend did he give a push to?

 

Gainsborough’s most known works:

 

1. The Portrait of the Duchess de Befoe;

2. Mrs. Siddons;

3. Two Daughters;

4. Robert Andrews and Mary, his wife;

5. Elizabeth and Mary Linley;

6. Mrs. Hamilton Nizbet;

7. The Blue Boy;

8. The Market Cart;

9. The Harvest Waggon;

10. The Watering Place;

11. The Sunset;

12. The Morning Walk;

 

WILLIAM HOGARTH (1697-1764)

William Hogarth is considered to be a founder of the modern British school of painting. Among the subjects he dealt with were mythological , historical and social ones. He tried to do his best in portraits and moralistic cycles. The latter were profitably sold, making Hogarth famous. The most successful moralistic cycles were “ Rake’s progress” ,“Harlot’s progress”,

Marriage a la Mode”, “Signing the contract”.

“Marriage a la Mode” is a series of six pictures. It is like a novel in paint unfolding us a story of the marriage of an earl’s son and a merchant’s

daughter. The first picture is called “ Signing the contract”.

Both fathers are sitting to the right. One of them, father of the bride,

is expatiating about his family tree, to which he proposes to add the

earl. The earl’s son admires himself in a mirror .The bride is listening

to the compliments of a young lawyer.

The main idea portrayed by William Hogarth here is the protest against marriage for money and vanity. This energetic composition owes much to the Rococo ,but his bold brushwork is as original as his satirical wit. Beside his satirical and amusing approach to the subject, his objective is serious. Hogarth expects the viewer to read the picture.

Among his best works are “Captain Coram”, “ The Shrimp Girl”, “Marriage a la Mode”.

William Hogarth was unquestionably one of the greatest English painters and a man with his peculiar and individual approach to things. His achievement consisted in depicting social life through the prism of moralistic narrative on satirical background.

Hogarth combined colouring, theme and composition in his pictures very harmoniously. He was certain that success came to him due to his hard work. He wrote “Genius is nothing, labour is diligence”.

 

 

Hogarth’s known works:

 

“Marriage a la Mode”

“Signing the Contract”

“The Shrimp Girl”

“ Captain Coram”

“Rake’s Progress”

“Harlot’s Progress”

 

Make sure you know the translation of these works.

 

 

Learn the next vocabulary items:

moralistic cycles- повчальні цикли

series- набір; збірка

an earl- граф

a bride-наречена

to expatiate- розповідати

vanity- марнославство

energetic- динамічний; енергійний

to owe- завдячувати

brushwork- робота пензлем

peculiar- особливий

to consist in- полягати

achievement-досягнення

narrative-оповідь

 

 

Make 5 sentences of your own with any of these words.

 

 

Answer the following questions:

1. What genres of painting did Hogarth do his best in?

2. Why do you think William Hogarth started painting moralistic cycles?

3. Will you name his best moralistic cycles?

4. How many pictures does “Marriage a la Mode” include?

5. Whom did William Hogarth depict in most of his pictures?

6. Who is portrayed in “ Signing the Contract”?

7. What did Hogarth despise in this picture?

8. How can you characterize the use of colours in Hogarth’s paintings?

9. How did William Hogarth show social phenomena in his works?

10. For what purpose did he use elements of satire?

11. What was Hogarth’s life credo?

12. What subjects except for social ones did Hogarth deal with?

 

 



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