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1. What is thought of as tax policy in the United States cannot exist in the European Union because the EU levies no taxes of its own.

2. However ingeniously information-processing technology is used, what seems certain is that threats to traditional notions of privacy will proliferate.

3. What is more striking about Ireland's new economy is how tightly it is linked to Europe and the world.

4. Exercising control over who knows what about you has also come to be seen as an essential feature of a civilised society.

5. What began some years ago as a band of fledgling mobile-phone companies has today become a powerful force that is reshaping Europe's industrial landscape and, in many cases, overshadowing telephone titans that had enjoyed a solid monopoly for more than a century.

6. What does motivate Scottish nationalism, and has also been the driving force behind demands for devolution ofpower from London over the past century, is the strong Scottish attachment to the country's civic institutions.

7. The decision of Turkey's constitutional court, on the urging of meddlesome generals, to ban the party which won the most recent gen­eral election and which, until last summer, led a government coalition is foolish. It will do nothing to give stability to a politically unstable coun­try.

8. In what may be the crowning irony of scandal-steeped culture in the nation's capital, Kenneth Starr, the grand inquisitor so vilified by President Clinton and his allies, may now become the quarry of an out­side prosecutor himself.

9. The Conservative constitutional affairs spokesman claimed details of plans (by Labour) to cut back the royal family's annual fundingincrease by two thirds to a figure in line with the Government's inflation target was further evidence of Labour support for the «back door Republicanism which Demos organization presents.

10. What India says gets listened to respectfully in that triangle south of the Himalayas; farther afield, its voice fades.

11. The Federal Reserve's ability to maintain its integrity while pay­ing due deference to the democratically elected authorities with which it works provides a model more appropriate to a complex economy of the EU than does the haughty independence of Bundesbank..

12. The very criterion that limits political democracy most seriously — the fact that it is a set of methods and procedures governing how poli­cies are to be arrived at rather than what policies are to be effected — is also the source of its greatest strength.

13. Whether the Prime Minister will be successful in his plea for an early improvement in world payment arrangements is rather doubtful.

14. Whether Japan is a party to this collision is not evident.

15. It means that Britain is going to have a further period of balance of payments deficit, lasting for quite some time to get through. Whether Britain can do it without renewed pressure on the pound is the problem which faces the Government.

16. While few would argue with the notion of engagement with China, what is most depressing is how the optimists continue to see the virtues of treating Beijing with kid gloves.

17. The effort to encourage policy reform — if that is what today's pattern of aid describes — had been made at an enormous cost in terms of unrelieved poverty.

18. What is important is whether a country's resources are fully and effectively utilized and developed by and for its people.

19. But this does not mean Britain is overpopulated. What it means is that there is something basically wrong with the system.

20. The overseas trade position has therefore remained much better than last year. What is not certain is whether the improvement is con­tinuing sufficiently fast.

21. The most startling thing about the rapid rise of Vodafone, perhaps, is that it wasn't the only mobile-phone upstart on the march.

22. When you have only two candidates running and one of them will be elected, the electorate has what we could call a choice of two national disasters.

23. What is most depressing is that some American China watchers conclude that we need to be nicer to China, not tougher — apparently for fear that Beijing will get even nastier with the West.

24. The idea the party wants to convey is that the dogmatism was just a phase the Tory once went through.

25. Colombian officials said _ they were disappointed that the head of the largest rebel group in the country had not attended peace talks aimed at ending a 34-year-old civil war, but they signaled that the nego­tiations would continue.

26. The computer maker estimates _ its profit fell almost a third last year.

27. Kuwait, which has most reason to support the use of force against Iraq (but has in fact been a bit equivocal), is one of the few to say _ it will attend the conference - but showed its feeling by saying _ it would send only an under-secretary from the finance ministry.

28. The financing deal, which is unusually large for a computer com­pany, highlights how economic crisis has altered the way Asian compa­nies approach high-tech investments and how that, in turn, is demanding sophisticated and riskier solutions from US exporters.

29. Renault SA, which is seen as overly reliant on the European mar­ket and historically slow to expand overseas, is in the midst of the take­over that could render it more attractive to potential marriage partners, industry analysts believe.

30. The minority three-party coalition government, which controls 25% of the seats in the country's legislature, the Storting (Norway), lacks the political muscle to withstand pressure from the opposition.

31. The paper, on which that calculation is based shows that if the present aid budget were switched entirely to an efficient poverty-reducing allocation, 80 m people a year would be lifted out of poverty at a cost of $450 per person, compared with the present 30 m a year at a cost of $1,200 per person.

32. Encryption, which scrambles data for protection from eavesdrop­pers, is becoming key to electronic communications and commerce.

