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Lightning

As you read through this, some 2,000 thunderstorms are tearing apart the skies across the world. And every second a hundred lightning bolts are striking the ground with their terrifying roar - fingers of electricity up to 32 kilometers long that burn all they touch with temperatures that reach 30,000°C. It's hardly surprising that lightning was feared by earlier cultures as a sign of anger from their gods.

Lightning still has the power to thrill and fascinate. It is now also an active area of research for scientists, who are still struggling to uncover its secrets and are looking for ways to protect against the potentially disastrous effects of lightning strikes.

Britain only has about 10 days of thunderstorms a year. Yorkshire and the south Midlands are the worst affected. By contrast, countries close to the equator suffer most from thunderstorm. Countries like Nigeria, for example, tend to have a thunderstorm every two days.

For centuries, however, there was little anyone could do to protect themselves or their property from lightning. And up until the 18th century, people were often given dramatic proof that lightning can strike in the same place several times. The bell tower of San Marco in Venice has, to date, been severely damaged or destroyed nine times.

Predicting when and where it is likely to strike is one of the ways we have made lightning less of a menace. Forecasting lightning is taken very seriously in America, for example, where scientists keep a constant eye on weather patterns that could lead to violent storms. New methods enable scientists to warn people in threatened areas before a storm reaches them.

A good indication of the fact that a lightning strike is directly overhead is when your hair stands on end. In potentially fatal circumstances, crouch down low with your hands on your knees. Never lie on the ground. If stuck out in a storm never shelter under an isolated tree, which can act as a lightning conductor, and stay away from anything made of metal.

Although the number of fatalities has decreased, lightning is no less common than it was in the past. The reason for the decrease in deaths is that fewer people work out in the open. Those most at risk today include sports people, especially golfers: dozens are struck worldwide each year.

Lightning protection is more important today than ever. The widespread use of electronic technology means a surge of' electricity caused by lightning could have devastating effects on a hospital, for example. If lightning were to strike one of the сomplex electronic systems we use, the consequences would be disastrous.

Choose the best answer from the given options

1. While you were reading the article ...

a) a hundred lightning bolts had struck the ground;

b) 2,000 thunderstorms happened;

c) 32 kilometers of lightning were observed in the sky.

2. Scientists who are studying the phenomenon of lightning

a) haven't yet uncovered all its secrets;

b) have already uncovered all its secrets;

c) have found ways of protecting against the potentially disastrous effects of lightning.

3. In Britain the county of Yorkshire

a) tends to have a thunderstorm every two days;

b) suffers most from thunderstorms;

c) is affected by thunderstorms 10 days a year.

4. The possibility of lightning striking in the same place several times

a) is very rare;

b) doesn't allow people to protect themselves or their property from lightning;

c) has been lessened in the last two centuries.

5. New methods of predicting lightning enable scientists

a) to warn people about them in advance;

b) to lessen the effect of lightning;

c) to prevent violent storms.

6. Scientists recommend the following precautions to be taken if you are caught in a thunderstorm:

a) hide under a tree;

b) cover your head with your hands;

c) get close to the ground but don't lie on it.

7. Lightning protection is more important today than ever because

a) more people work out in the open;

b) more people use electronic technology;

c) more people concentrate in one place.

Learn the following idioms by heart. Make up the dialogues using these idioms.

be in fog бути розгубленим (непевним)

become misty-eyed стати сентиментальним і мрійливим; покритися поволокою (про очі)

brainstorming мозковий штурм

break the ice порушити мовчання; зрушити справу з місця

cloud on one’s brow похмурий вигляд

cloud on one’s happiness те, що затьмарює щастя; ложка дьогтю в бочці меду

cloud up (по)смутнішати, засумувати

cool cat справжній чоловік

frozen asserts заморожені активи

have one’s head in the clouds бути неуважним; літати думками поза хмарами

on cloud nine на сьомому небі

slush fund «брудний фонд»; гроші які використовуються для підкупу

snow job хитромудрий обман

under a cloud у поганому стані (становищі настрої); в немилості; під підозрінням; з поганою репутацією

Література:[5, с. 218 – 219; 7 c. 302 - 305].