33. Traditionalists who see a Scottish parliament as a dangerous change to a system which has delivered Britain centuries of peace and stability are missing the point.

34. The riots in Karawang, 60 kilometers east of Jakarta, broke out Friday after rumors spread that the police had mistreated motorcycle driv­ers who ferry passengers for a living.

35. The original university which emerged in Italy and France in the 12'1' and 13th centuries, was what we would now call a professional school, designed to train theologians, doctors, lawyers, and philosophers who were usually teachers.

36. The latest turn in the Starr inquiry is bound to be part of the debate that begins in earnest this week over whether Congress should renew the federal law that creates independent counsels.

37. The New York Times, correctly, objected: «The notion that nu­clear war can be kept limited and, in some sense, 'won' is not only dubi­ous; to adopt it may actually increase the risk of nuclear suicide.»

38. Meanwhile, a quarrel over whether the European Parliament has the right to push through extra budget spending after the budget ministers failed to agree on its proposals, could end up in court if France refuses to pay the extra funds.

39. The lawsuit alleges that the airline failed to rescue the trapped passengers or allow them to leave the aircraft after several hours of what they said amounted to forced detention.

40. Nineteen companies involved in everything from property devel­opment to bicycle manufacturing announced that they would post losses in their earnings reports for last year, which are due by the end of April.

41. The European Commission has made a convenient target for the Parliament, which is flexing its muscles in advance of elections in June and fighting off the popular perception that it is a gravy train in which many of its members habitually fiddle their expenses.

42. Having a single standard was a boon to manufacturers, which could produce equipment for a single European wireless market, and for operators, which could form so-called roaming agreements that let cus­tomers from one country cross borders and use networks in another.

43. As the European Union threw its cell-phone market open to com­petition, other unknown operators began making deep inroads into what quickly became the fastest-growing segment of the EU $171.8 billion telecom market.

44. The IMF subsidizes two very influential constituencies, interna­tional bankers and the profligate politicians who preside over such places as Russia, Indonesia and Brazil.

45. Justice according to the whims of the nearest mob is not justice at all, but arbitrariness. And that is not good for what little legitimacy inter­national law has.

46. The fear of ethnic tension between the majority Chinese popula­tion and the Malay, Indian and other minorities [in Singapore] has led to an emphasis on what the races have in common rather than what makes them distinct.

47. Singaporeans are used to their government taking a paternal inter­est in what they do and think, and to its perennial campaigns telling them how to behave.

48. America can now lay claim to what conservative critic D.Frum has aptly called « history's first mass upper class.»

49. The UN Security Council stands firm on the principle that it itself must determine whom it sends to decide whether Iraq has dismantled its weapons of mass destruction.

50. In what may be a model for future operations, France has taken its soldiers out of the Central African Republic, replacing them with an 800-strong African force from six African countries.

51. When Hong Kong's carefully picked «provisional» legislature was sworn in last July, replacing the elected one that China deemed un­acceptable, the easy prediction was that it would be the poodle of the new chief executive and even of Beijing.

 

ЭЛЛИПТИЧЕСКИЕ КОНСТРУКЦИИ

 

1. Эллиптические конструкции типа if any, if anythingимеют экспрессивно-усилительное значение и передаются на русский язык придаточными условными предложениями, а также словами почти, пожалуй, вовсе, вообще и др.

Objections to this plan, if any, should be reported to the committee at once. Если и имеются возражения против этого плана, то они должны быть немедленно представлены комитету. (Возражения, если они имеются...)

Very little, if anything, could be advanced in the defence of his policy. Почти ничего нельзя было сказать в поддержку его поли­тики.

 

Примечание. If anything может переводиться также словосочетани­ем во всяком случае, не что иное как...

If anything, it will be in their interests to follow this course. Во всяком случае, в их интересах следовать этому курсу.

 

2. К эллиптическим конструкциям относятся также уступитель­ные придаточные предложения, вводимые союзами whatever, however,в которых отсутствует сказуемое (иногда подлежащее). На русский язык такие уступительные придаточные предложения пере­водятся полными уступительными придаточными предложениями с союзами какой бы ни, каким бы ни (восстанавливается сказуемое и подлежащее полного предложения).

 

The British people have to submit to new taxation, however high. Английскому народу приходится примириться с новыми налога­ми, какими бы высокими они ни были.

 

3. К эллиптическим конструкциям относится и сочетание if +причастие II (или прилагательное). На русский язык это сочетание переводится придаточным уступительным предложением.

If considered from this point of view, the problem takes on a new aspect. Если рассматривать проблему с этой точки зрения, то она приобретает (принимает) другой характер.

But the decision, if logical, requires a measure of courage. Но это решение, хотя оно и логично, требует известного мужества.



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