ПРАКТИЧНЕ ЗАНЯТТЯ № 8

Тема. Види вітру

Types of Wind

Мета: розібрати нові лексичні одиниці, які є необхідними при перекладі прогнозів погоди та при веденні розмови про погоду

Topical Vocabulary

Types of wind: breath, breeze, puff, waft, zephyr, blizzard, cyclone, gale, hurricane, rainstorm, snowstorm, tempest, tornado, twister, typhoon, whirlwind.

Movement of air: draft (draught), gust, squall.

Wind patterns: prevailing winds, out-blowing (off-shore) wind, in-blowing (on-shore) wind, monsoon wind, trade wind, return trade wind, adverse wind, contrary wind, foul wind, dead wind, favourable wind, fair wind.

Wind expressions: before the wind, down the wind, with the wind, in the eye of the wind, into the wind, up the wind, off the wind, on the wind, have the wind in one’s face, circulate, sink, thin out, spread, rise, cool down, become dense, flow, develop, reverse, rage, fall, lessen, abate

 

Fill in the gaps with the words given below and read the text.

Damage tornado oceans violent occur speed

Droughts plains rainfall column

 

Different types of powerful weather systems affect different parts of the world. A whirlwind is a tall_________ (1) of air that spins very rapidly. The air circulates inside the column at a terrific_______ (2) - about 600 km/h and the whole column moves at 60-70 km/h. A severe whirlwind is called a________ (3). This fierce wind can destroy everything in its path and usually occurs on the________(4) of North America. Hurricanes or typhoons are _____(5) storms which normally_________(6) in the Caribbean, China Seas and western parts of the Atlantic and Pacific_____ (7). They consist of ferocious winds and torrential rain and cause extensive_________(8) to homes and property. A drought can occur when there is a long period of time with no________(9). Harvests can fail and people can face starvation. Areas of the Third

World in Africa and Asia are most frequently affected by serious ________(10).

Answer the questions below.

1. Do whirlwinds, typhoons or tornadoes ever occur in the place where you live?

2. Can you name any other places on the earth where these disasters can happen?

3. Have you ever seen these natural calamities at the cinema or on television? Speak about them.

4. What do people usually do before, during and after such natural calamities?

5. Do droughts ever happen in the place where you live? If yes, what and who suffer as a result of them?

Література:[5, c. 217; 7, c. 306 -307].

 

ПРАКТИЧНЕ ЗАНЯТТЯ № 9

Тема. Робимо покупки

Shopping

Мета: розібрати нові лексичні одиниці, які вживаються при веденні розмови про магазини та про товари.

Topical Vocabulary

Supermarket, linen and underwear, haberdashery, hats, ready-made clothes, footwear, perfumery, sporting goods store, textiles, crockery and glassware, household goods, hosiery, electric appliances, jewellery, stationery, gifts and souvenirs, toys, deli.

Department, counter, customer, shop-assistant, supervisor, folder, sales slip, receipt, to cover, cash, change, fixed prices, consumer goods.

Fill in the gaps with words given below read and translate the text.

Retailing, early, storeys, level, merchandise, variety, majority, goods, store, downtown, customers, merchant, self-service, management, articles those upper.

Department Stores

Department store is a large store that sells many kinds of goods in separate departments under one _______(1). It also provides a variety of services. In a typical department store, perfumes, jewellery, and similar _______(2) are located on the first floor, and clothing, furniture and appliances are on the _______(3) floors. Some department stores also sell bargain _______(4) in the basement.

Many historians believe that Aristide Boucicaut, a French _________(5), established the first department store. He managed a _______(6) in Paris called “Bon Marche” (French for “a good bargain”). Originally, it sold only fabrics, but in the 1850’s, it began to sell a large ________(7) of goods, arranged by department.

Boucicaut’s _______(8) practices were quickly copied by several American businessmen and by early 1900’s, department stores had spread throughout the United States.

Early department stores differed from ______(9) of today in a number of ways. For example, the first department store were established in _____(10) areas, but many are now located in suburbs. The ________(11) department stores were one - store operations. Today the ______(12) of department store organizations have several stores (chains) within a metropolitan area – or even in different cities. Originally, department stores provided a high _______(13) of personal service to their (14) in all departments. Many modern stores, however, have some departments that are largely ______(15). The first department stores occupied several ______(16) and offered a great variety of merchandise. Today’s newer department stores occupy only a few floors and sell a smaller variety of _____(17). In addition, many department stores now sell merchandise through direct-mail activities and other methods.



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